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By Clare Dix Dietitian, PhD candidate, researching vitamin D and obesity
Marta Lonnie, Emma Hooker, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Bernard M Corfe, Mark A Green, Anthony W Watson, Elizabeth A Williams, Emma J Stevenson, Simon Penson, Alexandra M Johnstone
With an ageing population, dietary approaches to promote health and independence later in life are needed. In part, this can be achieved by maintaining muscle mass and strength as people age. New evidence suggests that current dietary recommendations for protein intake may be insufficient to achieve this goal and that individuals might benefit by increasing their intake and frequency of consumption of high-quality protein. However, the environmental effects of increasing animal-protein production are a concern, and alternative, more sustainable protein sources should be considered...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Etheresia Pretorius
Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide artificial sweetener, frequently used in foods, medications, and beverages, notably carbonated and powdered soft drinks. Since 1981, when aspartame was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, researchers have debated both its recommended safe dosage (40 mg/kg/d) and its general safety to organ systems. This review examines papers published between 2000 and 2016 on both the safe dosage and higher-than-recommended dosages and presents a concise synthesis of current trends...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Genelle R Healey, Rinki Murphy, Louise Brough, Christine A Butts, Jane Coad
Dysbiosis is linked to human disease; therefore, gut microbiota modulation strategies provide an attractive means of correcting microbial imbalance to enhance human health. Because diet has a major influence on the composition, diversity, and metabolic capacity of the gut microbiota, numerous dietary intervention studies have been conducted to manipulate the gut microbiota to improve host outcomes and reduce disease risk. Emerging evidence suggests that interindividual variability in gut microbiota and host responsiveness exists, making it difficult to predict gut microbiota and host response to a given dietary intervention...
December 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Aaron Lerner, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Torsten Matthias
In light of the coincident surge in overall gluten intake and the incidence of autoimmune diseases, the possible biological adverse effects of gluten were explored. PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library databases were screened for reports published between 1964 and 2016 regarding the adverse effects of gluten as well as the effects of a gluten-free diet on autoimmune diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies describing gluten intake in animal models or cell lines and gluten-free diets in human autoimmune diseases were reviewed...
December 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Clare F Dix, Johanna L Barcley, Olivia R L Wright
Vitamin D, a secosteroid predominately obtained by endogenous production, has in recent years been linked to obesity and its comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to draw conclusions from animal and human studies on the effects of vitamin D on adipogenesis to identify the molecular links between vitamin D and obesity. The information presented herein was obtained from 4 databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Scopus) using predefined search terms, as well as research literature and other reviews...
January 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, Kathryn H Schmitz, Catherine M Alfano, Jennifer R Bail, Pamela J Goodwin, Cynthia A Thomson, Don W Bradley, Kerry S Courneya, Christie A Befort, Crystal S Denlinger, Jennifer A Ligibel, William H Dietz, Melinda R Stolley, Melinda L Irwin, Marcas M Bamman, Caroline M Apovian, Bernardine M Pinto, Kathleen Y Wolin, Rachel M Ballard, Andrew J Dannenberg, Elizabeth G Eakin, Matt M Longjohn, Susan D Raffa, Lucile L Adams-Campbell, Joanne S Buzaglo, Sharyl J Nass, Greta M Massetti, Erin P Balogh, Elizabeth S Kraft, Anand K Parekh, Darshak M Sanghavi, G Stephen Morris, Karen Basen-Engquist
Mounting evidence suggests that weight management and physical activity (PA) improve overall health and well being, and reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors. Although many opportunities exist to include weight management and PA in routine cancer care, several barriers remain. This review summarizes key topics addressed in a recent National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine workshop entitled, "Incorporating Weight Management and Physical Activity Throughout the Cancer Care Continuum...
November 22, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Sanjiv Agarwal, Victor L Fulgoni, Harris R Lieberman
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a significant component of the diet with dose-dependent risks and benefits. High doses of alcohol damage the liver and early symptoms of liver disease include changes in routinely assessed liver enzymes. Less is known regarding the mechanisms responsible for the benefits of moderate alcohol consumption, including their effects on the liver. The objectives of this study were to examine alcohol's dose-dependent effects on markers of liver function (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and bilirubin), as well as to compare the different methods of assessing alcohol intake using NHANES 2001-2010 adult data (N = 24,807)...
June 22, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Maurizio Muscaritoli, Maria Ida Amabile, Alessio Molfino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer represents one of the most feared diseases. Despite an increasing number of available scientific data, most people remain unaware of those basic dietary and healthy lifestyle measures, which might reduce their risk to develop cancer. Environmental factors, diet, and lifestyle play a crucial role in the development of several different neoplastic diseases, particularly gastrointestinal cancer. In this article, we aimed at focusing on foods and their components able to increase gastrointestinal cancer risk...
July 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Myriam M-L Grundy, Cathrina H Edwards, Alan R Mackie, Michael J Gidley, Peter J Butterworth, Peter R Ellis
The positive effects of dietary fibre on health are now widely recognised; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in producing such benefits remains unclear. There are even uncertainties about how dietary fibre in plant foods should be defined and analysed. This review attempts to clarify the confusion regarding the mechanisms of action of dietary fibre and deals with current knowledge on the wide variety of dietary fibre materials, comprising mainly of NSP that are not digested by enzymes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Marta Herman, Ewa Starostecka
The aim of this article is to show current knowledge concerning valuable substances biologically active present in hen eggs and underline important nutritive role of hen eggs. Hen egg is a good source of nutrients such as proteins, vitamins (A, B2, B6, B12, D, E, K), minerals and lipids. The significant part of lipids is a group of unsaturated phospholipids, which are components of cell membranes, act protectively on the cardiovascular system and contribute to a decrease of cholesterol level and blood pressure...
July 6, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
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