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Infectious Diseases for Residents

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244 papers 100 to 500 followers
Amrita R John, David H Canaday
Herpes zoster (HZ) is the result of reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) and occurs most frequently in older adults. Classically, HZ presents as a unilateral, selflimited, dermatomal rash. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common sequela, presenting as severe pain that persists after the rash has resolved. In the elderly, PHN can be debilitating and requires a prompt diagnosis, treatment with antivirals, and adequate pain control. A longer-term pain management strategy is required if PHN occurs...
December 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Mario Gonzalez, Dana Razzano, Alaa Ebid, Finn D Schubert
Objective: To compare patterns of inpatient and outpatient antibiotic use between patients who awaited urine culture results and patients whose urine specimens had been submitted for culture and were screened using the CLINITEK AUWi System. Methods: This quasi-experimental retrospective cohort study included patient records with a urine specimen and hospital admission from 1 month before to 1 month after implementation of the system. We compared data from the pre- and postimplementation groups using the χ2 test or Fisher exact test...
October 23, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Quazi Tarikul Islam, Ariful Basher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Yan Zhao, Zunyou Wu, Jennifer M McGoogan, Cynthia X Shi, Aihua Li, Zhihui Dou, Ye Ma, Qianqian Qin, Ron Brookmeyer, Roger Detels, Julio S G Montaner
Background: Clinical trials have demonstrated that immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. We tested the hypothesis that initiating ART ≤30 days after HIV diagnosis would be associated with reduced mortality among people living with HIV (PLWH) with CD4 counts >500 cells/mm3. Methods: PLWH enrolled in the Chinese National Free ART Program between January 2012 and June 2014 were evaluated. The cohort was restricted to PLWH with CD4 counts >500 cells/mm3...
October 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Zaira Raquel Palacios-Baena, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Esther Calbo, Benito Almirante, Pierluigi Viale, Antonio Oliver, Vicente Pintado, Oriol Gasch, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Johann Pitout, Murat Akova, Carmen Peña, José Molina Gil-Bermejo, Alicia Hernández, Mario Venditti, Nuria Prim, German Bou, Evelina Tacconelli, Mario Tumbarello, Axel Hamprecht, Helen Giamarellou, Manel Almela, Federico Pérez, Mitchell J Schwaber, Joaquín Bermejo, Warren Lowman, Po-Ren Hsueh, José Ramón Paño-Pardo, Julián Torre-Cisneros, Maria Souli, Robert A Bonomo, Yehuda Carmeli, David L Paterson, Álvaro Pascual, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
Background: There is little information about the efficacy of active alternative drugs to carbapenems except β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors for the treatment of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E). The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes of patients with BSI due to ESBL-E who received empiric therapy with such drugs (other active drugs [OADs]) or carbapenems. Methods: A multinational retrospective cohort study of patients with BSI due to ESBL-E who received empiric treatment with OADs or carbapenems was performed...
October 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Guy E Thwaites, Duc Bang Nguyen, Huy Dung Nguyen, Thi Quy Hoang, Thi Tuong Oanh Do, Thi Cam Thoa Nguyen, Quang Hien Nguyen, Tri Thuc Nguyen, Ngoc Hai Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Lan Nguyen, Ngoc Lan Nguyen, Hong Duc Nguyen, Ngoc Tuan Vu, Huu Hiep Cao, Thi Hong Chau Tran, Phuong Mai Pham, Thi Dung Nguyen, Kasia Stepniewska, Nicholas J White, Tinh Hien Tran, Jeremy J Farrar
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis kills or disables more than half of those affected with the disease. Previous studies have been too small to determine whether adjunctive treatment with corticosteroids can reduce the risk of disability or death among adults with tuberculous meningitis, and the effect of coinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unclear. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Vietnam in patients over 14 years of age who had tuberculous meningitis, with or without HIV infection, to determine whether adjunctive treatment with dexamethasone reduced the risk of death or severe disability after nine months of follow-up...
October 21, 2004: New England Journal of Medicine
Kyle Rizzo, Melissa Kealey, Erin Epson
We analyzed California hospitals' National Healthcare Safety Network Annual Surveys to describe antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) implementation progress following new state ASP legislation. The proportion of hospitals with all 7 Core Elements of Hospital ASP rose from 59.3% in 2014 to 69.2% in 2015 (P<.001). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-3.
October 30, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Charles S Wiysonge, Mpiko Ntsekhe, Lehana Thabane, Jimmy Volmink, Dumisani Majombozi, Freedom Gumedze, Shaheen Pandie, Bongani M Mayosi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous pericarditis can impair the heart's function and cause death; long term, it can cause the membrane to fibrose and constrict causing heart failure. In addition to antituberculous chemotherapy, treatments include corticosteroids, drainage, and surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of treatments for tuberculous pericarditis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 March 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library (2017, Issue 2); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 March 2017); Embase (1974 to 27 March 2017); and LILACS (1982 to 27 March 2017)...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gerd Fätkenheuer, Isabelle Suarez, Martin Platten, Mario Fabri, Clara Lehmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Peter V Chin-Hong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Liver Transplantation
Asis Khan, Jahangheer S Shaik, Michael E Grigg
Cryptosporidium is one of the most widespread protozoan parasites that infects domestic and wild animals and is considered the second major cause of diarrhea and death in children after rotavirus. So far, around 20 distinct species are known to cause severe to moderate infections in humans, of which Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the major causative agents. Currently, ssurRNA and gp60 are used as the optimal markers for differentiating species and subtypes respectively. Over the last decade, diagnostic tools to detect and differentiate Cryptosporidium species at the genotype and subtype level have improved, but our understanding of the zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission potential of each species is less clear, largely because of the paucity of high resolution whole genome sequencing data for the different species...
October 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
D Abrams, Y Lévy, M H Losso, A Babiker, G Collins, D A Cooper, J Darbyshire, S Emery, L Fox, F Gordin, H C Lane, J D Lundgren, R Mitsuyasu, J D Neaton, A Phillips, J P Routy, G Tambussi, D Wentworth
BACKGROUND: Used in combination with antiretroviral therapy, subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 raises CD4+ cell counts more than does antiretroviral therapy alone. The clinical implication of these increases is not known. METHODS: We conducted two trials: the Subcutaneous Recombinant, Human Interleukin-2 in HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4+ Counts under Active Antiretroviral Therapy (SILCAAT) study and the Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT)...
October 15, 2009: New England Journal of Medicine
Kathleen A Linder, Preeti N Malani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
E Reigadas, L Alcalá, J Gómez, M Marín, A Martin, R Onori, P Muñoz, E Bouza
Background: Patients with cirrhosis are at high risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Rifaximin is commonly used in cirrhotic patients as prophylaxis for hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of rifaximin in the treatment of CDI; however, resistance to rifaximin has also been reported. Few studies have assessed the risk of developing CDI in cirrhotic patients receiving rifaximin. Our objective was to assess the incidence and characteristics of CDI in cirrhotic patients, especially in those who received rifaximin...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Dmitriy M Martirosov, Monique R Bidell, Manjunath P Pai, Marc H Scheetz, Susan L Rosenkranz, Corey Faragon, M Malik, R E Mendes, R N Jones, Louise-Anne McNutt, Thomas P Lodise
BACKGROUND: In vitro data suggests that suboptimal initial vancomycin exposure may select for heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) infections. However, no clinical studies have evaluated the relationship between initial vancomycin exposure and emergence of hVISA. This pilot study seeks to assess the relationship between day 1 and day 2 vancomycin area under the curve (AUC) and emergence of hVISA bloodstream infections (BSIs) by Etest® macromethod among patients with a non-hVISA BSI at baseline...
August 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Robert Belknap, David Holland, Pei-Jean Feng, Joan-Pau Millet, Joan A Caylà, Neil A Martinson, Alicia Wright, Michael P Chen, Ruth N Moro, Nigel A Scott, Bert Arevalo, José M Miró, Margarita E Villarino, Marc Weiner, Andrey S Borisov
Background: Expanding latent tuberculosis treatment is important to decrease active disease globally. Once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine for 12 doses is effective but limited by requiring direct observation. Objective: To compare treatment completion and safety of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine by self-administration versus direct observation. Design: An open-label, phase 4 randomized clinical trial designed as a noninferiority study with a 15% margin...
November 7, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
Didier Raoult
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Robert Flisiak, Waldemar Halota, Jerzy Jaroszewicz, Jacek Juszczyk, Piotr Małkowski, Małgorzata Pawłowska, Anna Piekarska, Krzysztof Simon, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska
The therapeutic goal which is currently unfrequent but realistic in HBV infected patients is sustained HBsAg clearance. It is preceded by the loss or significant suppression of HBV replication and leads to inhibition of the progression of liver fibrosis, normalization of biochemical indicators of liver damage, reduction in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, prolongation of survival, prevention of HBV infection in the transplanted organ in post-transplant patients, enhancement of the quality of life, inhibition or reversal of extrahepatic changes associated with HBV infection, and halting of the spread of HBV infections...
June 2017: Clin Exp Hepatol
Chris Beyrer, Anton Pozniak
There are now an estimated 19.5 million people worldwide living with HIV and receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). That’s approximately half of all people thought to be living with the virus in 2017 — an extraordinary achievement in global health and human solidarity. The United Nations agencies,..
October 26, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Claire Rivoisy, Antonio Vena, Laura Schaeffer, Caroline Charlier, Arnaud Fontanet, François Delahaye, Emilio Bouza, Olivier Lortholary, Patricia Munoz, Agnès Lefort
Background: Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Candida spp. (PVE-C) is rare and devastating, with international guidelines based on expert recommendations consisting in the combination of surgery and subsequent azole treatment. Methods: PVE-C collected in Spain and France between 2001 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed with a focus on management and outcome. Results: Forty-six cases were followed up for a median of 9 months. Twenty-two (48%) patients had a past history of endocarditis; 30 (65%) cases were nosocomial or healthcare-related, 9 (20%) patients were intravenous drug users...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
2017-11-11 03:56:55
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