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Infectious Diseases for Residents

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277 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686441/rheumatic-fever-new-diagnostic-criteria
#1
REVIEW
Izabela Szczygielska, Elżbieta Hernik, Beata Kołodziejczyk, Agnieszka Gazda, Maria Maślińska, Piotr Gietka
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an autoimmune disease associated with group A β-hemolytic streptococcal infection, in the course of which the patient develops carditis, arthritis, chorea, subcutaneous nodules and erythema marginatum. Rheumatic fever diagnosis is based on the Jones criteria, developed in 1944, then revised twice by the American Heart Association (AHA), in 1992 and recently in 2015. The last revision of the Jones criteria consists mainly in the supplementation of the major criteria with echocardiographic examination, the introduction of a concept of subclinical carditis and the isolation of low, medium and high risk populations among the patients...
2018: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447109/sepsis-2018-definitions-and-guideline-changes
#2
Lena M Napolitano
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a global healthcare issue and continues to be the leading cause of death from infection. Early recognition and diagnosis of sepsis is required to prevent the transition into septic shock, which is associated with a mortality rate of 40% or more. DISCUSSION: New definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock [Sepsis-3]) have been developed. A new screening tool for sepsis (quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [qSOFA]) has been proposed to predict the likelihood of poor outcome in out-of-intensive care unit (ICU) patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis...
February 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390105/respiratory-syncytial-virus-seasonality-a-global-overview
#3
Pablo Obando-Pacheco, Antonio José Justicia-Grande, Irene Rivero-Calle, Carmen Rodríguez-Tenreiro, Peter Sly, Octavio Ramilo, Asunción Mejías, Eugenio Baraldi, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Harish Nair, Marta C Nunes, Leyla Kragten-Tabatabaie, Terho Heikkinen, Anne Greenough, Renato T Stein, Paolo Manzoni, Louis Bont, Federico Martinón-Torres
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections in children. By the age of 1 year, 60%-70% of children have been infected by RSV. In addition, early-life RSV infection is associated with the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma in infancy and childhood. The need for precise epidemiologic data regarding RSV as a worldwide pathogen has been growing steadily as novel RSV therapeutics are reaching the final stages of development. To optimize the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of RSV infection in a timely manner, knowledge about the differences in the timing of the RSV epidemics worldwide is needed...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390110/the-candida-auris-alert-facts-and-perspectives
#4
Frederic Lamoth, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394364/waxing-understanding-of-waning-immunity
#5
Benjamin A Lopman, Virginia E Pitzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401308/anti-human-immunodeficiency-virus-antibodies-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-evidence-of-early-treatment-impact-on-central-nervous-system-reservoir
#6
Peter D Burbelo, Richard W Price, Lars Hagberg, Hiroyu Hatano, Serena Spudich, Steven G Deeks, Magnus Gisslén
Background: Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) likely persists in the central nervous system (CNS) in treated individuals. We examined anti-HIV antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood as markers of persistence. Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus antibodies were measured in paired CSF and serum before and after long-term treatment of chronic (n = 10) and early infection (n = 12), along with untreated early infection (n = 10)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425317/human-cervical-mucus-plugs-exhibit-insufficiencies-in-antimicrobial-activity-towards-group-b-streptococcus
#7
Jay Vornhagen, Phoenicia Quach, Verónica Santana-Ufret, Varchita Alishetti, Alyssa Brokaw, Blair Armistead, Hai Qing Tang, James W MacDonald, Theo K Bammler, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Niels Uldbjerg, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and lacks an effective therapy. Ascending microbial infections from the lower genital tract lead to infection of the placenta, amniotic fluid, and fetus causing preterm birth or stillbirth. Directly in the path of an ascending infection is the cervical mucus plug (CMP), a dense mucoid structure in the cervical canal with potential antimicrobial properties. In this study, we aimed to define the components of CMP responsible for antimicrobial activity against a common lower genital tract organism associated with preterm birth and stillbirths, namely, group B streptococcus (GBS)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425306/interferon-treatment-duration-in-patients-with-chronic-delta-hepatitis-and-its-effect-on-the-natural-course-of-the-disease
#8
Cihan Yurdaydin, Onur Keskin, Çagdas Kalkan, Fatih Karakaya, Aysun Çaliskan, Gökhan Kabaçam, F Oguz Önder, Senem Karatayli, Ersin Karatayli, Xheni Deda, Hakan Bozkaya, A Mithat Bozdayi, Ramazan Idilman
Background: Interferon is the only treatment option in chronic delta hepatitis (CDH). A CDH database (333 patients, 161 with interferon treatment history) was analyzed for effects of treatment duration on virologic response and clinical outcomes. Methods: Ninety-nine CDH patients who received at least 6 months of interferon were selected. Maintained virologic response (MVR) was defined as hepatitis D virus RNA negative for 2 years after treatment discontinuation...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432590/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-hiv-coinfection-brings-fire-and-fury-to-macrophages
#9
Nargis Khan, Maziar Divangahi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462492/chronic-helminth-infection-perturbs-the-gut-brain-axis-promotes-neuropathology-and-alters-behaviour
#10
Paul R Giacomin, Ann Katrin Kraeuter, Eduardo A Albornoz, Shuting Jin, Mia Bengtsson, Richard Gordon, Trent M Woodruff, Tim Urich, Zoltán Sarnyai, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães
Helminth infections in children are associated with impaired cognitive development, however the biological mechanisms for this remain unclear. Using a murine model of gastrointestinal helminth infection, we demonstrate that early-life exposure to helminths promotes local and systemic inflammatory responses and transient changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome. Behavioural and cognitive analyses performed 9-months post-infection revealed deficits in spatial recognition memory and an anxiety-like behavioural phenotype in worm-infected mice, which was associated with neuropathology and increased microglial activation within the brain...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481635/what-is-the-best-model-for-hiv-primary-care-assessing-the-influence-of-provider-type-on-outcomes-of-chronic-co-morbidities-in-hiv
#11
Kenny Morales Rodriguez, Joshua Khalili, Janine Trevillian, Judith Currier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228072/an-implementation-guide-to-reducing-overtreatment-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria
#12
Michael Daniel, Sara Keller, Mohammad Mozafarihashjin, Amit Pahwa, Christine Soong
Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) frequently lacks appropriate indication, yet remains prevalent across settings. Numerous guidelines, professional societies, and campaigns such as Choosing Wisely advocate against this low-value practice. Efforts aimed at reducing unnecessary treatment of ASB demonstrate improved costs, and avoidable harm without increased risk of adverse events. We propose an evidence-based implementation guide to aid practitioners in reducing inappropriate treatment of ASB.
February 1, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177489/disease-based-antimicrobial-stewardship-a-review-of-active-and-passive-approaches-to-patient-management
#13
Farnaz Foolad, Jerod L Nagel, Gregory Eschenauer, Twisha S Patel, Cynthia T Nguyen
Although new antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) often begin by targeting the reduction of antimicrobial use, an increasing focus of ASPs is to improve the management of specific infectious diseases. Disease-based antimicrobial stewardship emphasizes improving patient outcomes by optimizing antimicrobial use and increasing compliance with performance measures. Directing efforts towards the comprehensive management of specific infections allows ASPs to promote the shift in healthcare towards improving quality, safety and patient outcome metrics for specific diseases...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142078/candida-auris-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Anna Jeffery-Smith, Surabhi K Taori, Silke Schelenz, Katie Jeffery, Elizabeth M Johnson, Andrew Borman, Rohini Manuel, Colin S Brown
The emerging pathogen Candida auris has been associated with nosocomial outbreaks on five continents. Genetic analysis indicates the simultaneous emergence of separate clades of this organism in different geographical locations. Invasive infection and colonization have been detected predominantly in patients in high-dependency settings and have garnered attention due to variable antifungal resistance profiles and transmission within units instituting a range of infection prevention and control measures. Issues with the identification of C...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220496/duration-of-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-test-negative-design-case-control-studies
#15
Barnaby Young, Sapna Sadarangani, Lili Jiang, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Mark I-Cheng Chen
Background: Whether influenza vaccination offers protection for the duration of an influenza season was called into question recently after analysis of data from test-negative design (TND) case-control studies. Method: The published literature was systematically reviewed to identify TND studies that estimated the change in vaccine effectiveness (VE) with respect to time since vaccination. Results: Fourteen studies were identified through the literature search as meeting eligibility criteria...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126268/duration-of-antibiotic-use-among-adults-with-uncomplicated-community-acquired-pneumonia-requiring-hospitalization-in-the-united-states
#16
Sarah H Yi, Kelly M Hatfield, James Baggs, Lauri A Hicks, Arjun Srinivasan, Sujan Reddy, John A Jernigan
Background: Previous studies suggest that duration of antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) often exceeds national recommendations and might represent an important opportunity to improve antibiotic stewardship nationally. Our objective was to determine the average length of antibiotic therapy (LOT) for patients treated for uncomplicated CAP in US hospitals and the proportion of patients with excessive durations. Methods: Records of retrospective cohorts of patients aged 18-64 years with private insurance and aged ≥65 years with Medicare hospitalized for CAP in 2012-2013 were used...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221995/antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-colistin-evaluation-of-seven-commercial-mic-products-against-standard-broth-microdilution-for-escherichia-coli-klebsiella-pneumoniae-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-spp
#17
E Matuschek, J Åhman, C Webster, G Kahlmeter
OBJECTIVE: Both EUCAST and CLSI recommend broth microdilution (BMD) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of colistin, but BMD is rarely used in routine microbiology laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate five commercially available BMD products and two brands of gradient tests for colistin MIC determination using BMD according to ISO standard 20776-1 as reference. METHODS: Colistin MIC determination was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions on five commercially available BMD products (Sensititre, MICRONAUT-S, MICRONAUT MIC-Strip, SensiTest, and UMIC) and two gradient tests (Etest and MIC Test Strip)...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830747/a-consumer-s-guide-for-probiotics-10-golden-rules-for-a-correct-use
#18
REVIEW
Marco Toscano, Roberta De Grandi, Luca Pastorelli, Maurizio Vecchi, Lorenzo Drago
Probiotics are used all over the world as their beneficial effects on the human organism have been widely demonstrated. Certain probiotics can down-regulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promote intestinal epithelial barrier functions, increasing an anti-inflammatory response and contributing to the host's overall health. The main mechanisms by which probiotic microorganisms can interact with the host are by modulating the immune system and the epithelial cell functions and interacting with intestinal gut microbiota...
November 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237757/urine-lipoarabinomannan-glycan-in-hiv-negative-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-correlates-with-disease-severity
#19
Luisa Paris, Ruben Magni, Fatima Zaidi, Robyn Araujo, Neal Saini, Michael Harpole, Jorge Coronel, Daniela E Kirwan, Hannah Steinberg, Robert H Gilman, Emanuel F Petricoin, Roberto Nisini, Alessandra Luchini, Lance Liotta
An accurate urine test for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), affecting 9.6 million patients worldwide, is critically needed for surveillance and treatment management. Past attempts failed to reliably detect the mycobacterial glycan antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a marker of active TB, in HIV-negative, pulmonary TB-infected patients' urine (85% of 9.6 million patients). We apply a copper complex dye within a hydrogel nanocage that captures LAM with very high affinity, displacing interfering urine proteins. The technology was applied to study pretreatment urine from 48 Peruvian patients, all negative for HIV, with microbiologically confirmed active pulmonary TB...
December 13, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201522/clinical-effect-of-discordance-in-empirical-treatment-of-cases-with-urinary-tract-infection-accompanied-by-bacteremia
#20
İlyas Dökmetaş, Aziz Ahmad Hamidi, Mehmet Emin Bulut, Sinan Çetin, Ahsen Öncül, Nuray Uzun
Objective: It has been shown in previous studies that inadequate empirical treatment is associated with mortality in a variety of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, the clinical effect of discordance in empirical treatment was investigated in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) accompanied by bacteremia. Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the files of adult (>18 years old) patients who were diagnosed with UTI in our clinic between January 2014 and December 2015...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
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