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Infectious Diseases for Residents

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77 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018930/intra-abdominal-infections-the-role-of-anaerobes-enterococci-fungi-and-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#1
Gil Marcus, Samuel Levy, Ghaleb Salhab, Bethlehem Mengesha, Oran Tzuman, Shira Shur, Erica Burke, Rebecca Cruz Mayeda, Lior Cochavi, Idan Perluk, Ronit Zaidenstein, Tsilia Lazarovitch, Mor Dadon, Dror Marchaim
BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) constitute a common reason for hospitalization. However, there is lack of standardization in empiric management of (1) anaerobes, (2) enterococci, (3) fungi, and (4) multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). The recommendation is to institute empiric coverage for some of these organisms in "high-risk community-acquired" or in "healthcare-associated" infections (HCAI), but exact definitions are not provided. METHODS: Epidemiological study of IAI was conducted at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center (May-November 2013)...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035690/%C3%AE-lactam-therapy-for-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-a-comparative-review-of-cefazolin-versus-antistaphylococcal-penicillins
#2
Julius Li, Kelly L Echevarria, Kristi A Traugott
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, antistaphylococcal penicillins (ASPs) have been considered the agents of choice for the treatment of MSSA bacteremia. Vancomycin has been demonstrated to have poorer outcomes in several studies and is only recommended for patients with severe penicillin allergies. Although cefazolin is considered as an alternative to the ASPs for patients with nonsevere penicillin allergies, cefazolin offers several pharmacologic advantages over ASPs, such as more convenient dosing regimens, and antimicrobial stewardship programs are increasingly using cefazolin as the preferential agent for MSSA infections as part of cost-saving initiatives...
December 30, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499981/tuberculous-pleural-effusion
#3
REVIEW
Kan Zhai, Yong Lu, Huan-Zhong Shi
Although it is curable, tuberculosis remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions on a global scale, especially in developing countries. Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. TPE usually presents as an acute illness with fever, cough and pleuritic chest pain. The pleural fluid is an exudate that usually has predominantly lymphocytes. The gold standard for the diagnosis of TPE remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli, Although adenosine deaminase and interferon-γ in pleural fluid have been documented to be useful tests for the diagnosis of TPE...
July 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956430/impact-of-vancomycin-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-on-treatment-outcomes-in-invasive-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#4
Kyoung-Ho Song, Moonsuk Kim, Chung Jong Kim, Jeong Eun Cho, Yun Jung Choi, Jeong Su Park, Soyeon Ahn, Hee-Chang Jang, Kyung-Hwa Park, Sook-In Jung, Nara Yoon, Dong-Min Kim, Jeong-Hwan Hwang, Chang Seop Lee, Jae Hoon Lee, Yee Gyung Kwak, Eu Suk Kim, Seong Yeon Park, Yoonseon Park, Kkot Sil Lee, Yeong-Seon Lee, Hong Bin Kim
There are conflicting data on the association of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (VAN-MIC) with treatment outcomes in Staphylococcus aureus infections. We investigated the relationship between high VAN-MIC and 30-day mortality, and identified the risk factors for mortality in a large cohort of patients with invasive S. aureus (ISA) infections, defined by the isolation of S. aureus from a normally sterile site. Over a 2-year period, 1,027 adult patients with ISA infections were enrolled in 10 hospitals, including 673 (66%) methicillin-resistant S...
December 12, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26163735/medical-treatment-of-prosthetic-vascular-graft-infections-review-of-the-literature-and-proposals-of-a-working-group
#5
REVIEW
M Revest, F Camou, E Senneville, J Caillon, F Laurent, B Calvet, P Feugier, M Batt, C Chidiac
More than 400000 vascular grafts are inserted annually in the USA. Graft insertion is complicated by infection in 0.5-4% of cases. Vascular graft infections (VGIs) are becoming one of the most frequent prosthesis-related infections and are associated with considerable mortality, ranging from 10 to 25% within 30 days following the diagnosis. Treatment of VGI is based on urgent surgical removal of the infected graft followed by prolonged antibiotherapy. Data regarding the best antibiotherapy to use are lacking since no well designed trial to study antimicrobial treatment of VGI exists...
September 2015: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25414157/six-week-versus-twelve-week-antibiotic-therapy-for-nonsurgically-treated-diabetic-foot-osteomyelitis-a-multicenter-open-label-controlled-randomized-study
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Alina Tone, Sophie Nguyen, Fabrice Devemy, Hélène Topolinski, Michel Valette, Marie Cazaubiel, Armelle Fayard, Éric Beltrand, Christine Lemaire, Éric Senneville
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the optimal duration of antibiotic therapy for diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). This study sought to compare the effectiveness of 6 versus 12 weeks of antibiotic therapy in patients with DFO treated nonsurgically (i.e., antibiotics alone). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective randomized trial comparing 6- versus 12-week duration of antibiotic treatment. Remission of osteomyelitis during the monitoring period was defined as complete and persistent (>4 weeks) healing of the wound (if present initially), absence of recurrent infection at the initial site or that of adjacent rays, and no need for surgical bone resection or amputation at the end of a follow-up period of at least 12 months after completion of antibiotic treatment...
February 2015: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24130347/antibiotics-versus-conservative-surgery-for-treating-diabetic-foot-osteomyelitis-a-randomized-comparative-trial
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
José Luis Lázaro-Martínez, Javier Aragón-Sánchez, Esther García-Morales
OBJECTIVE: No prospective trials have been carried out comparing antibiotic treatment alone with primarily surgical treatment in patients with diabetes and foot osteomyelitis. The aim of the current study was to compare the outcomes of the treatment of diabetic foot osteomyelitis in patients treated exclusively with antibiotics versus patients who underwent conservative surgery, following up the patients for a period of 12 weeks after healing. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012, a prospective randomized comparative trial (clinical trial reg...
2014: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988094/human-schistosomiasis-in-the-post-mass-drug-administration-era
#8
REVIEW
Francisca Mutapi, Rick Maizels, Alan Fenwick, Mark Woolhouse
Profound changes are occurring in the epidemiology of schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease caused by a chronic infection with parasitic helminths of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis currently affects 240 million people worldwide, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. The advent and proliferation of mass drug administration (MDA) programmes using the drug praziquantel is resulting in substantial increases in the number of people, mainly children aged 6-14 years, being effectively treated, approaching the point where most people in endemic areas will receive one or more treatments during their lifetimes...
December 14, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816414/new-who-recommendations-on-intraoperative-and-postoperative-measures-for-surgical-site-infection-prevention-an-evidence-based-global-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Benedetta Allegranzi, Bassim Zayed, Peter Bischoff, N Zeynep Kubilay, Stijn de Jonge, Fleur de Vries, Stacey M Gomes, Sarah Gans, Elon D Wallert, Xiuwen Wu, Mohamed Abbas, Marja A Boermeester, E Patchen Dellinger, Matthias Egger, Petra Gastmeier, Xavier Guirao, Jianan Ren, Didier Pittet, Joseph S Solomkin
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common health-care-associated infections in developing countries, but they also represent a substantial epidemiological burden in high-income countries. The prevention of these infections is complex and requires the integration of a range of preventive measures before, during, and after surgery. No international guidelines are available and inconsistencies in the interpretation of evidence and recommendations in national guidelines have been identified. Considering the prevention of SSIs as a priority for patient safety, WHO has developed evidence-based and expert consensus-based recommendations on the basis of an extensive list of preventive measures...
December 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993382/syphilis
#10
REVIEW
Edward W Hook
Syphilis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum that is endemic in low-income countries and and occurs at lower rates in middle-income and high-income countries. The disease is of both individual and public health importance and, in addition to its direct morbidity, increases risk of HIV infection and can cause lifelong morbidity in children born to infected mothers. Without treatment the disease can progress over years through a series of clinical stages and lead to irreversible neurological or cardiovascular complications...
December 16, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927861/what-is-the-more-effective-antibiotic-stewardship-intervention-pre-prescription-authorization-or-post-prescription-review-with-feedback
#11
Pranita D Tamma, Edina Avdic, John F Keenan, Yuan Zhao, Gobind Anand, James Cooper, Rebecca Dezube, Steven Hsu, Sara E Cosgrove
BACKGROUND: The optimal approach to conducting antibiotic stewardship interventions has not been defined. We compared days of antibiotic therapy (DOT) using pre-prescription authorization (PPA) versus post-prescription review with feedback (PPRF) strategies. METHODS: A quasi-experimental, crossover trial comparing PPA and PPRF for adult inpatients prescribed any antibiotic was conducted. For the first four months, two medicine teams were assigned to the PPA arm and the other two teams to the PPRF arm...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886201/cryptococcal-meningitis-epidemiology-immunology-diagnosis-and-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Joseph N Jarvis, Anil A Panackal, Matthew C Fisher, Síle F Molloy, Angela Loyse, Thomas S Harrison
HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880878/neurocysticercosis-infection-and-disease-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Lucy B Gripper, Susan C Welburn
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system (CNS), a pleomorphic disease with a diverse array of clinical manifestations. The infection is pleomorphic and dependent on a complex range of interconnecting factors, including number and size of the cysticerci, their stage of development and localisation within the brain with resulting difficulties in accurate diagnosis and staging of the disease. This review examines the factors that contribute to the accurate assessment of NCC distribution and transmission that are critical to achieving robust disease burden calculations...
February 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664247/management-of-febrile-neutropaenia-esmo-clinical-practice-guidelines
#14
J Klastersky, J de Naurois, K Rolston, B Rapoport, G Maschmeyer, M Aapro, J Herrstedt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783923/emphysematous-pyelonephritis
#15
Yasumitsu Hirose, Hayato Kaida
A 51-year-old man presented with fever and general malaise of 2 weeks’ duration. He had had diabetes mellitus for the preceding 20 years, and at the time of presentation this condition was poorly controlled. On admission to the hospital, his white-cell count was 10,800 per cubic millimeter (normal..
October 27, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806994/human-parvoviruses
#16
REVIEW
Jianming Qiu, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Neal S Young
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716262/new-aspects-in-the-management-of-pneumonia
#17
REVIEW
Elena Prina, Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres
Despite improvements in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), morbidity and mortality are still high, especially in patients with more severe disease. Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of CAP. However, two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvant treatments, such as corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects. The use of corticosteroids in patients with severe CAP and a strong inflammatory reaction can reduce the time to clinical stability, the risk of treatment failure, and the risk of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413095/diagnosis-of-ebola-virus-disease-past-present-and-future
#18
REVIEW
M Jana Broadhurst, Tim J G Brooks, Nira R Pollock
Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease plays a critical role in outbreak response efforts; however, establishing safe and expeditious testing strategies for this high-biosafety-level pathogen in resource-poor environments remains extremely challenging. Since the discovery of Ebola virus in 1976 via traditional viral culture techniques and electron microscopy, diagnostic methodologies have trended toward faster, more accurate molecular assays. Importantly, technological advances have been paired with increasing efforts to support decentralized diagnostic testing capacity that can be deployed at or near the point of patient care...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624958/clinical-outcomes-drug-toxicity-and-emergence-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-resistance-among-patients-treated-for-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-infections
#19
Ryan K Shields, Brian A Potoski, Ghady Haidar, Binghua Hao, Yohei Doi, Liang Chen, Ellen G Press, Barry N Kreiswirth, Cornelius J Clancy, M Hong Nguyen
Thirty-seven carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)-infected patients were treated with ceftazidime-avibactam. Clinical success and survival rates at 30 days were 59% (22/37) and 76% (28/37), respectively. In 23% (5/22) of clinical successes, CRE infections recurred within 90 days. Microbiologic failure rate was 27% (10/37). Ceftazidime-avibactam resistance was detected in 30% (3/10) of microbiologic failures.
December 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653939/azithromycin-for-acute-exacerbations-of-asthma-the-azalea-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Sebastian L Johnston, Matyas Szigeti, Mary Cross, Christopher Brightling, Rekha Chaudhuri, Timothy Harrison, Adel Mansur, Laura Robison, Zahid Sattar, David Jackson, Patrick Mallia, Ernie Wong, Christopher Corrigan, Bernard Higgins, Philip Ind, Dave Singh, Neil C Thomson, Deborah Ashby, Anoop Chauhan
Importance: Guidelines recommend against antibiotic use to treat asthma attacks. A study with telithromycin reported benefit, but adverse reactions limit its use. Objective: To determine whether azithromycin added to standard care for asthma attacks in adults results in clinical benefit. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Azithromycin Against Placebo in Exacerbations of Asthma (AZALEA) randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, a United Kingdom-based multicenter study in adults requesting emergency care for acute asthma exacerbations, ran from September 2011 to April 2014...
November 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
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