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DIABETES MELLITUS 2016

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23 papers 0 to 25 followers
By EFRAIN PAEZ Internal Medicine since 1988. Interested in all aspects of Medicine.
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749986/insulin-secretagogues-for-prevention-or-delay-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-associated-complications-in-persons-at-increased-risk-for-the-development-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
REVIEW
Bianca Hemmingsen, David Peick Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether insulin secretagogues (sulphonylureas and meglitinide analogues) are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin secretagogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732058/vascular-biology-of-glucagon-receptor-superfamily-peptides-complexity-controversy-and-clinical-relevance
#2
Gemma Pujadas, Daniel J Drucker
Regulatory peptides produced in islet and gut endocrine cells, including glucagon, GLP-1, GLP-2, and GIP exert actions with considerable metabolic importance and translational relevance. Although the clinical development of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) inhibitors has fostered research into how these hormones act on the normal and diseased heart, less is known about the actions of these peptides on blood vessels. Here we review the effects of these peptide hormones on normal blood vessels, and highlight their vascular actions in the setting of experimental and clinical vascular injury...
October 12, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712137/an-update-on-the-management-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-era-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#3
Mazen S Bader, Mark Loeb, Annie A Brooks
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae, are common causes of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs. These organisms can acquire genes that encode for multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC- β -lactamase, and carbapenemases. The assessment of suspected UTI includes identification of characteristic symptoms or signs, urinalysis, dipstick or microscopic tests, and urine culture if indicated...
October 7, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642960/sy-07-2-should-diabetes-mellitus-remain-a-compelling-indication-for-use-of-renin-angiotensin-system-blockers
#4
Franz Messerli
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes with use of renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers compared with other antihypertensive agents in people with diabetes. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials databases for randomized trials of RAS blockers versus other antihypertensive agents in people with diabetes mellitus. Outcomes were death, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, heart failure, revascularization, and end stage renal disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702625/metformin-beyond-an-insulin-sensitizer-targeting-heart-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#5
Xin Yang, Zhipeng Xu, Chunlan Zhang, Zixin Cai, Jingjing Zhang
Metformin, a biguanide derivate, is known as the first-line antidiabetic agent for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment. It reduces insulin resistance and decreases blood glucose concentration by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and suppressing hepatic glucose production with improved peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity. As an insulin sensitizer, metformin takes pleiotropic actions and exerts protective effects on multiple organs mainly in insulin-targeted tissues such as liver, muscle, and adipose tissues...
October 1, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483064/effects-of-liraglutide-on-clinical-stability-among-patients-with-advanced-heart-failure-and-reduced-ejection-fraction-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kenneth B Margulies, Adrian F Hernandez, Margaret M Redfield, Michael M Givertz, Guilherme H Oliveira, Robert Cole, Douglas L Mann, David J Whellan, Michael S Kiernan, G Michael Felker, Steven E McNulty, Kevin J Anstrom, Monica R Shah, Eugene Braunwald, Thomas P Cappola
IMPORTANCE: Abnormal cardiac metabolism contributes to the pathophysiology of advanced heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists have shown cardioprotective effects in early clinical studies of patients with advanced heart failure, irrespective of type 2 diabetes status. OBJECTIVE: To test whether therapy with a GLP-1 agonist improves clinical stability following hospitalization for acute heart failure...
August 2, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579542/metformin-nonglycemic-effects-and-potential-novel-indications
#7
Abeer Anabtawi, John M Miles
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because of its apparent robust effects in reducing cardiovascular risk. This review examines the current literature regarding the nonglycemic effects and potential novel indications for metformin. METHODS: Review of the literature, with a focus on metformin use in Stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD-3) and heart failure (HF). RESULTS: The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study suggests that metformin reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, and more recent retrospective studies have shown an association between metformin use and a reduction in stroke, atrial fibrillation and all-cause mortality...
August 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662816/associations-of-vitamin-d-with-insulin-resistance-obesity-type-2-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome
#8
Sunil J Wimalawansa
The aim of this study is to determine the relationships of vitamin D with diabetes, insulin resistance obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Intra cellular vitamin D receptors and the 1-α hydroxylase enzyme are distributed ubiquitously in all tissues suggesting a multitude of functions of vitamin D. It plays an indirect but an important role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as reflected by its association with type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome, insulin secretion, insulin resistance, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and obesity...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541294/sglt2-inhibitors-benefit-risk-balance
#9
REVIEW
André J Scheen
Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion. They have been evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with diet/exercise, metformin, dual oral therapy or insulin. Three agents are available in Europe and the USA (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin) and others are commercialized in Japan or in clinical development. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glycated hemoglobin, with a minimal risk of hypoglycemia. They exert favorable effects beyond glucose control with consistent body weight, blood pressure, and serum uric acid reductions...
October 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26696680/standards-of-medical-care-in-diabetes-2016-summary-of-revisions
#10
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492964/medication-induced-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
David R Repaske
Epidemiological studies and case reports have demonstrated an increased rate of development of diabetes mellitus consequent to taking diverse types of medication. This review explores this evidence linking these medications and development of diabetes and presents postulated mechanisms by which the medications might cause diabetes. Some medications are associated with a reduction in insulin production, some with reduction in insulin sensitivity, and some appear to be associated with both reduction in insulin production and insulin sensitivity...
September 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359293/use-of-metformin-in-clinical-endocrinology
#12
J Michael Gonzalez-Campoy
CKD = chronic kidney disease DM = diabetes mellitus eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate FDA = Food & Drug Administration.
August 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214299/metformin-non-glycemic-effects-and-potential-novel-indications
#13
Abeer Anabtawi, John M Miles
Metformin is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because of its apparent robust effects in reducing cardiovascular risk. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study suggests that metformin reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, and more recent retrospective studies have shown an association between metformin and a reduction in stroke, atrial fibrillation and all-cause mortality. The mechanism(s) explaining these putative benefits are not clear but may involve decreased energy intake (with attendant weight loss), improvement in lipids, and lowering of blood pressure; a review of selected literature suggests that metformin lowers blood pressure when it is elevated, but not when it is normal...
May 23, 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27305209/images-in-clinical-medicine-acanthosis-nigricans-and-insulin-resistance
#14
Marcio W Lauria, Mario J Saad
A 27-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of acanthosis nigricans (Panels A and B), hirsutism, and amenorrhea. Laboratory tests revealed elevated levels of insulin (>200 μU per milliliter [1389 pmol per liter]) (normal range, 2 to 13 μU per milliliter [14 to 90 pmol per liter]) and..
June 16, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299675/empagliflozin-and-progression-of-kidney-disease-in-type-2-diabetes
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Christoph Wanner, Silvio E Inzucchi, John M Lachin, David Fitchett, Maximilian von Eynatten, Michaela Mattheus, Odd Erik Johansen, Hans J Woerle, Uli C Broedl, Bernard Zinman
BACKGROUND: Diabetes confers an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular and renal events. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events. We wanted to determine the long-term renal effects of empagliflozin, an analysis that was a prespecified component of the secondary microvascular outcome of that trial. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and an estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 30 ml per minute per 1...
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296042/empagliflozin-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-an-overview-of-phase-3-clinical-trials
#16
Matthew J Levine
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have a unique mechanism of action leading to excretion of glucose in the urine and subsequent lowering of plasma glucose. This mechanism is independent of β-cell function; thus, these agents are effective treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at theoretically any disease stage. This class should not confer an additional risk of hypoglycemia (unless combined with insulin or an insulin secretagogue) and has the potential to be combined with other classes of glucose-lowering agents...
June 13, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295427/liraglutide-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Steven P Marso, Gilbert H Daniels, Kirstine Brown-Frandsen, Peter Kristensen, Johannes F E Mann, Michael A Nauck, Steven E Nissen, Stuart Pocock, Neil R Poulter, Lasse S Ravn, William M Steinberg, Mette Stockner, Bernard Zinman, Richard M Bergenstal, John B Buse
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular effect of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, when added to standard care in patients with type 2 diabetes, remains unknown. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk to receive liraglutide or placebo. The primary composite outcome in the time-to-event analysis was the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke...
July 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295278/mortality-in-individuals-aged-80-and-older-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-relation-to-glycosylated-hemoglobin-blood-pressure-and-total-cholesterol
#18
Shota Hamada, Martin C Gulliford
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether low glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and total cholesterol (TC) are associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality in very old individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Primary care database in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 80 and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N = 25,966). MEASUREMENTS: Associations between baseline HbA1c, BP, and TC and all-cause mortality were evaluated in Cox proportional hazards models...
July 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291485/lactic-acidosis-current-treatments-and-future-directions
#19
Jeffrey A Kraut, Nicolaos E Madias
Mortality rates associated with severe lactic acidosis (blood pH<7.2) due to sepsis or low-flow states are high. Eliminating the triggering conditions remains the most effective therapy. Although recommended by some, administration of sodium bicarbonate does not improve cardiovascular function or reduce mortality. This failure has been attributed to both reduction in serum calcium concentration and generation of excess carbon dioxide with intracellular acidification. In animal studies, hyperventilation and infusion of calcium during sodium bicarbonate administration improves cardiovascular function, suggesting that this approach could allow expression of the positive aspects of sodium bicarbonate...
September 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27210264/empa-reg-and-other-cardiovascular-outcome-trials-of-glucose-lowering-agents-implications-for-future-treatment-strategies-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Guntram Schernthaner, Marie Helene Schernthaner-Reiter, Gerit-Holger Schernthaner
During the last decade, the armamentarium for glucose-lowering drugs has increased enormously by the development of DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors, allowing individualization of antidiabetic therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Some combinations can now be used without an increased risk for severe hypoglycemia and weight gain. Following a request of the US Food and Drug Administration, many large cardiovascular (CV) outcome studies have been performed in patients with longstanding disease and established CV disease...
June 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
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