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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866966/complications-of-vascular-access-superior-vena-cava%C3%A2-syndrome
#1
Anil K Agarwal, Hooman Khabiri, Nabil J Haddad
Stenosis or occlusion of central veins in hemodialysis patients is common, especially with previous intravascular catheter or device use. Superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction is emerging as a frequent chronic complication of central vein cannulation that not only jeopardizes the availability of vascular access for hemodialysis, but can become a life-threatening emergency. Clinical features of SVC syndrome can be subtle or dramatic, including facial swelling and shortness of breath, which require expeditious attention and intervention...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784812/the-protective-role-of-vitamin-d-on-the-heart-and-the-kidney
#2
REVIEW
Walter Manucha, Luis I Juncos
For a long time, vitamin D was regarded as an essential component for the maintenance of appropriate calcium metabolism. Indeed, the calcium-related functions were broadly studied and validated in numerous clinical and epidemiologic studies. All of these vitamin D effects are mediated by a specific receptor. Remarkably, recent investigations show that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) also affects autoimmunity and by these means, the course of neoplasias and tissue inflammation. Moreover, the VDR regulates genes that affect cellular activity including cell differentiation and apoptosis and, by these means, angiogenesis...
October 26, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21791915/the-role-of-statins-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
Rigas G Kalaitzidis, Moses S Elisaf
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality not only amongst the general population, but also in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Persons with CKD are much more likely to die of CVD than to experience kidney failure. Clinical trials have demonstrated that statins are gaining widespread acceptance as a principal therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis and CVD. In CKD patients the role of statins in primary prevention of CVD remains to be clarified...
2011: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853353/update-on-sepsis-associated-acute-kidney-injury-emerging-targeted-therapies
#4
REVIEW
James F Doyle, Lui G Forni
Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (SA-AKI) is an independent predictor of increased mortality and morbidity. It is essential that further advances in the treatment of sepsis should prioritize targeted therapies in SA-AKI in order to improve these bleak outcomes. As yet, a unique therapy that effectively reduces the impact of acute kidney injury has not been demonstrated. However, the emergence of novel targeted therapies, perhaps in combination, has the possibility of significantly reducing the long-term sequelae of an episode of SA-AKI...
2016: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873228/hypertension-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Seyed Mehrdad Hamrahian, Bonita Falkner
Hypertension, a global public health problem, is currently the leading factor in the global burden of disease. It is the major modifiable risk factor for heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is both a common cause of hypertension and CKD is also a complication of uncontrolled hypertension. The interaction between hypertension and CKD is complex and increases the risk of adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes. This is particularly significant in the setting of resistant hypertension commonly seen in patient with CKD...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887750/chronic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Evi V Nagler, Rachael L Morton, Philip Masson
The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2), or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence...
November 22, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881247/pain-management-in-ckd-a-guide-for-nephrology-providers
#7
Holly M Koncicki, Mark Unruh, Jane O Schell
Although pain is one of the most commonly experienced symptoms by patients with chronic kidney disease, it is under-recognized, the severity is underestimated, and the treatment is inadequate. Pain management is one of the general primary palliative care competencies for medical providers. This review provides nephrology providers with basic skills for pain management. These skills include recognition of types of pain (nociceptive and neuropathic) syndromes and appropriate history-taking skills. Through this history, providers can identify clinical circumstances in which specialist referral is beneficial, including those who are at high risk for addiction, at risk for adverse effects to medications, and those with complicated care needs such as patients with a limited prognosis...
November 20, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815588/the-new-sepsis-consensus-definitions-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#8
EDITORIAL
Charles L Sprung, Roland M H Schein, Robert A Balk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695357/update-on-current-management-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-patients-with-hiv-infection
#9
Nina E Diana, Saraladevi Naicker
The prevalence of HIV-associated chronic kidney disease (CKD) varies geographically and depends on the definition of CKD used, ranging from 4.7% to 38% globally. The incidence, however, has decreased with the use of effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). A wide variety of histological patterns are seen in HIV-associated kidney diseases that include glomerular and tubulointerstitial pathology. In resource-rich settings, there has been a plateau in the incidence of end-stage renal disease secondary to HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN)...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753685/mineralocorticoid-antagonists-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
Omar Al Dhaybi, George Bakris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current evidence showcases the pathologic effects of excess aldosterone in promoting glomerular and tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis through various pathways. The place for mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression is unclear. RECENT FINDINGS: MRAs further reduce albuminuria and blood pressure in CKD patients when used in conjunction with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blockers...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821390/update-on-lupus-nephritis
#11
Salem Almaani, Alexa Meara, Brad H Rovin
SLE is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the kidneys in about 50% of patients. Lupus nephritis is a major risk factor for overall morbidity and mortality in SLE, and despite potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapies still ends in CKD or ESRD for too many patients. This review highlights recent updates in our understanding of disease epidemiology, genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment in an effort to establish a framework for lupus nephritis management that is patient-specific and oriented toward maintaining long-term kidney function in patients with lupus...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826732/renin-angiotensin-ii-aldosterone-system-blockers-and-time-to-renal-replacement-therapy-in-children-with-ckd
#12
Alison G Abraham, Aisha Betoko, Jeffrey J Fadrowski, Christopher Pierce, Susan L Furth, Bradley A Warady, Alvaro Muñoz
BACKGROUND: Clinical care decisions to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a growing child must often be made without the benefit of evidence from clinical trials. We used observational data from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort to estimate the effectiveness of renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system blockade (RAAS) to delay renal replacement therapy (RRT) in children with CKD. METHODS: A total of 851 participants (median age: 11 years, median glomerular filtration rate [GFR]: 52 ml/min/1...
November 8, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27153921/small-molecule-inhibitors-of-pendrin-potentiate-the-diuretic-action-of-furosemide
#13
Onur Cil, Peter M Haggie, Puay-Wah Phuan, Joseph-Anthony Tan, Alan S Verkman
Pendrin is a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger expressed in type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells in the distal nephron, where it facilitates Cl(-) absorption and is involved in Na(+) absorption and acid-base balance. Pendrin-knockout mice show no fluid-electrolyte abnormalities under baseline conditions, although mice with double knockout of pendrin and the Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) manifest profound salt wasting. Thus, pendrin may attenuate diuretic-induced salt loss, but this function remains unconfirmed...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827308/biomarkers-for-the-early-detection-and-prognosis-of-acute-kidney-injury
#14
Rakesh Malhotra, Edward D Siew
AKI is an increasingly common disorder that is strongly linked to short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. Despite a growing heterogeneity in its causes, providing a timely and certain diagnosis of AKI remains challenging. In this review, we summarize the evolution of AKI biomarker studies over the past few years, focusing on two major areas of investigation: the early detection and prognosis of AKI. We highlight some of the lessons learned in conducting AKI biomarker studies, including ongoing attempts to address the limitations of creatinine as a reference standard and the recent shift toward evaluating the prognostic potential of these markers...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273493/adverse-effects-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Maria Fusaro, Sandro Giannini, Maurizio Gallieni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831511/diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention-of-hemodialysis-emergencies
#16
REVIEW
Manish Saha, Michael Allon
Given the high comorbidity in patients on hemodialysis and the complexity of the dialysis treatment, it is remarkable how rarely a life-threatening complication occurs during dialysis. The low rate of dialysis emergencies can be attributed to numerous safety features in modern dialysis machines; meticulous treatment and testing of the dialysate solution to prevent exposure to trace elements, toxins, and pathogens; adherence to detailed treatment protocols; and extensive training of dialysis staff to handle medical emergencies...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807144/clinical-practice-guideline-on-management-of-older-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-stage-3b-or-higher-egfr-45-ml-min-1-73-m2
#17
Ken Farrington, Adrian Covic, Fillipo Aucella, Naomi Clyne, Leen de Vos, Andrew Findlay, Denis Fouque, Tomasz Grodzicki, Osasuyi Iyasere, Kitty J Jager, Hanneke Joosten, Juan Florencio Macias, Andrew Mooney, Dorothea Nitsch, Marijke Stryckers, Maarten Taal, James Tattersall, Dieneke Van Asselt, Nele Van den Noortgate, Ionut Nistor, Wim Van Biesen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814935/diuretic-resistance
#18
Ewout J Hoorn, David H Ellison
Diuretic resistance is defined as a failure to achieve the therapeutically desired reduction in edema despite a full dose of diuretic. The causes of diuretic resistance include poor adherence to drug therapy or dietary sodium restriction, pharmacokinetic issues, and compensatory increases in sodium reabsorption in nephron sites that are not blocked by the diuretic. To illustrate the pathophysiology and management of diuretic resistance, we describe a patient with nephrotic syndrome. This patient presented with generalized pitting edema and weight gain despite the use of oral loop diuretics...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670788/acute-kidney-injury-2016-diagnosis-and-diagnostic-workup
#19
Marlies Ostermann, Michael Joannidis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with serious short- and long-term complications. Early diagnosis and identification of the underlying aetiology are essential to guide management. In this review, we outline the current definition of AKI and the potential pitfalls, and summarise the existing and future tools to investigate AKI in critically ill patients.
September 27, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423462/qsofa-does-not-replace-sirs-in-the-definition-of-sepsis
#20
Jean-Louis Vincent, Greg S Martin, Mitchell M Levy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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