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Asuka Terashima, Kazuo Okamoto, Tomoki Nakashima, Shizuo Akira, Koichi Ikuta, Hiroshi Takayanagi
Sepsis is a host inflammatory response to severe infection associated with high mortality that is caused by lymphopenia-associated immunodeficiency. However, it is unknown how lymphopenia persists after the accelerated lymphocyte apoptosis subsides. Here we show that sepsis rapidly ablated osteoblasts, which reduced the number of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). Osteoblast ablation or inducible deletion of interleukin-7 (IL-7) in osteoblasts recapitulated the lymphopenic phenotype together with a lower CLP number without affecting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)...
June 21, 2016: Immunity
Jeremy M Kinder, Tony T Jiang, Sing Sing Way
Pregnancy uniquely allows genetically discordant tissues of the mother and child to intimately coexist in harmony. In this issue of Immunity, Ou and colleagues show that hepatitis B virus exploits these naturally occurring immune tolerance pathways to establish persistent postnatal infection in offspring.
May 17, 2016: Immunity
Yongjun Tian, Cheng-Fu Kuo, Omid Akbari, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
In contrast to horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) between adults, which often leads to self-limited acute infection, vertical transmission of HBV from mother to child often leads to chronic infection. However, the mechanisms linking vertical transmission with chronic infection are not known. We developed a mouse model to study the effect of maternal HBV infection on HBV persistence in offspring and found that HBV carried by the mother impaired CD8(+) T cell responses to HBV in her offspring, resulting in HBV persistence...
May 17, 2016: Immunity
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