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Pneumology

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29 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286407/pulmonary-hypertension-associated-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-current-and-future-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Scott D Collum, Javier Amione-Guerra, Ana S Cruz-Solbes, Amara DiFrancesco, Adriana M Hernandez, Ankit Hanmandlu, Keith Youker, Ashrith Guha, Harry Karmouty-Quintana
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is commonly present in patients with chronic lung diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) or Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) where it is classified as Group III PH by the World Health Organization (WHO). PH has been identified to be present in as much as 40% of patients with COPD or IPF and it is considered as one of the principal predictors of mortality in patients with COPD or IPF. However, despite the prevalence and fatal consequences of PH in the setting of chronic lung diseases, there are limited therapies available for patients with Group III PH, with lung transplantation remaining as the most viable option...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298398/management-of-copd-exacerbations-a%C3%A2-european-respiratory-society-american-thoracic-society-guideline
#2
Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Marc Miravitlles, John R Hurst, Peter M A Calverley, Richard K Albert, Antonio Anzueto, Gerard J Criner, Alberto Papi, Klaus F Rabe, David Rigau, Pawel Sliwinski, Thomy Tonia, Jørgen Vestbo, Kevin C Wilson, Jerry A Krishnan
This document provides clinical recommendations for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations.Comprehensive evidence syntheses, including meta-analyses, were performed to summarise all available evidence relevant to the Task Force's questions. The evidence was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach and the results were summarised in evidence profiles. The evidence syntheses were discussed and recommendations formulated by a multidisciplinary Task Force of COPD experts...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245857/the-diagnostic-value-of-the-bronchoalveolar-lavage-in-interstitial-lung-diseases
#3
Boubacar Efared, G Ebang-Atsame, Sani Rabiou, Abdoulsalam S Diarra, Layla Tahiri, Nawal Hammas, Mohamed Smahi, Bouchra Amara, Mohamed C Benjelloun, Mounia Serraj, Laila Chbani, Hinde El Fatemi
OBJECTIVE: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a diagnostic tool often used during the management of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, its diagnostic value in discrimination between entities comprising the very heterogenous group of ILD, is still a controversial issue. The objective of our study is to assess the diagnostic value of BAL in the management of ILD, by comparing the cytological findings in BAL fluid among the different diseases of this group. METHODS: It was a retrospective, observational study of 151 patients between January 2012 and December 2015...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233512/tuberculosis-associated-with-hiv-infection
#4
Jeffrey A Tornheim, Kelly E Dooley
Tuberculosis (TB) has recently surpassed HIV as the primary infectious disease killer worldwide, but the two diseases continue to display lethal synergy. The burden of TB is disproportionately borne by people living with HIV, particularly where HIV and poverty coexist. The impact of these diseases on one another is bidirectional, with HIV increasing risk of TB infection and disease progression and TB slowing CD4 recovery and increasing progression to AIDS and death among the HIV infected. Both antiretroviral therapy (ART) and latent TB infection (LTBI) treatment mitigate the impact of coinfection, and ART is now recommended for HIV-infected patients independent of CD4 count...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235886/the-pearl-score-predicts-90-day-readmission-or-death-after-hospitalisation-for-acute-exacerbation-of-copd
#5
C Echevarria, J Steer, K Heslop-Marshall, S C Stenton, P M Hickey, R Hughes, M Wijesinghe, R N Harrison, N Steen, A J Simpson, G J Gibson, S C Bourke
BACKGROUND: One in three patients hospitalised due to acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) is readmitted within 90 days. No tool has been developed specifically in this population to predict readmission or death. Clinicians are unable to identify patients at particular risk, yet resources to prevent readmission are allocated based on clinical judgement. METHODS: In participating hospitals, consecutive admissions of patients with AECOPD were identified by screening wards and reviewing coding records...
February 24, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240562/guidelines-for-management-of-incidental-pulmonary-nodules-detected-on-ct-images-from-the-fleischner-society-2017
#6
Heber MacMahon, David P Naidich, Jin Mo Goo, Kyung Soo Lee, Ann N C Leung, John R Mayo, Atul C Mehta, Yoshiharu Ohno, Charles A Powell, Mathias Prokop, Geoffrey D Rubin, Cornelia M Schaefer-Prokop, William D Travis, Paul E Van Schil, Alexander A Bankier
The Fleischner Society Guidelines for management of solid nodules were published in 2005, and separate guidelines for subsolid nodules were issued in 2013. Since then, new information has become available; therefore, the guidelines have been revised to reflect current thinking on nodule management. The revised guidelines incorporate several substantive changes that reflect current thinking on the management of small nodules. The minimum threshold size for routine follow-up has been increased, and recommended follow-up intervals are now given as a range rather than as a precise time period to give radiologists, clinicians, and patients greater discretion to accommodate individual risk factors and preferences...
February 23, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128970/global-strategy-for-the-diagnosis-management-and-prevention-of-chronic-obstructive-lung-disease-2017-report-gold-executive-summary
#7
Claus F Vogelmeier, Gerard J Criner, Fernando J Martinez, Antonio Anzueto, Peter J Barnes, Jean Bourbeau, Bartolome R Celli, Rongchang Chen, Marc Decramer, Leonardo M Fabbri, Peter Frith, David M G Halpin, M Victorina López Varela, Masaharu Nishimura, Nicolas Roche, Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin, Don D Sin, Dave Singh, Robert Stockley, Jørgen Vestbo, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Alvar Agustí
This Executive Summary of the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2017 report focuses primarily on the revised and novel parts of the document. The most significant changes include: (1) the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been refined to separate the spirometric assessment from symptom evaluation. ABCD groups are now proposed to be derived exclusively from patient symptoms and their history of exacerbations; (2) for each of the groups A to D, escalation strategies for pharmacologic treatments are proposed; (3) the concept of deescalation of therapy is introduced in the treatment assessment scheme; (4) nonpharmacologic therapies are comprehensively presented; and (5) the importance of comorbid conditions in managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is reviewed...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932390/official-american-thoracic-society-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-clinical-practice-guidelines-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-adults-and-children
#8
David M Lewinsohn, Michael K Leonard, Philip A LoBue, David L Cohn, Charles L Daley, Ed Desmond, Joseph Keane, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Ann M Loeffler, Gerald H Mazurek, Richard J O'Brien, Madhukar Pai, Luca Richeldi, Max Salfinger, Thomas M Shinnick, Timothy R Sterling, David M Warshauer, Gail L Woods
BACKGROUND: Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. METHODS: A task force supported by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America searched, selected, and synthesized relevant evidence...
January 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941638/bronchiectasis-in-the-last-five-years-new-developments
#9
REVIEW
Jun Keng Khoo, Victoria Venning, Conroy Wong, Lata Jayaram
Bronchiectasis, a chronic lung disease characterised by cough and purulent sputum, recurrent infections, and airway damage, is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. To date, treatment options have been limited to physiotherapy to clear sputum and antibiotics to treat acute infections. Over the last decade, there has been significant progress in understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and microbiology of this disorder. Over the last five years, methods of assessing severity have been developed, the role of macrolide antibiotic therapy in reducing exacerbations cemented, and inhaled antibiotic therapies show promise in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499981/tuberculous-pleural-effusion
#10
REVIEW
Kan Zhai, Yong Lu, Huan-Zhong Shi
Although it is curable, tuberculosis remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions on a global scale, especially in developing countries. Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. TPE usually presents as an acute illness with fever, cough and pleuritic chest pain. The pleural fluid is an exudate that usually has predominantly lymphocytes. The gold standard for the diagnosis of TPE remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli, Although adenosine deaminase and interferon-γ in pleural fluid have been documented to be useful tests for the diagnosis of TPE...
July 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826957/development-of-new-therapies-for-severe-asthma
#11
REVIEW
Merritt L Fajt, Sally E Wenzel
Persistent asthma has long been treated with inhaled corticosteroids (CSs), as the mainstay of therapy. However, their efficacy in patients with more severe disease is limited, which led to the incorporation of poor response to ICSs (and thereby use of high doses of ICS) into recent definitions of severe asthma. Several studies have suggested that severe asthma might consist of several different phenotypes, each with ongoing symptoms and health care utilization, despite the use of high doses of ICS, usually in combination with a second or third controller...
January 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836958/european-respiratory-society-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-of-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia
#12
Jane S Lucas, Angelo Barbato, Samuel A Collins, Myrofora Goutaki, Laura Behan, Daan Caudri, Sharon Dell, Ernst Eber, Estelle Escudier, Robert A Hirst, Claire Hogg, Mark Jorissen, Philipp Latzin, Marie Legendre, Margaret W Leigh, Fabio Midulla, Kim G Nielsen, Heymut Omran, Jean-Francois Papon, Petr Pohunek, Beatrice Redfern, David Rigau, Bernhard Rindlisbacher, Francesca Santamaria, Amelia Shoemark, Deborah Snijders, Thomy Tonia, Andrea Titieni, Woolf T Walker, Claudius Werner, Andrew Bush, Claudia E Kuehni
The diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia is often confirmed with standard, albeit complex and expensive, tests. In many cases, however, the diagnosis remains difficult despite the array of sophisticated diagnostic tests. There is no "gold standard" reference test. Hence, a Task Force supported by the European Respiratory Society has developed this guideline to provide evidence-based recommendations on diagnostic testing, especially in light of new developments in such tests, and the need for robust diagnoses of patients who might enter randomised controlled trials of treatments...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803156/effectiveness-of-chemical-pleurodesis-in-spontaneous-pneumothorax-recurrence-prevention-a-systematic-review
#13
R J Hallifax, A Yousuf, H E Jones, J P Corcoran, I Psallidas, N M Rahman
OBJECTIVES: Spontaneous pneumothorax is a common pathology. International guidelines suggest pleurodesis for non-resolving air leak or recurrence prevention at second occurrence. This study comprehensively reviews the existing literature regarding chemical pleurodesis efficacy. DESIGN: We systematically reviewed the literature to identify relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs), case-control studies and case series. We described the findings of these studies and tabulated relative recurrence rates or ORs (in studies with control groups)...
November 1, 2016: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581827/cough-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Mirjam J G van Manen, Surinder S Birring, Carlo Vancheri, Vincent Cottin, Elisabetta A Renzoni, Anne-Marie Russell, Marlies S Wijsenbeek
Many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) complain of chronic refractory cough. Chronic cough is a distressing and disabling symptom with a major impact on quality of life. During recent years, progress has been made in gaining insight into the pathogenesis of cough in IPF, which is most probably "multifactorial" and influenced by mechanical, biochemical and neurosensory changes, with an important role for comorbidities as well. Clinical trials of cough treatment in IPF are emerging, and cough is increasingly included as a secondary end-point in trials assessing new compounds for IPF...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694410/corticosteroids-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-critical-view-of-the-evidence
#15
EDITORIAL
James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628085/malignant-pleural-effusions
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26917610/serum-periostin-in-obstructive-airways-disease
#17
James Fingleton, Irene Braithwaite, Justin Travers, Darren Bowles, Rianne Strik, Rob Siebers, Cecile Holweg, John Matthews, Mark Weatherall, Richard Beasley
Serum periostin is a potential biomarker of response to therapies that target type 2 inflammation in asthma. The objectives of this study were to describe: 1) the distribution of serum periostin levels in adults with symptomatic airflow obstruction; 2) its relationship with other variables, including type 2 biomarkers; and 3) the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on periostin levels.Serum periostin levels were measured in a cross-sectional study exploring phenotypes and biomarkers in 386 patients aged 18-75 years who reported wheeze and breathlessness in the past 12 months...
May 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521738/therapeutic-approach-to-adult-fibrotic-lung-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Ayodeji Adegunsoye, Mary E Strek
Among the interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and fibrotic connective tissue disease-related ILD are associated with a worse prognosis, with death occurring as a result of both respiratory failure and serious associated comorbidities. The recent development and approval of the antifibrotic agents nintedanib and pirfenidone, both of which reduced the rate of decline in lung function in patients with IPF in clinical trials, offer hope that it may be possible to alter the increased mortality associated with IPF...
December 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516382/official-american-thoracic-society-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guidelines-treatment-of-drug-susceptible-tuberculosis
#19
Payam Nahid, Susan E Dorman, Narges Alipanah, Pennan M Barry, Jan L Brozek, Adithya Cattamanchi, Lelia H Chaisson, Richard E Chaisson, Charles L Daley, Malgosia Grzemska, Julie M Higashi, Christine S Ho, Philip C Hopewell, Salmaan A Keshavjee, Christian Lienhardt, Richard Menzies, Cynthia Merrifield, Masahiro Narita, Rick O'Brien, Charles A Peloquin, Ann Raftery, Jussi Saukkonen, H Simon Schaaf, Giovanni Sotgiu, Jeffrey R Starke, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Andrew Vernon
The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored the development of this guideline for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which is also endorsed by the European Respiratory Society and the US National Tuberculosis Controllers Association. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Canadian Thoracic Society, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, and the World Health Organization also participated in the development of the guideline...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406165/non-invasive-ventilation-in-obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome-without-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#20
Juan F Masa, Jaime Corral, Candela Caballero, Emilia Barrot, Joaquin Terán-Santos, Maria L Alonso-Álvarez, Teresa Gomez-Garcia, Mónica González, Soledad López-Martín, Pilar De Lucas, José M Marin, Sergi Marti, Trinidad Díaz-Cambriles, Eusebi Chiner, Carlos Egea, Erika Miranda, Babak Mokhlesi, Estefanía García-Ledesma, M-Ángeles Sánchez-Quiroga, Estrella Ordax, Nicolás González-Mangado, Maria F Troncoso, Maria-Ángeles Martinez-Martinez, Olga Cantalejo, Elena Ojeda, Santiago J Carrizo, Begoña Gallego, Mercedes Pallero, M Antonia Ramón, Josefa Díaz-de-Atauri, Jesús Muñoz-Méndez, Cristina Senent, Jose N Sancho-Chust, Francisco J Ribas-Solís, Auxiliadora Romero, José M Benítez, Jesús Sanchez-Gómez, Rafael Golpe, Ana Santiago-Recuerda, Silvia Gomez, Mónica Bengoa
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an effective form of treatment in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) who have concomitant severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, there is a paucity of evidence on the efficacy of NIV in patients with OHS without severe OSA. We performed a multicentre randomised clinical trial to determine the comparative efficacy of NIV versus lifestyle modification (control group) using daytime arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) as the main outcome measure...
October 2016: Thorax
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