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14 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095900/post-stroke-dementia-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Milija D Mijajlović, Aleksandra Pavlović, Michael Brainin, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Terence J Quinn, Hege B Ihle-Hansen, Dirk M Hermann, Einor Ben Assayag, Edo Richard, Alexander Thiel, Efrat Kliper, Yong-Il Shin, Yun-Hee Kim, SeongHye Choi, San Jung, Yeong-Bae Lee, Osman Sinanović, Deborah A Levine, Ilana Schlesinger, Gillian Mead, Vuk Milošević, Didier Leys, Guri Hagberg, Marie Helene Ursin, Yvonne Teuschl, Semyon Prokopenko, Elena Mozheyko, Anna Bezdenezhnykh, Karl Matz, Vuk Aleksić, DafinFior Muresanu, Amos D Korczyn, Natan M Bornstein
Post-stroke dementia (PSD) or post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) may affect up to one third of stroke survivors. Various definitions of PSCI and PSD have been described. We propose PSD as a label for any dementia following stroke in temporal relation. Various tools are available to screen and assess cognition, with few PSD-specific instruments. Choice will depend on purpose of assessment, with differing instruments needed for brief screening (e.g., Montreal Cognitive Assessment) or diagnostic formulation (e...
January 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099083/update-on-alzheimer-s-disease-therapy-and-prevention-strategies
#2
W Vallen Graham, Alessandra Bonito-Oliva, Thomas P Sakmar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the primary cause of age-related dementia. Effective strategies to prevent and treat AD remain elusive despite major efforts to understand its basic biology and clinical pathophysiology. Significant investments in therapeutic drug discovery programs over the past two decades have yielded some important insights but no blockbuster drugs to alter the course of disease. Because significant memory loss and cognitive decline are associated with neuron death and loss of gray matter, especially in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, some focus in drug development has shifted to early prevention of cellular pathology...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122469/dexmedetomidine-for-refractory-intracranial-hypertension
#3
Kendra J Schomer, Christian M Sebat, Jason Y Adams, Jeremiah J Duby, Kiarash Shahlaie, Erin L Louie
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a selective α2 adrenergic agonist that is commonly used for sedation in the intensive care unit (ICU). The role of DEX for adjunctive treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension is poorly defined. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of DEX on the need for rescue therapy (ie, hyperosmolar boluses, extraventricular drain [EVD] drainages) for refractory intracranial hypertension. Secondary objectives included the number of intracranial pressure (ICP) excursions, bradycardic, hypotensive, and compromised cerebral perfusion pressure episodes...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054130/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Marlene Fischer, Erich Schmutzhard
The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological disorder of (sub)acute onset characterized by varied neurological symptoms, which may include headache, impaired visual acuity or visual field deficits, disorders of consciousness, confusion, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. In a majority of patients the clinical presentation includes elevated arterial blood pressure up to hypertensive emergencies. Neuroimaging, in particular magnetic resonance imaging, frequently shows a distinctive parieto-occipital pattern with a symmetric distribution of changes reflecting vasogenic edema...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886201/cryptococcal-meningitis-epidemiology-immunology-diagnosis-and-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Joseph N Jarvis, Anil A Panackal, Matthew C Fisher, Síle F Molloy, Angela Loyse, Thomas S Harrison
HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852691/medical-management-of-intracerebral-haemorrhage
#6
REVIEW
Floris H B M Schreuder, Shoichiro Sato, Catharina J M Klijn, Craig S Anderson
The global burden of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is enormous. Developing evidence-based management strategies for ICH has been hampered by its diverse aetiology, high case fatality and variable cooperative organisation of medical and surgical care. Progress is being made through the conduct of collaborative multicentre studies with the large sample sizes necessary to evaluate therapies with realistically modest treatment effects. This narrative review describes the major consequences of ICH and provides evidence-based recommendations to support decision-making in medical management...
January 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775721/the-brain-adapts-to-dishonesty
#7
Neil Garrett, Stephanie C Lazzaro, Dan Ariely, Tali Sharot
Dishonesty is an integral part of our social world, influencing domains ranging from finance and politics to personal relationships. Anecdotally, digressions from a moral code are often described as a series of small breaches that grow over time. Here we provide empirical evidence for a gradual escalation of self-serving dishonesty and reveal a neural mechanism supporting it. Behaviorally, we show that the extent to which participants engage in self-serving dishonesty increases with repetition. Using functional MRI, we show that signal reduction in the amygdala is sensitive to the history of dishonest behavior, consistent with adaptation...
December 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26141299/headache-management-pharmacological-approaches
#8
REVIEW
Alex J Sinclair, Aaron Sturrock, Brendan Davies, Manjit Matharu
Headache is one of the most common conditions presenting to the neurology clinic, yet a significant proportion of these patients are unsatisfied by their clinic experience. Headache can be extremely disabling; effective treatment is not only essential for patients but is rewarding for the physician. In this first of two parts review of headache, we provide an overview of headache management, emerging therapeutic strategies and an accessible interpretation of clinical guidelines to assist the busy neurologist...
December 2015: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640182/the-critical-care-management-of-spontaneous-intracranial-hemorrhage-a-contemporary-review
#9
REVIEW
Airton Leonardo de Oliveira Manoel, Alberto Goffi, Fernando Godinho Zampieri, David Turkel-Parrella, Abhijit Duggal, Thomas R Marotta, R Loch Macdonald, Simon Abrahamson
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), defined as nontraumatic bleeding into the brain parenchyma, is the second most common subtype of stroke, with 5.3 million cases and over 3 million deaths reported worldwide in 2010. Case fatality is extremely high (reaching approximately 60 % at 1 year post event). Only 20 % of patients who survive are independent within 6 months. Factors such as chronic hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and anticoagulation are commonly associated with ICH. Chronic arterial hypertension represents the major risk factor for bleeding...
September 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582897/poststroke-epilepsy-update-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Johan Zelano
Stroke is among the most common causes of epilepsy after middle age. Patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) differ in several respects from patients with other forms of structural-metabolic epilepsy; not least in age, age-related sensitivity to side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and specific drug-drug interaction issues related to secondary-stroke prophylaxis. Encouragingly, there has lately been remarkable activity in the study of PSE. Three developments in PSE research deserve particular focus. First, large prospective trials have established the incidence and risk factors of PSE in the setting of modern stroke care...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599026/is-a-neurologist-needed-to-diagnose-acute-stroke-in-the-emergency-department-too-many-cooks-might-spoil-the-broth
#11
Jagannadha Avasarala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358333/international-consensus-guidance-for-management-of-myasthenia-gravis-executive-summary
#12
REVIEW
Donald B Sanders, Gil I Wolfe, Michael Benatar, Amelia Evoli, Nils E Gilhus, Isabel Illa, Nancy Kuntz, Janice M Massey, Arthur Melms, Hiroyuki Murai, Michael Nicolle, Jacqueline Palace, David P Richman, Jan Verschuuren, Pushpa Narayanaswami
OBJECTIVE: To develop formal consensus-based guidance for the management of myasthenia gravis (MG). METHODS: In October 2013, the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America appointed a Task Force to develop treatment guidance for MG, and a panel of 15 international experts was convened. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness methodology was used to develop consensus guidance statements. Definitions were developed for goals of treatment, minimal manifestations, remission, ocular MG, impending crisis, crisis, and refractory MG...
July 26, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255267/epilepsy-antiepileptic-drugs-and-aggression-an-evidence-based-review
#13
REVIEW
Martin J Brodie, Frank Besag, Alan B Ettinger, Marco Mula, Gabriella Gobbi, Stefano Comai, Albert P Aldenkamp, Bernhard J Steinhoff
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment...
July 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26948435/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Hugh J Willison, Bart C Jacobs, Pieter A van Doorn
Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common and most severe acute paralytic neuropathy, with about 100,000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Under the umbrella term of Guillain-Barré syndrome are several recognisable variants with distinct clinical and pathological features. The severe, generalised manifestation of Guillain-Barré syndrome with respiratory failure affects 20-30% of cases. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange is the optimal management approach, alongside supportive care...
August 13, 2016: Lancet
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