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Infectious Diseases for Residents

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162 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592405/current-and-emerging-topical-antibacterials-and-antiseptics-agents-action-and-resistance-patterns
#1
REVIEW
Deborah A Williamson, Glen P Carter, Benjamin P Howden
Bacterial skin infections represent some of the most common infectious diseases globally. Prevention and treatment of skin infections can involve application of a topical antimicrobial, which may be an antibiotic (such as mupirocin or fusidic acid) or an antiseptic (such as chlorhexidine or alcohol). However, there is limited evidence to support the widespread prophylactic or therapeutic use of topical agents. Challenges involved in the use of topical antimicrobials include increasing rates of bacterial resistance, local hypersensitivity reactions (particularly to older agents, such as bacitracin), and concerns about the indiscriminate use of antiseptics potentially coselecting for antibiotic resistance...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478238/update-on-community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis-guidance-and-challenges
#2
REVIEW
C N van Ettekoven, D van de Beek, M C Brouwer
BACKGROUND: The existing heterogeneity in diagnostic work-up and treatment strategies in bacterial meningitis was the incentive to develop a European evidence-based guideline, which was published in 2016 by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Study Group on Infections of the Brain (ESGIB). AIMS: To summarize salient features of the guideline, identify recent developments and challenges currently faced. SOURCES: The ESCMID guideline, ongoing trial registries...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520865/impact-of-an-integrated-antibiotic-allergy-testing-program-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-a-multicenter-evaluation
#3
Jason A Trubiano, Karin A Thursky, Andrew J Stewardson, Karen Urbancic, Leon J Worth, Cheryl Jackson, Wendy Stevenson, Michael Sutherland, Monica A Slavin, M Lindsay Grayson, Elizabeth J Phillips
Background.: Despite the high prevalence of patient-reported antibiotic allergy (so-called antibiotic allergy labels [AALs]) and their impact on antibiotic prescribing, incorporation of antibiotic allergy testing (AAT) into antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs (AAT-AMS) is not widespread. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an AAT-AMS program on AAL prevalence, antibiotic usage, and appropriateness of prescribing. Methods.: AAT-AMS was implemented at two large Australian hospitals during a 14-month period beginning May 2015...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152067/characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-and-predictors-of-early-and-late-mortality
#4
Matteo Bassetti, Maddalena Peghin, Enrico Maria Trecarichi, Alessia Carnelutti, Elda Righi, Paola Del Giacomo, Filippo Ansaldi, Cecilia Trucchi, Cristiano Alicino, Roberto Cauda, Assunta Sartor, Teresa Spanu, Claudio Scarparo, Mario Tumbarello
We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and to evaluate the risk factors associated with early (7-day) and late (30-day) mortality. We performed an observational study including all consecutive episodes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia diagnosed at two Italian university hospitals during 2010-2014. A total of 337 patients were included. Mean age was 69 years (range, 57-78) and 65% were males. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was identified in 132/337 (39%)cases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442294/who-benefits-from-antimicrobial-combination-therapy
#5
Mathias W Pletz, Stefan Hagel, Christina Forstner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549121/long-acting-injectable-anti-retroviral-therapy-an-opportunity-to-improve-hiv-treatment-and-reduce-hiv-transmission-among-persons-being-released-from-prison-facilities
#6
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, David L Rosen, Paul Christopher, Lauri Bazerman, Curt G Beckwith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866935/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli
#7
REVIEW
Tânia A T Gomes, Waldir P Elias, Isabel C A Scaletsky, Beatriz E C Guth, Juliana F Rodrigues, Roxane M F Piazza, Luís C S Ferreira, Marina B Martinez
Most Escherichia coli strains live harmlessly in the intestines and rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Nonetheless, a number of pathogenic strains can cause diarrhea or extraintestinal diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Diarrheal illnesses are a severe public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. E. coli strains that cause diarrhea have evolved by acquiring, through horizontal gene transfer, a particular set of characteristics that have successfully persisted in the host...
December 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525923/a-national-implementation-project-to-prevent-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-in-nursing-home-residents
#8
Lona Mody, M Todd Greene, Jennifer Meddings, Sarah L Krein, Sara E McNamara, Barbara W Trautner, David Ratz, Nimalie D Stone, Lillian Min, Steven J Schweon, Andrew J Rolle, Russell N Olmsted, Dale R Burwen, James Battles, Barbara Edson, Sanjay Saint
Importance: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) in nursing home residents is a common cause of sepsis, hospital admission, and antimicrobial use leading to colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms. Objective: To develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention to reduce catheter-associated UTI. Design, Setting, and Participants: A large-scale prospective implementation project was conducted in community-based nursing homes participating in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Long-Term Care...
May 19, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549147/prevalence-and-concordance-of-cutaneous-beta-human-papillomavirus-infection-at-mucosal-and-cutaneous-sites
#9
Shalaka S Hampras, Dana E Rollison, Anna R Giuliano, Sandrine McKay-Chopin, Lucia Minoni, Karen Sereday, Tarik Gheit, Massimo Tommasino
Background: Cutaneous beta human papillomavirus (HPV) infection across cutaneous and mucosal tissues within individuals has not been examined. Methods: A sub-cohort of men (n=87) participating in the 'HPV infection in men' (HIM) study provided eyebrow hairs, forearm skin swabs, genital skin swabs, oral rinse samples and anal swabs. Beta HPV DNA in the five tissues was detected using a multiplex assay and site-specific beta HPV prevalence was examined. Results: Any beta HPV was most prevalent in genital skin (81...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355466/invasive-mould-infections-in-the-icu-setting-complexities-and-solutions
#10
REVIEW
Matteo Bassetti, Emilio Bouza
Infections caused by filamentous fungi represent a major burden in the ICU. Invasive aspergillosis is emerging in non-neutropenic individuals with predisposing conditions, e.g. corticosteroid treatment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver cirrhosis, solid organ cancer, HIV infection and transplantation. Diagnosis is challenging because the signs and symptoms are non-specific, and initiation of additional diagnostic examinations is often delayed because clinical suspicion is low. Isolation of an Aspergillus species from the respiratory tract in critically ill patients, and tests such as serum galactomannan, bronchoalveolar lavage 1-3-β-d-glucan and specific PCR should be interpreted with caution...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497048/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-in-women-with-positive-urine-culture-does-menopausal-status-make-a-significant-difference
#11
Pawel Miotla, Katarzyna Romanek-Piva, Michal Bogusiewicz, Ewa Markut-Miotla, Aneta Adamiak, Andrzej Wróbel, Małgorzata Zebrowska, Sara Wawrysiuk, Katarzyna Mendyk, Ewa Rechberger, Agata Jakubczak, Tomasz Rechberger
Aim. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is considered one of the most common bacterial infections in women. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of uropathogens present, as well as the degree of antimicrobial drug resistance seen among premenopausal (n = 2748) and postmenopausal (n = 1705) women with uncomplicated UTI. Methods. Urinary samples (n = 4453) collected from women with UTI were analyzed in terms of uropathogens present. These were considered as positive if bacterial growth was ≥10(5) colony forming units (CFUs)/mL...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539503/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-from-the-respiratory-tract-and-beyond
#12
REVIEW
Ken B Waites, Li Xiao, Yang Liu, Mitchell F Balish, T Prescott Atkinson
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory tract infections in children as well as adults that can range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Over the past several years there has been much new information published concerning infections caused by this organism. New molecular-based tests for M. pneumoniae detection are now commercially available in the United States, and advances in molecular typing systems have enhanced understanding of the epidemiology of infections. More strains have had their entire genome sequences published, providing additional insights into pathogenic mechanisms...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402929/kidney-disease-and-hiv-infection
#13
REVIEW
Christina M Wyatt
The risk of acute and chronic kidney disease remains higher in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, and kidney disease in HIV-infected persons is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality. HIV-associated nephropathy occurs less frequently in the era of antiretroviral therapy. HIV immune complex kidney disease is being diagnosed more frequently, but the term is currently used to refer to a heterogeneous group of kidney diseases. Comorbid chronic kidney disease poses a growing burden in HIV-infected persons due to an overrepresentation of risk factors such as black race, diabetes, hypertension, and coinfection with hepatitis C virus...
February 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27248641/urinary-tract-infections-in-older-men
#14
LETTER
Anthony J Schaeffer, Lindsay E Nicolle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379314/comparative-effectiveness-of-cefazolin-versus-nafcillin-or-oxacillin-for-treatment-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-complicated-by-bacteremia-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#15
Jennifer S McDanel, Mary-Claire Roghmann, Eli N Perencevich, Michael E Ohl, Michihiko Goto, Daniel J Livorsi, Makoto Jones, Justin P Albertson, Rajeshwari Nair, Amy M J O'Shea, Marin L Schweizer
Background: To treat patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) infections, beta-lactams are recommended for definitive therapy; however the comparative effectiveness of individual beta-lactams is unknown. This study compared definitive therapy with cefazolin versus nafcillin or oxacillin among patients with MSSA infections complicated by bacteremia. Methods: This retrospective study included patients admitted to 119 Veterans Administration hospitals from 2003 to 2010...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999052/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-versus-vancomycin-in-the-treatment-of-healthcare-ventilator-associated-mrsa-pneumonia-a-case-control-study
#16
Noa Eliakim-Raz, Moran Hellerman, Dafna Yahav, Jonathan Cohen, Ili Margalit, Sharon Fisher, Oren Zusman, Hila Shaked, Jihad Bishara
Objectives: Therapeutic options available to treat MRSA pneumonia are limited. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is an attractive treatment because of its bactericidal anti-MRSA activity, oral and parenteral formulations and good penetration to the lung tissue. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with vancomycin in the treatment of healthcare/ventilator-associated MRSA pneumonia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective case-control study of all consecutive hospitalized adult patients diagnosed with MRSA pneumonia at Beilinson Hospital during 2010-15 and treated with either vancomycin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275006/polymyxins-antibacterial-activity-susceptibility-testing-and-resistance-mechanisms-encoded-by-plasmids-or-chromosomes
#17
REVIEW
Laurent Poirel, Aurélie Jayol, Patrice Nordmann
SUMMARYPolymyxins are well-established antibiotics that have recently regained significant interest as a consequence of the increasing incidence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Colistin and polymyxin B are being seriously reconsidered as last-resort antibiotics in many areas where multidrug resistance is observed in clinical medicine. In parallel, the heavy use of polymyxins in veterinary medicine is currently being reconsidered due to increased reports of polymyxin-resistant bacteria...
April 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403451/the-lung-microbiome-key-to-respiratory-ills
#18
Jeff Lyon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254470/tackling-inpatient-penicillin-allergies-assessing-tools-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#19
Kimberly G Blumenthal, Paige G Wickner, Shelley Hurwitz, Nicholas Pricco, Alexandra E Nee, Karl Laskowski, Erica S Shenoy, Rochelle P Walensky
BACKGROUND: Reported penicillin allergy rarely reflects penicillin intolerance. Failure to address inpatient penicillin allergies results in more broad-spectrum antibiotic use, treatment failures, and adverse drug events. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the optimal approach to penicillin allergies among medical inpatients. METHODS: We evaluated internal medicine inpatients reporting penicillin allergy in 3 periods: (1) standard of care (SOC), (2) penicillin skin testing (ST), and (3) computerized guideline application with decision support (APP)...
July 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403441/clinical-and-laboratory-diagnosis-of-dengue-virus-infection
#20
REVIEW
David A Muller, Alexandra C I Depelsenaire, Paul R Young
Infection with any of the 4 dengue virus serotypes results in a diverse range of symptoms, from mild undifferentiated fever to life-threatening hemorrhagic fever and shock. Given that dengue virus infection elicits such a broad range of clinical symptoms, early and accurate laboratory diagnosis is essential for appropriate patient management. Virus detection and serological conversion have been the main targets of diagnostic assessment for many years, however cross-reactivity of antibody responses among the flaviviruses has been a confounding issue in providing a differential diagnosis...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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