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Infectious Diseases for Residents

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65 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880878/neurocysticercosis-infection-and-disease-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Lucy B Gripper, Susan C Welburn
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system (CNS), a pleomorphic disease with a diverse array of clinical manifestations. The infection is pleomorphic and dependent on a complex range of interconnecting factors, including number and size of the cysticerci, their stage of development and localisation within the brain with resulting difficulties in accurate diagnosis and staging of the disease. This review examines the factors that contribute to the accurate assessment of NCC distribution and transmission that are critical to achieving robust disease burden calculations...
November 20, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664247/management-of-febrile-neutropaenia-esmo-clinical-practice-guidelines
#2
J Klastersky, J de Naurois, K Rolston, B Rapoport, G Maschmeyer, M Aapro, J Herrstedt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783923/emphysematous-pyelonephritis
#3
Yasumitsu Hirose, Hayato Kaida
A 51-year-old man presented with fever and general malaise of 2 weeks’ duration. He had had diabetes mellitus for the preceding 20 years, and at the time of presentation this condition was poorly controlled. On admission to the hospital, his white-cell count was 10,800 per cubic millimeter (normal..
October 27, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806994/human-parvoviruses
#4
REVIEW
Jianming Qiu, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Neal S Young
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716262/new-aspects-in-the-management-of-pneumonia
#5
REVIEW
Elena Prina, Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres
Despite improvements in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), morbidity and mortality are still high, especially in patients with more severe disease. Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of CAP. However, two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvant treatments, such as corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects. The use of corticosteroids in patients with severe CAP and a strong inflammatory reaction can reduce the time to clinical stability, the risk of treatment failure, and the risk of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413095/diagnosis-of-ebola-virus-disease-past-present-and-future
#6
REVIEW
M Jana Broadhurst, Tim J G Brooks, Nira R Pollock
Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease plays a critical role in outbreak response efforts; however, establishing safe and expeditious testing strategies for this high-biosafety-level pathogen in resource-poor environments remains extremely challenging. Since the discovery of Ebola virus in 1976 via traditional viral culture techniques and electron microscopy, diagnostic methodologies have trended toward faster, more accurate molecular assays. Importantly, technological advances have been paired with increasing efforts to support decentralized diagnostic testing capacity that can be deployed at or near the point of patient care...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624958/clinical-outcomes-drug-toxicity-and-emergence-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-resistance-among-patients-treated-for-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-infections
#7
Ryan K Shields, Brian A Potoski, Ghady Haidar, Binghua Hao, Yohei Doi, Liang Chen, Ellen G Press, Barry N Kreiswirth, Cornelius J Clancy, M Hong Nguyen
Thirty-seven carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)-infected patients were treated with ceftazidime-avibactam. Clinical success and survival rates at 30-days were 59% (22/37) and 76% (28/37), respectively. In 23% (5/22) of clinical successes, CRE infections recurred within 90-days. Microbiologic failure rate was 27% (10/37). Ceftazidime-avibactam resistance was detected in 30% (3/10) of microbiologic failures.
September 13, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653939/azithromycin-for-acute-exacerbations-of-asthma-the-azalea-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Sebastian L Johnston, Matyas Szigeti, Mary Cross, Christopher Brightling, Rekha Chaudhuri, Timothy Harrison, Adel Mansur, Laura Robison, Zahid Sattar, David Jackson, Patrick Mallia, Ernie Wong, Christopher Corrigan, Bernard Higgins, Philip Ind, Dave Singh, Neil C Thomson, Deborah Ashby, Anoop Chauhan
Importance: Guidelines recommend against antibiotic use to treat asthma attacks. A study with telithromycin reported benefit, but adverse reactions limit its use. Objective: To determine whether azithromycin added to standard care for asthma attacks in adults results in clinical benefit. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Azithromycin Against Placebo in Exacerbations of Asthma (AZALEA) randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, a United Kingdom-based multicenter study in adults requesting emergency care for acute asthma exacerbations, ran from September 2011 to April 2014...
November 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609755/effects-of-corticosteroids-on-critically-ill-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure-a-propensity-analysis-of-mortality
#9
Ji Young Yang, Minkyu Han, Younsuck Koh, Woo-Sung Kim, Jin-Woo Song, Yeon-Mok Oh, Sang-Do Lee, Sei Won Lee, Jae-Seung Lee, Chae-Man Lim, Chang-Min Choi, Jin-Won Huh, Sang-Bum Hong, Tae Sun Shim, Kyung-Wook Jo
BACKGROUND:  We investigated the effects of corticosteroids on the 90-day mortality outcomes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of acute respiratory failure (ARF). METHODS:  The medical records of 124 patients who had pulmonary tuberculosis with ARF and were admitted to the ICU at our tertiary referral center in South Korea between March 1989 and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The 90-day mortality rate in this population was analyzed after adjustments with the inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) method...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22383557/protease-inhibitors-silver-bullets-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection
#10
REVIEW
Naim Alkhouri, Nizar N Zein
Recent trials evaluated the safety and efficacy of two protease inhibitors, boceprevir (Victrelis) and telaprevir (Incivek), added to standard care with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. These drugs open the door for triple therapy and other new therapies involving combinations of other direct-acting antiviral agents to become the new standard of care for this population.
March 2012: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23675659/current-and-future-therapies-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#11
REVIEW
T Jake Liang, Marc G Ghany
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21696309/clinical-practice-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection
#12
REVIEW
Hugo R Rosen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2011: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542610/incidence-of-hyponatremia-with-high-dose-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-exposure
#13
Demetra Tsapepas, Mariana Chiles, Revekka Babayev, Maya K Rao, Manasvi Jaitly, David Salerno, Sumit Mohan
BACKGROUND: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a commonly prescribed antibiotic used at high doses for treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia and other infections. Trimethoprim is structurally related to the potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride and has been associated with hyperkalemia and hyponatremia through blocking of epithelial sodium channels in the distal nephron. The incidence of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients treated with high-dose TMP-SMX is unknown. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective chart review of all hospitalized patients who received high-dose TMP-SMX (n = 235) from January 2012 to July 2014...
December 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567896/severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-timely-management-measures-in-the-first-24-hours
#14
REVIEW
Jason Phua, Nathan C Dean, Qi Guo, Win Sen Kuan, Hui Fang Lim, Tow Keang Lim
Mortality rates for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) range from 17 to 48 % in published studies.In this review, we searched PubMed for relevant papers published between 1981 and June 2016 and relevant files. We explored how early and aggressive management measures, implemented within 24 hours of recognition of severe CAP and carried out both in the emergency department and in the ICU, decrease mortality in severe CAP.These measures begin with the use of severity assessment tools and the application of care bundles via clinical decision support tools...
August 28, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502752/ten-key-points-for-the-appropriate-use-of-antibiotics-in-hospitalised-patients-a-consensus-from-the-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-resistance-working-groups-of-the-international-society-of-chemotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Gabriel Levy Hara, Souha S Kanj, Leonardo Pagani, Lilian Abbo, Andrea Endimiani, Heiman F L Wertheim, Carlos Amábile-Cuevas, Pierre Tattevin, Shaheen Mehtar, Fernando Lopes Cardoso, Serhat Unal, Ian Gould
The Antibiotic Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society for Chemotherapy propose ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospital settings. (i) Get appropriate microbiological samples before antibiotic administration and carefully interpret the results: in the absence of clinical signs of infection, colonisation rarely requires antimicrobial treatment. (ii) Avoid the use of antibiotics to 'treat' fever: use them to treat infections, and investigate the root cause of fever prior to starting treatment...
September 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550993/ecil-guidelines-for-treatment-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-non-hiv-infected-haematology-patients
#16
REVIEW
Georg Maschmeyer, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Livio Pagano, Christine Robin, Catherine Cordonnier, Peter Schellongowski
The initiation of systemic antimicrobial treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is triggered by clinical signs and symptoms, typical radiological and occasionally laboratory findings in patients at risk of this infection. Diagnostic proof by bronchoalveolar lavage should not delay the start of treatment. Most patients with haematological malignancies present with a severe PCP; therefore, antimicrobial therapy should be started intravenously. High-dose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is the treatment of choice...
September 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559032/executive-summary-2016-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-idsa-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-treatment-of-coccidioidomycosis
#17
John N Galgiani, Neil M Ampel, Janis E Blair, Antonino Catanzaro, Francesca Geertsma, Susan E Hoover, Royce H Johnson, Shimon Kusne, Jeffrey Lisse, Joel D MacDonald, Shari L Meyerson, Patricia B Raksin, John Siever, David A Stevens, Rebecca Sunenshine, Nicholas Theodore
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. Infectious Diseases Society of America considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.Coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, is a systemic infection endemic to parts of the southwestern United States and elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26699167/azithromycin-versus-doxycycline-for-urogenital-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
William M Geisler, Apurva Uniyal, Jeannette Y Lee, Shelly Y Lensing, Shacondra Johnson, Raymond C W Perry, Carmel M Kadrnka, Peter R Kerndt
BACKGROUND: Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection remains prevalent and causes substantial reproductive morbidity. Recent studies have raised concern about the efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of chlamydia infection. METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial comparing oral azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of urogenital chlamydia infection among adolescents in youth correctional facilities, to evaluate the noninferiority of azithromycin (1 g in one dose) to doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 7 days)...
December 24, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547925/effect-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-on-recurrence-in-multiply-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-randomized-trial
#19
Colleen R Kelly, Alexander Khoruts, Christopher Staley, Michael J Sadowsky, Mortadha Abd, Mustafa Alani, Brianna Bakow, Patrizia Curran, Joyce McKenney, Allison Tisch, Steven E Reinert, Jason T Machan, Lawrence J Brandt
Background: To date, evidence for the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been limited to case series and open-label clinical trials. Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of FMT for treatment of recurrent CDI. Design: Randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01703494). Setting: Two academic medical centers...
August 23, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281180/ten-simple-rules-for-effective-statistical-practice
#20
EDITORIAL
Robert E Kass, Brian S Caffo, Marie Davidian, Xiao-Li Meng, Bin Yu, Nancy Reid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
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