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James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
James Fingleton, Irene Braithwaite, Justin Travers, Darren Bowles, Rianne Strik, Rob Siebers, Cecile Holweg, John Matthews, Mark Weatherall, Richard Beasley
Serum periostin is a potential biomarker of response to therapies that target type 2 inflammation in asthma. The objectives of this study were to describe: 1) the distribution of serum periostin levels in adults with symptomatic airflow obstruction; 2) its relationship with other variables, including type 2 biomarkers; and 3) the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on periostin levels.Serum periostin levels were measured in a cross-sectional study exploring phenotypes and biomarkers in 386 patients aged 18-75 years who reported wheeze and breathlessness in the past 12 months...
May 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Ayodeji Adegunsoye, Mary E Strek
Among the interstitial lung diseases (ILD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and fibrotic connective tissue disease related ILD are associated with a worse prognosis with death occurring both from respiratory failure and serious associated co-morbidities. The recent development and approval of the antifibrotic agents nintedanib and pirfenidone, both of which reduced the rate of decline in lung function in patients with IPF in clinical trials, offer hope that it may be possible to alter the increased mortality associated with IPF...
August 10, 2016: Chest
Payam Nahid, Susan E Dorman, Narges Alipanah, Pennan M Barry, Jan L Brozek, Adithya Cattamanchi, Lelia H Chaisson, Richard E Chaisson, Charles L Daley, Malgosia Grzemska, Julie M Higashi, Christine S Ho, Philip C Hopewell, Salmaan A Keshavjee, Christian Lienhardt, Richard Menzies, Cynthia Merrifield, Masahiro Narita, Rick O'Brien, Charles A Peloquin, Ann Raftery, Jussi Saukkonen, H Simon Schaaf, Giovanni Sotgiu, Jeffrey R Starke, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Andrew Vernon
The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored the development of this guideline for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which is also endorsed by the European Respiratory Society and the US National Tuberculosis Controllers Association. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Canadian Thoracic Society, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, and the World Health Organization also participated in the development of the guideline...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Juan F Masa, Jaime Corral, Candela Caballero, Emilia Barrot, Joaquin Terán-Santos, Maria L Alonso-Álvarez, Teresa Gomez-Garcia, Mónica González, Soledad López-Martín, Pilar De Lucas, José M Marin, Sergi Marti, Trinidad Díaz-Cambriles, Eusebi Chiner, Carlos Egea, Erika Miranda, Babak Mokhlesi, Estefanía García-Ledesma, M-Ángeles Sánchez-Quiroga, Estrella Ordax, Nicolás González-Mangado, Maria F Troncoso, Maria-Ángeles Martinez-Martinez, Olga Cantalejo, Elena Ojeda, Santiago J Carrizo, Begoña Gallego, Mercedes Pallero, M Antonia Ramón, Josefa Díaz-de-Atauri, Jesús Muñoz-Méndez, Cristina Senent, Jose N Sancho-Chust, Francisco J Ribas-Solís, Auxiliadora Romero, José M Benítez, Jesús Sanchez-Gómez, Rafael Golpe, Ana Santiago-Recuerda, Silvia Gomez, Mónica Bengoa
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an effective form of treatment in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) who have concomitant severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, there is a paucity of evidence on the efficacy of NIV in patients with OHS without severe OSA. We performed a multicentre randomised clinical trial to determine the comparative efficacy of NIV versus lifestyle modification (control group) using daytime arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) as the main outcome measure...
October 2016: Thorax
Robert Wilson, Timothy Aksamit, Stefano Aliberti, Anthony De Soyza, J Stuart Elborn, Pieter Goeminne, Adam T Hill, Rosario Menendez, Eva Polverino
BACKGROUND: An Expert Forum was held at the 2014 European Respiratory Society International Congress to address issues involved in the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB). Multiple studies have found that chronic P. aeruginosa infection is associated with more severe disease and higher morbidity and mortality. OVERVIEW: Participants discussed appropriate management of P. aeruginosa infection at three stages: 1) first isolation, including eradication protocols; 2) during exacerbations; and 3) during chronic infection, including long-term antibiotic therapy to reduce the severity of symptoms and frequency of exacerbations...
August 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
Improving the outcome of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an ongoing challenge, even in the setting of significant advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and critical care. Recognition of the underlying involvement of inflammation-mediated organ dysfunction as a determinant of adverse outcomes in CAP has aroused intense interest in the protective potential of adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapies in CAP, particularly the role of corticosteroids (CS). This is the primary topic of the current review which is focused on an evaluation of the latest meta-analyses encompassing both recent and earlier clinical trials, with particular emphasis on the stringent meta-analysis undertaken by Siemieniuk and colleagues (Ann Intern Med 2015;163:519-528)...
March 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Fritz Horak, Daniel Doberer, Ernst Eber, Elisabeth Horak, Wolfgang Pohl, Josef Riedler, Zsolt Szépfalusi, Felix Wantke, Angela Zacharasiewicz, Michael Studnicka
This statement was written by a group of pulmonologists and pediatric pulmonologists belonging to the corresponding professional associations ÖGP (Austrian Society for Pulmonology) and ÖGKJ (Austrian Society for pediatric and adolescent medicine) to provide a concise overview of the latest updates in the 2015 GINA Guidelines and to include aspects that are specific to Austria.
August 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Asli Gorek Dilektasli, Janos Porszasz, Richard Casaburi, William W Stringer, Surya P Bhatt, Youngju Pak, Harry B Rossiter, George Washko, Peter J Castaldi, Raul San Jose Estepar, James E Hansen
RATIONALE: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease both smaller and larger airways are affected. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) mainly reflects large airways obstruction, while the later fraction of forced exhalation reflects reduction in terminal expiratory flow. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between spirometric ratios, including the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 3 and 6 seconds (FEV3/FEV6), and small airway measures and gas trapping in quantitative chest computed tomography (CT), and clinical outcomes in the COPDGene cohort...
July 21, 2016: Chest
Jessica Rademacher, Tobias Welte
BACKGROUND: Radiologically evident bronchiectasis is seen in 30% to 50% of patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As COPD is now becoming more common around the world, bronchiectasis is as well. METHODS: We review pertinent articles published before May 2011 that were retrieved by a selective PubMed search. RESULTS: The principles of treatment of bronchiectasis in patients who do not have cystic fibrosis ("non-CF bronchiectasis") are derived from the treatment of other diseases: secretolytic and anti-infectious treatment are given as in cystic fibrosis, while anti-obstructive treatment is given as in COPD...
December 2011: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Thomas F Patterson, George R Thompson, David W Denning, Jay A Fishman, Susan Hadley, Raoul Herbrecht, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Kieren A Marr, Vicki A Morrison, M Hong Nguyen, Brahm H Segal, William J Steinbach, David A Stevens, Thomas J Walsh, John R Wingard, Jo-Anne H Young, John E Bennett
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.
August 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ian D Pavord, Paul W Jones, Pierre-Régis Burgel, Klaus F Rabe
Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are defined as sustained worsening of a patient's condition beyond normal day-to-day variations that is acute in onset, and that may also require a change in medication and/or hospitalization. Exacerbations have a significant and prolonged impact on health status and outcomes, and negative effects on pulmonary function. A significant proportion of exacerbations are unreported and therefore left untreated, leading to a poorer prognosis than those treated...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Barret Rush, Paul Hertz, Alexandra Bond, Robert McDermid, Leo Anthony Celi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of palliative care (PC) in patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on home oxygen hospitalized for an exacerbation METHODS: Retrospective nationwide cohort analysis utilising the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). All patients >18 years of age with a diagnosis of COPD on home oxygen admitted for an exacerbation were included. RESULTS: 55,208,382 hospitalizations from the 2006-2012 NIS samples were examined...
July 4, 2016: Chest
George A Margaritopoulos, Sergio Harari, Antonella Caminati, Katerina M Antoniou
For many years, cigarette smoking has been considered as the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Recently, however, it has also been associated with the development of diffuse interstitial lung diseases. In the latest classification of the major idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP), the term smoking-related IIP has been introduced, including two entities, namely desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) and respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD)...
January 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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