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DIABETES MELLITUS 2016

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29 papers 25 to 100 followers
By EFRAIN PAEZ Internal Medicine since 1988. Interested in all aspects of Medicine.
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849359/basal-insulin-4-0-updating-your-clinical-practice-with-ultralong-acting-insulins-and-insulin-combination-therapy
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039172/toward-defining-the-threshold-between-low-and-high-glucose-variability-in-diabetes
#2
Louis Monnier, Claude Colette, Anne Wojtusciszyn, Sylvie Dejager, Eric Renard, Nicolas Molinari, David R Owens
OBJECTIVE: To define the threshold for excess glucose variability (GV), one of the main features of dysglycemia in diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 376 persons with diabetes investigated at the University Hospital of Montpellier (Montpellier, France) underwent continuous glucose monitoring. Participants with type 2 diabetes were divided into several groups-groups 1, 2a, 2b, and 3 (n = 82, 28, 65, and 79, respectively)-according to treatment: 1) diet and/or insulin sensitizers alone; 2) oral therapy including an insulinotropic agent, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (group 2a), or sulfonylureas (group 2b); or 3) insulin...
December 30, 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941935/renal-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-considerations-of-sglt2-inhibition
#3
REVIEW
Ralph A DeFronzo, Luke Norton, Muhammad Abdul-Ghani
The kidney has a pivotal role in maintaining glucose homeostasis by using glucose as a metabolic fuel, by producing glucose through gluconeogenesis, and by reabsorbing all filtered glucose through the sodium-glucose cotransporters SGLT1 and SGLT2 located in the proximal tubule. In patients with diabetes, the maximum glucose reabsorptive capacity (TmG) of the kidney, as well as the threshold for glucose spillage into the urine, are elevated, contributing to the pathogenesis of hyperglycaemia. By reducing the TmG and, more importantly, the threshold of glucosuria, SGLT2 inhibitors enhance glucose excretion, leading to a reduction in fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels and improvements in both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870655/blood-pressure-treatment-levels-and-choice-of-antihypertensive-agent-in-people-with-diabetes-mellitus-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#4
Mattias Brunström, Mats Eliasson, Peter M Nilsson, Bo Carlberg
OBJECTIVE: Multiple systematic reviews address the effect of antihypertensive treatment in people with diabetes. Here, we summarize current systematic reviews concerning antihypertensive treatment effect at different blood pressure (BP) levels, and relative treatment effect of different antihypertensive agents. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, BIOSIS, DARE and CDSR during years 2005-2016. Eligibility criteria, number of trials and participants, outcomes analysed, statistical methods used for data synthesis, and principal results were extracted for each review...
March 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884312/management-of-patients-with-diabetes-and-ckd-%C3%A2-conclusions-from-a-kidney-disease-improving-global-outcomes-kdigo-controversies-conference
#5
Vlado Perkovic, Rajiv Agarwal, Paola Fioretto, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Adeera Levin, Merlin C Thomas, Christoph Wanner, Bertram L Kasiske, David C Wheeler, Per-Henrik Groop
The prevalence of diabetes around the world has reached epidemic proportions and is projected to increase to 642 million people by 2040. Diabetes is already the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in most developed countries, and the growth in the number of people with ESKD around the world parallels the increase in diabetes. The presence of kidney disease is associated with a markedly elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and death in people with diabetes. Several new therapies and novel investigational agents targeting chronic kidney disease patients with diabetes are now under development...
December 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660695/update-on-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
REVIEW
Juan José Marín-Peñalver, Iciar Martín-Timón, Cristina Sevillano-Collantes, Francisco Javier Del Cañizo-Gómez
To achieve good metabolic control in diabetes and keep long term, a combination of changes in lifestyle and pharmacological treatment is necessary. Achieving near-normal glycated hemoglobin significantly, decreases risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications. At present there are different treatments, both oral and injectable, available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment algorithms designed to reduce the development or progression of the complications of diabetes emphasizes the need for good glycaemic control...
September 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749986/insulin-secretagogues-for-prevention-or-delay-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-associated-complications-in-persons-at-increased-risk-for-the-development-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
REVIEW
Bianca Hemmingsen, David Peick Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether insulin secretagogues (sulphonylureas and meglitinide analogues) are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin secretagogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732058/vascular-biology-of-glucagon-receptor-superfamily-peptides-mechanistic-and-clinical-relevance
#8
Gemma Pujadas, Daniel J Drucker
Regulatory peptides produced in islet and gut endocrine cells, including glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), GLP-2, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, exert actions with considerable metabolic importance and translational relevance. Although the clinical development of GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors has fostered research into how these hormones act on the normal and diseased heart, less is known about the actions of these peptides on blood vessels. Here we review the effects of these peptide hormones on normal blood vessels and highlight their vascular actions in the setting of experimental and clinical vascular injury...
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712137/an-update-on-the-management-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-era-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#9
REVIEW
Mazen S Bader, Mark Loeb, Annie A Brooks
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae, are common causes of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs. These organisms can acquire genes that encode for multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC- β -lactamase, and carbapenemases. The assessment of suspected UTI includes identification of characteristic symptoms or signs, urinalysis, dipstick or microscopic tests, and urine culture if indicated...
March 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642960/sy-07-2-should-diabetes-mellitus-remain-a-compelling-indication-for-use-of-renin-angiotensin-system-blockers
#10
Franz Messerli
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes with use of renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers compared with other antihypertensive agents in people with diabetes. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials databases for randomized trials of RAS blockers versus other antihypertensive agents in people with diabetes mellitus. Outcomes were death, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, heart failure, revascularization, and end stage renal disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702625/metformin-beyond-an-insulin-sensitizer-targeting-heart-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#11
REVIEW
Xin Yang, Zhipeng Xu, Chunlan Zhang, Zixin Cai, Jingjing Zhang
Metformin, a biguanide derivate, is known as the first-line antidiabetic agent for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment. It reduces insulin resistance and decreases blood glucose concentration by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and suppressing hepatic glucose production with improved peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity. As an insulin sensitizer, metformin takes pleiotropic actions and exerts protective effects on multiple organs mainly in insulin-targeted tissues such as liver, muscle, and adipose tissues...
October 1, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483064/effects-of-liraglutide-on-clinical-stability-among-patients-with-advanced-heart-failure-and-reduced-ejection-fraction-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kenneth B Margulies, Adrian F Hernandez, Margaret M Redfield, Michael M Givertz, Guilherme H Oliveira, Robert Cole, Douglas L Mann, David J Whellan, Michael S Kiernan, G Michael Felker, Steven E McNulty, Kevin J Anstrom, Monica R Shah, Eugene Braunwald, Thomas P Cappola
IMPORTANCE: Abnormal cardiac metabolism contributes to the pathophysiology of advanced heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists have shown cardioprotective effects in early clinical studies of patients with advanced heart failure, irrespective of type 2 diabetes status. OBJECTIVE: To test whether therapy with a GLP-1 agonist improves clinical stability following hospitalization for acute heart failure...
August 2, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579542/metformin-nonglycemic-effects-and-potential-novel-indications
#13
Abeer Anabtawi, John M Miles
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because of its apparent robust effects in reducing cardiovascular risk. This review examines the current literature regarding the nonglycemic effects and potential novel indications for metformin. METHODS: Review of the literature, with a focus on metformin use in Stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD-3) and heart failure (HF). RESULTS: The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study suggests that metformin reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, and more recent retrospective studies have shown an association between metformin use and a reduction in stroke, atrial fibrillation and all-cause mortality...
August 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662816/associations-of-vitamin-d-with-insulin-resistance-obesity-type-2-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Sunil J Wimalawansa
The aim of this study is to determine the relationships of vitamin D with diabetes, insulin resistance obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Intra cellular vitamin D receptors and the 1-α hydroxylase enzyme are distributed ubiquitously in all tissues suggesting a multitude of functions of vitamin D. It plays an indirect but an important role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as reflected by its association with type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome, insulin secretion, insulin resistance, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and obesity...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541294/sglt2-inhibitors-benefit-risk-balance
#15
REVIEW
André J Scheen
Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion. They have been evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with diet/exercise, metformin, dual oral therapy or insulin. Three agents are available in Europe and the USA (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin) and others are commercialized in Japan or in clinical development. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glycated hemoglobin, with a minimal risk of hypoglycemia. They exert favorable effects beyond glucose control with consistent body weight, blood pressure, and serum uric acid reductions...
October 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26696680/standards-of-medical-care-in-diabetes-2016-summary-of-revisions
#16
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492964/medication-induced-diabetes-mellitus
#17
REVIEW
David R Repaske
Epidemiological studies and case reports have demonstrated an increased rate of development of diabetes mellitus consequent to taking diverse types of medication. This review explores this evidence linking these medications and development of diabetes and presents postulated mechanisms by which the medications might cause diabetes. Some medications are associated with a reduction in insulin production, some with reduction in insulin sensitivity, and some appear to be associated with both reduction in insulin production and insulin sensitivity...
September 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359293/use-of-metformin-in-clinical-endocrinology
#18
J Michael Gonzalez-Campoy
CKD = chronic kidney disease DM = diabetes mellitus eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate FDA = Food & Drug Administration.
August 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214299/metformin-non-glycemic-effects-and-potential-novel-indications
#19
Abeer Anabtawi, John M Miles
Metformin is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because of its apparent robust effects in reducing cardiovascular risk. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study suggests that metformin reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, and more recent retrospective studies have shown an association between metformin and a reduction in stroke, atrial fibrillation and all-cause mortality. The mechanism(s) explaining these putative benefits are not clear but may involve decreased energy intake (with attendant weight loss), improvement in lipids, and lowering of blood pressure; a review of selected literature suggests that metformin lowers blood pressure when it is elevated, but not when it is normal...
May 23, 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27305209/images-in-clinical-medicine-acanthosis-nigricans-and-insulin-resistance
#20
Marcio W Lauria, Mario J Saad
A 27-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of acanthosis nigricans (Panels A and B), hirsutism, and amenorrhea. Laboratory tests revealed elevated levels of insulin (>200 μU per milliliter [1389 pmol per liter]) (normal range, 2 to 13 μU per milliliter [14 to 90 pmol per liter]) and..
June 16, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
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