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Infectious Diseases for Residents

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266 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228072/an-implementation-guide-to-reducing-overtreatment-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria
#1
Michael Daniel, Sara Keller, Mohammad Mozafarihashjin, Amit Pahwa, Christine Soong
Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) frequently lacks appropriate indication, yet remains prevalent across settings. Numerous guidelines, professional societies, and campaigns such as Choosing Wisely advocate against this low-value practice. Efforts aimed at reducing unnecessary treatment of ASB demonstrate improved costs, and avoidable harm without increased risk of adverse events. We propose an evidence-based implementation guide to aid practitioners in reducing inappropriate treatment of ASB.
December 11, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177489/disease-based-antimicrobial-stewardship-a-review-of-active-and-passive-approaches-to-patient-management
#2
Farnaz Foolad, Jerod L Nagel, Gregory Eschenauer, Twisha S Patel, Cynthia T Nguyen
Although new antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) often begin by targeting the reduction of antimicrobial use, an increasing focus of ASPs is to improve the management of specific infectious diseases. Disease-based antimicrobial stewardship emphasizes improving patient outcomes by optimizing antimicrobial use and increasing compliance with performance measures. Directing efforts towards the comprehensive management of specific infections allows ASPs to promote the shift in healthcare towards improving quality, safety and patient outcome metrics for specific diseases...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142078/candida-auris-a-review-of-the-literature
#3
REVIEW
Anna Jeffery-Smith, Surabhi K Taori, Silke Schelenz, Katie Jeffery, Elizabeth M Johnson, Andrew Borman, Rohini Manuel, Colin S Brown
The emerging pathogen Candida auris has been associated with nosocomial outbreaks on five continents. Genetic analysis indicates the simultaneous emergence of separate clades of this organism in different geographical locations. Invasive infection and colonization have been detected predominantly in patients in high-dependency settings and have garnered attention due to variable antifungal resistance profiles and transmission within units instituting a range of infection prevention and control measures. Issues with the identification of C...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220496/the-duration-of-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-test-negative-design-case-control-studies
#4
Barnaby Young, Sapna Sadarangani, Lili Jiang, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Mark I-Cheng Chen
Background: Whether influenza vaccination offers protection for the duration of an influenza season has recently been questioned following analysis of data from test-negative design (TND) case-control studies. Method: The published literature was systematically reviewed to identify TND studies which estimated change in vaccine effectiveness (VE) with time since vaccination. Results: Fourteen studies were identified through the literature search as meeting eligibility criteria...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126268/duration-of-antibiotic-use-among-adults-with-uncomplicated-community-acquired-pneumonia-requiring-hospitalization-in-the-united-states
#5
Sarah H Yi, Kelly M Hatfield, James Baggs, Lauri A Hicks, Arjun Srinivasan, Sujan Reddy, John A Jernigan
Background: Previous studies suggest duration of antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) often exceeds national recommendations and might represent an important opportunity to improve antibiotic stewardship nationally. The objective of this study was to determine average length of antibiotic therapy (LOT) for patients treated for uncomplicated CAP in US hospitals and proportion of patients with excessive durations. Methods: Records of retrospective cohorts of patients 18-64 years with private insurance and ≥65 years with Medicare hospitalized for CAP in 2012-13 were utilized...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221995/antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-colistin-evaluation-of-seven-commercial-mic-products-against-standard-broth-microdilution-for-escherichia-coli-klebsiella-pneumoniae-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-spp
#6
Erika Matuschek, Jenny Åhman, Catherine Webster, Gunnar Kahlmeter
OBJECTIVE: Both EUCAST and CLSI recommend broth microdilution (BMD) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of colistin, but BMD is rarely used in routine microbiology laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate five commercially available BMD products and two brands of gradient tests for colistin MIC determination using BMD according to ISO standard 20776-1 as reference. METHODS: Colistin MIC determination was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions on five commercially available BMD products (Sensititre, MICRONAUT-S, MICRONAUT MIC-Strip, SensiTest and UMIC) and two gradient tests (Etest and MIC Test Strip)...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830747/a-consumer-s-guide-for-probiotics-10-golden-rules-for-a-correct-use
#7
REVIEW
Marco Toscano, Roberta De Grandi, Luca Pastorelli, Maurizio Vecchi, Lorenzo Drago
Probiotics are used all over the world as their beneficial effects on the human organism have been widely demonstrated. Certain probiotics can down-regulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promote intestinal epithelial barrier functions, increasing an anti-inflammatory response and contributing to the host's overall health. The main mechanisms by which probiotic microorganisms can interact with the host are by modulating the immune system and the epithelial cell functions and interacting with intestinal gut microbiota...
November 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237757/urine-lipoarabinomannan-glycan-in-hiv-negative-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-correlates-with-disease-severity
#8
Luisa Paris, Ruben Magni, Fatima Zaidi, Robyn Araujo, Neal Saini, Michael Harpole, Jorge Coronel, Daniela E Kirwan, Hannah Steinberg, Robert H Gilman, Emanuel F Petricoin, Roberto Nisini, Alessandra Luchini, Lance Liotta
An accurate urine test for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), affecting 9.6 million patients worldwide, is critically needed for surveillance and treatment management. Past attempts failed to reliably detect the mycobacterial glycan antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a marker of active TB, in HIV-negative, pulmonary TB-infected patients' urine (85% of 9.6 million patients). We apply a copper complex dye within a hydrogel nanocage that captures LAM with very high affinity, displacing interfering urine proteins. The technology was applied to study pretreatment urine from 48 Peruvian patients, all negative for HIV, with microbiologically confirmed active pulmonary TB...
December 13, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201522/clinical-effect-of-discordance-in-empirical-treatment-of-cases-with-urinary-tract-infection-accompanied-by-bacteremia
#9
İlyas Dökmetaş, Aziz Ahmad Hamidi, Mehmet Emin Bulut, Sinan Çetin, Ahsen Öncül, Nuray Uzun
Objective: It has been shown in previous studies that inadequate empirical treatment is associated with mortality in a variety of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, the clinical effect of discordance in empirical treatment was investigated in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) accompanied by bacteremia. Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the files of adult (>18 years old) patients who were diagnosed with UTI in our clinic between January 2014 and December 2015...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247579/peg-interferon-and-ribavirin-treatment-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients-in-thailand-efficacy-safety-and-pharmacokinetics
#10
E J Smolders, N Thammajaruk, C T M M de Kanter, A Colbers, P Chaiyahong, T Cuprasitrut, S Chittmittraprap, T Apornpong, S Khemnark, P Tangkijvanich, D M Burger, A Avihingsanon
OBJECTIVE: In Thailand, 7.2% of HIV patients are co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and these patients are treated with peg-interferon + ribavirin (PR) for their HCV-infection. This study evaluates efficacy and safety of PR treatment and pharmacokinetics of ribavirin in this population. METHODS: HIV/HCV co-infected Thai patients were treated with PR for 24 or 48 weeks. R plasma concentrations were measured during treatment. Sustained virological response 24 weeks after end of treatment (SVR24) was used to describe efficacy...
December 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249276/adjunctive-rifampicin-for-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-arrest-a-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Guy E Thwaites, Matthew Scarborough, Alexander Szubert, Emmanuel Nsutebu, Robert Tilley, Julia Greig, Sarah A Wyllie, Peter Wilson, Cressida Auckland, Janet Cairns, Denise Ward, Pankaj Lal, Achyut Guleri, Neil Jenkins, Julian Sutton, Martin Wiselka, Gonzalez-Ruiz Armando, Clive Graham, Paul R Chadwick, Gavin Barlow, N Claire Gordon, Bernadette Young, Sarah Meisner, Paul McWhinney, David A Price, David Harvey, Deepa Nayar, Dakshika Jeyaratnam, Tim Planche, Jane Minton, Fleur Hudson, Susan Hopkins, John Williams, M Estee Török, Martin J Llewelyn, Jonathan D Edgeworth, A Sarah Walker
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common cause of severe community-acquired and hospital-acquired infection worldwide. We tested the hypothesis that adjunctive rifampicin would reduce bacteriologically confirmed treatment failure or disease recurrence, or death, by enhancing early S aureus killing, sterilising infected foci and blood faster, and reducing risks of dissemination and metastatic infection. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults (≥18 years) with S aureus bacteraemia who had received ≤96 h of active antibiotic therapy were recruited from 29 UK hospitals...
December 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229440/post-exposure-prophylaxis-with-doxycycline-to-prevent-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-open-label-randomised-substudy-of-the-anrs-ipergay-trial
#12
Jean-Michel Molina, Isabelle Charreau, Christian Chidiac, Gilles Pialoux, Eric Cua, Constance Delaugerre, Catherine Capitant, Daniela Rojas-Castro, Julien Fonsart, Béatrice Bercot, Cécile Bébéar, Laurent Cotte, Olivier Robineau, François Raffi, Pierre Charbonneau, Alexandre Aslan, Julie Chas, Laurence Niedbalski, Bruno Spire, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Diane Carette, Soizic Le Mestre, Veronique Doré, Laurence Meyer
BACKGROUND: Increased rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been reported among men who have sex with men. We aimed to assess whether post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with doxycycline could reduce the incidence of STIs. METHODS: All participants attending their scheduled visit in the open-label extension of the ANRS IPERGAY trial in France (men aged 18 years or older having condomless sex with men and using pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine) were eligible for inclusion in this open-label randomised study...
December 8, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249277/rifampicin-for-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-give-it-arrest
#13
Thomas L Holland, Vance G Fowler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190320/comparing-the-outcomes-of-adults-with-enterobacteriaceae-bacteremia-receiving-short-course-versus-prolonged-course-antibiotic-therapy-in-a-multicenter-propensity-score-matched-cohort
#14
Darunee Chotiprasitsakul, Jennifer H Han, Sara E Cosgrove, Anthony D Harris, Ebbing Lautenbach, Anna T Conley, Pam Tolomeo, Jacqueleen Wise, Pranita D Tamma
Background: The recommended duration of antibiotic treatment for Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections is 7-14 days. We compared the outcomes of patients receiving short-course (6-10 days) vs prolonged-course (11-16 days) antibiotic therapy for Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at 3 medical centers and included patients with monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia treated with in vitro active therapy in the range of 6-16 days between 2008 and 2014...
October 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102324/prolonged-versus-short-term-intravenous-infusion-of-antipseudomonal-%C3%AE-lactams-for-patients-with-sepsis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials
#15
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Georgios L Voulgaris, Athanasios Maliaros, George Samonis, Matthew E Falagas
BACKGROUND: The findings of randomised controlled trials (RCT), observational studies, and meta-analyses vary regarding the effectiveness of prolonged β-lactam infusion. We aimed to identify the effectiveness of prolonged versus short-term infusion of antipseudomonal β-lactams in patients with sepsis. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare prolonged versus short-term intravenous infusion of antipseudomonal β-lactams in patients with sepsis...
October 25, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181207/mycoplasma-pneumonia-an-unrecognized-cause-of-fever-of-unknown-origin-in-an-adult
#16
Fatima Ali-Ahmed, Alexandra Halalau
A 26-year-old female was admitted for fever of unknown origin (FUO), headaches, left ankle edema, and a lower extremity rash consistent with erythema nodosum. She had no respiratory symptoms or family history of autoimmune diseases. A chest X-ray was negative for pneumonia or hilar adenopathy. Extensive autoimmune workup was negative. A chest, abdomen, and pelvis computed tomography scan was unremarkable and laboratory studies revealed no source of infection. On hospital day 5, the patient developed a mild productive cough...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185801/the-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-stigma-paradox-learning-from-canada-s-first-wave-of-prep-users
#17
Daniel Grace, Jody Jollimore, Paul MacPherson, Matthew J P Strang, Darrell H S Tan
With the emergence of daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use in Canada, questions have emerged concerning the impacts of this HIV prevention tool on gay men's social and sexual lives. We conducted small focus groups and individual qualitative interviews with 16 gay men in Toronto who were part of the 'first wave' of Canadian PrEP users. Participants were on PrEP for at least one year as part of a demonstration project (November 2014-June 2016). These participants accessed PrEP before regulatory approval by Health Canada in February 2016...
November 29, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149941/pathophysiology-of-septic-shock
#18
REVIEW
James A Russell, Barret Rush, John Boyd
Fundamental features of septic shock are vasodilation, increased permeability, hypovolemia, and ventricular dysfunction. Vasodilation owing to increased nitric oxide and prostaglandins is treated with vasopressors (norepinephrine first). Increased permeability relates to several pathways (Slit/Robo4, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin 1 and 2/Tie2 pathway, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and heparin-binding protein), some of which are targets for therapies. Hypovolemia is common and crystalloid is recommended for fluid resuscitation...
January 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234194/an-insight-into-antibiotic-resistance-to-bacterial-infection-in-chronic-liver-disease
#19
Mayank Jain, Joy Varghese, Tom Michael, Chandan Kumar Kedarishetty, Balajee G, Subramanian Swaminathan, Jayanthi Venkataraman
Background: End stage liver disease leads to immune dysfunction which predisposes to infection. There has been a rise in antibiotic resistant infections in these patients. There is scanty data f from India or idea regarding the same. Aim of the study: The present study was undertaken to determine the type of infection acquired and the prevalence of antibiotic resistant infections in cirrhotic patients at a tertiary referral center in South India. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, all consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2013 with a microbiologically-documented infection were enrolled...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112747/what-we-know-about-tuberculosis-transmission-an-overview
#20
REVIEW
Gavin Churchyard, Peter Kim, N Sarita Shah, Roxana Rustomjee, Neel Gandhi, Barun Mathema, David Dowdy, Anne Kasmar, Vicky Cardenas
Tuberculosis remains a global health problem with an enormous burden of disease, estimated at 10.4 million new cases in 2015. To stop the tuberculosis epidemic, it is critical that we interrupt tuberculosis transmission. Further, the interventions required to interrupt tuberculosis transmission must be targeted to high-risk groups and settings. A simple cascade for tuberculosis transmission has been proposed in which (1) a source case of tuberculosis (2) generates infectious particles (3) that survive in the air and (4) are inhaled by a susceptible individual (5) who may become infected and (6) then has the potential to develop tuberculosis...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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