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James J DiNicolantonio, Sean C Lucan, James H O'Keefe
Dietary guidelines continue to recommend restricting intake of saturated fats. This recommendation follows largely from the observation that saturated fats can raise levels of total serum cholesterol (TC), thereby putatively increasing the risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). However, TC is only modestly associated with CHD, and more important than the total level of cholesterol in the blood may be the number and size of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that contain it. As for saturated fats, these fats are a diverse class of compounds; different fats may have different effects on LDL and on broader CHD risk based on the specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) they contain...
March 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Prasenjit Manna, Sushil K Jain
Obesity is gaining acceptance as a serious primary health burden that impairs the quality of life because of its associated complications, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, asthma, sleep disorders, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and infertility. It is a complex metabolic disorder with a multifactorial origin. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role as the critical factor linking obesity with its associated complications. Obesity per se can induce systemic oxidative stress through various biochemical mechanisms, such as superoxide generation from NADPH oxidases, oxidative phosphorylation, glyceraldehyde auto-oxidation, protein kinase C activation, and polyol and hexosamine pathways...
December 2015: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Somashekar G Krishna, Alice Hinton, Veeral Oza, Phil A Hart, Eric Swei, Samer El-Dika, Peter P Stanich, Hisham Hussan, Cheng Zhang, Darwin L Conwell
OBJECTIVES: Morbid obesity may adversely affect the clinical course of acute pancreatitis (AP); however, there are no inpatient, population-based studies assessing the impact of morbid obesity on AP-related outcomes. We sought to evaluate the impact of morbid obesity on AP-related clinical outcomes and health-care utilization. METHODS: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2007-2011) was reviewed to identify all adult inpatients (≥18 years) with a principal diagnosis of AP...
November 2015: American Journal of Gastroenterology
J M Rijks, J Plat, R P Mensink, E Dorenbos, W A Buurman, A C E Vreugdenhil
CONTEXT: Despite stabilization of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence, there is a shift toward more severe degrees of obesity, which results in an increasing prevalence of children with morbid obesity. Prior studies demonstrated that lifestyle modification without ongoing treatment has only a modest and not sustainable effect in children with morbid obesity. This suggests that a chronic care model is necessary for long-term effects on weight management and health. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an ongoing lifestyle intervention in children with morbid obesity in comparison with children with overweight and obesity...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Heather J Leidy, Peter M Clifton, Arne Astrup, Thomas P Wycherley, Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Stephen C Woods, Richard D Mattes
Over the past 20 y, higher-protein diets have been touted as a successful strategy to prevent or treat obesity through improvements in body weight management. These improvements are thought to be due, in part, to modulations in energy metabolism, appetite, and energy intake. Recent evidence also supports higher-protein diets for improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. This article provides an overview of the literature that explores the mechanisms of action after acute protein consumption and the clinical health outcomes after consumption of long-term, higher-protein diets...
April 29, 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Antonio Mirijello, Cristina D'Angelo, Amerigo Iaconelli, Esmeralda Capristo, Anna Ferrulli, Laura Leccesi, Anthony Cossari, Raffaele Landolfi, Giovanni Addolorato
BACKGROUND: Morbidly obesity is characterized by physical and psychological comorbidities which are associated with reduced quality of life. Bariatric surgery has been linked to a reduction of psychopathology other than to a reduction of weight and improvement in physical functioning. Aim of the present study was to compare psychological features of two groups of morbidly obese patients, before and after bariatric surgery, assessing social phobia and quality of life. METHODS: A total of 46 morbidly obese patients were enrolled in the study...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
A Boido, V Ceriani, F Cetta, F Lombardi, A E Pontiroli
AIMS: Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Weight loss improves several risk factors for CV diseases, but anti-obesity medications and lifestyle interventions have failed to modify primary CV endpoints. This paper reviews bariatric surgery in prevention of CV diseases and CV mortality, and analyzes the possible mechanisms involved. DATA SYNTHESIS: In morbidly obese patients bariatric surgery results in stable weight loss and in long-term reduction in the prevalence and incidence of obesity-related comorbidities; controlled trials have shown superiority of bariatric surgery over medical therapy in inducing significant weight loss and improvement of CV risk factors...
May 2015: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Jean Marc Chevallier, Gustavo A Arman, Martino Guenzi, Cedric Rau, Mathieu Bruzzi, Nathan Beaupel, Frank Zinzindohoué, Anne Berger
BACKGROUND: A short-term randomized controlled trial shows that the one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) is a safe and effective alternative to the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the OAGB at our University Hospital between 2006 and 2013. PATIENTS: One thousand patients have undergone an OAGB. Data were collected on all consecutive patients. The mean follow-up period was 31 months (SD, 26.3; range, 12-82...
June 2015: Obesity Surgery
Federico Marchesi, Giuseppina De Sario, Valeria Reggiani, Francesco Tartamella, Andrea Giammaresi, Stefano Cecchini, Renato Costi, Giovanni Guareschi, Gianfranco Beltrami, Chiara De Panfilis, Elisabetta Dall'Aglio, Matteo Ricco', Valerio Brambilla
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the pandemic explosion of obesity has led to the definition of a pre-eminent therapeutic role for bariatric surgery, confining physical activity to a success parameter of surgery rather than a primary prevention measure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role for aerobic physical activity (road running) in strengthening the metabolic and psychosocial effects of bariatric surgery. METHODS: Ten patients who underwent gastric bypass for morbid obesity were submitted to an intensive program of road running training, aimed at completing a 10...
July 2015: Obesity Surgery
Heidi Immonen, Jarna C Hannukainen, Patricia Iozzo, Minna Soinio, Paulina Salminen, Virva Saunavaara, Ronald Borra, Riitta Parkkola, Andrea Mari, Terho Lehtimäki, Tam Pham, Jukka Laine, Vesa Kärjä, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Lassi Nelimarkka, Pirjo Nuutila
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bariatric surgery reduces weight and improves glucose metabolism in obese patients. We investigated the effects of bariatric surgery on hepatic insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Twenty-three morbidly obese (nine diabetic and fourteen non-diabetic) patients and ten healthy, lean control subjects were studied using positron emission tomography to assess hepatic glucose uptake in the fasting state and during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed to measure liver fat content and magnetic resonance imaging to obtain liver volume...
February 2014: Journal of Hepatology
Marisa Censani, Rushika Conroy, Liyong Deng, Sharon E Oberfield, Donald J McMahon, Jeffrey L Zitsman, Rudy L Leibel, Wendy K Chung, Ilene Fennoy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) mutations in morbidly obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery and compare weight loss outcomes in patients with and without mutations. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 135 adolescent patients evaluated for bariatric surgery were screened for MC4R mutations; 56 had 12-month postoperative data available for analysis. RESULTS: MC4R mutations were detected in five of the 135 patients (3...
January 2014: Obesity
Jetro J Tuulari, Henry K Karlsson, Jussi Hirvonen, Jarna C Hannukainen, Marco Bucci, Mika Helmiö, Jari Ovaska, Minna Soinio, Paulina Salminen, Nina Savisto, Lauri Nummenmaa, Pirjo Nuutila
Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with altered brain glucose metabolism. Here, we studied brain glucose metabolism in 22 morbidly obese patients before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Seven healthy subjects served as control subjects. Brain glucose metabolism was measured twice per imaging session: with and without insulin stimulation (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose scanning. We found that during fasting, brain glucose metabolism was not different between groups...
August 2013: Diabetes
Robert H Lustig
What do the Atkins Diet and the traditional Japanese diet have in common? The Atkins Diet is low in carbohydrate and usually high in fat; the Japanese diet is high in carbohydrate and usually low in fat. Yet both work to promote weight loss. One commonality of both diets is that they both eliminate the monosaccharide fructose. Sucrose (table sugar) and its synthetic sister high fructose corn syrup consist of 2 molecules, glucose and fructose. Glucose is the molecule that when polymerized forms starch, which has a high glycemic index, generates an insulin response, and is not particularly sweet...
March 1, 2013: Advances in Nutrition
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