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Enzo Errichetti, Giuseppe Stinco
Over the last few years, dermoscopy has been shown to be a useful tool in assisting the noninvasive diagnosis of various general dermatological disorders. In this article, we sought to provide an up-to-date practical overview on the use of dermoscopy in general dermatology by analysing the dermoscopic differential diagnosis of relatively common dermatological disorders grouped according to their clinical presentation, i.e. dermatoses presenting with erythematous-desquamative patches/plaques (plaque psoriasis, eczematous dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, mycosis fungoides and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus), papulosquamous/papulokeratotic dermatoses (lichen planus, pityriasis rosea, papulosquamous sarcoidosis, guttate psoriasis, pityriasis lichenoides chronica, classical pityriasis rubra pilaris, porokeratosis, lymphomatoid papulosis, papulosquamous chronic GVHD, parakeratosis variegata, Grover disease, Darier disease and BRAF-inhibitor-induced acantholytic dyskeratosis), facial inflammatory skin diseases (rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, lupus vulgaris, granuloma faciale and demodicidosis), acquired keratodermas (chronic hand eczema, palmar psoriasis, keratoderma due to mycosis fungoides, keratoderma resulting from pityriasis rubra pilaris, tinea manuum, palmar lichen planus and aquagenic palmar keratoderma), sclero-atrophic dermatoses (necrobiosis lipoidica, morphea and cutaneous lichen sclerosus), hypopigmented macular diseases (extragenital guttate lichen sclerosus, achromic pityriasis versicolor, guttate vitiligo, idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis, progressive macular hypomelanosis and postinflammatory hypopigmentations), hyperpigmented maculopapular diseases (pityriasis versicolor, lichen planus pigmentosus, Gougerot-Carteaud syndrome, Dowling-Degos disease, erythema ab igne, macular amyloidosis, lichen amyloidosus, friction melanosis, terra firma-forme dermatosis, urticaria pigmentosa and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans), itchy papulonodular dermatoses (hypertrophic lichen planus, prurigo nodularis, nodular scabies and acquired perforating dermatosis), erythrodermas (due to psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, mycosis fungoides, pityriasis rubra pilaris and scabies), noninfectious balanitis (Zoon's plasma cell balanitis, psoriatic balanitis, seborrheic dermatitis and non-specific balanitis) and erythroplasia of Queyrat, inflammatory cicatricial alopecias (scalp discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia and folliculitis decalvans), nonscarring alopecias (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium) and scaling disorders of the scalp (tinea capitis, scalp psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis and pityriasis amiantacea)...
September 9, 2016: Dermatology and Therapy
Ibrahim Khansa, Bridget Harrison, Jeffrey E Janis
BACKGROUND: Scars represent the visible sequelae of trauma, injury, burn, or surgery. They may induce distress in the patient because of their aesthetically unpleasant appearance, especially if they are excessively raised, depressed, wide, or erythematous. They may also cause the patient symptoms of pain, tightness, and pruritus. Numerous products are marketed for scar prevention or improvement, but their efficacy is unclear. METHODS: A literature review of high-level studies analyzing methods to prevent or improve hypertrophic scars, keloids, and striae distensae was performed...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Magdalena Stepien, Veronique Chajes, Isabelle Romieu
Diet is an important modifiable risk factor for cancer. Adequate diet modification may play a key role in reducing the incidence of some cancers. A growing body of epidemiological evidence suggested links of some nutritional exposures with individual cancers. This review updates and summarises the existing data on diet related factors for cancer prevention, evaluated in 2007 by World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and identifies the areas where more research is needed. Mechanisms of action of nutrients are discussed...
April 2016: Salud Pública de México
Hans Wolff, Tobias W Fischer, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi
BACKGROUND: Hair loss is caused by a variety of hair growth disorders, each with its own pathogenetic mechanism. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent articles retrieved by a selective search in PubMed, on the current German and European guidelines, and on the authors' clinical and scientific experience. RESULTS: Excessive daily hair loss (effluvium) may be physiological, as in the postpartum state, or pathological, due for example to thyroid disturbances, drug effects, iron deficiency, or syphilis...
May 27, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Samer El Hayek, Lynn Bitar, Layal H Hamdar, Fadi G Mirza, Georges Daoud
Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common metabolic and reproductive disorders among women of reproductive age. Women suffering from PCOS present with a constellation of symptoms associated with menstrual dysfunction and androgen excess, which significantly impacts their quality of life. They may be at increased risk of multiple morbidities, including obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), infertility, cancer, and psychological disorders. This review summarizes what the literature has so far provided from guidelines to diagnosis of PCOS...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Abeer Anabtawi, John M Miles
Metformin is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because of its apparent robust effects in reducing cardiovascular risk. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study suggests that metformin reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, and more recent retrospective studies have shown an association between metformin and a reduction in stroke, atrial fibrillation and all-cause mortality. The mechanism(s) explaining these putative benefits are not clear but may involve decreased energy intake (with attendant weight loss), improvement in lipids, and lowering of blood pressure; a review of selected literature suggests that metformin lowers blood pressure when it is elevated, but not when it is normal...
May 23, 2016: Endocrine Practice
Francesco Drago, Giulia Ciccarese, Alfredo Rebora, Francesco Broccolo, Aurora Parodi
Pityriasis rosea (PR) is an acute, self-limiting exanthematous disease associated with the endogenous systemic reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and/or HHV-7. The disease typically begins with a single, erythematous plaque followed by a secondary eruption with lesions on the cleavage lines of the trunk (configuration of a 'Christmas tree'). The duration may vary from 2 weeks to a few months. Besides the typical presentation of PR, atypical forms have been described. The previous classifications of PR are mainly based on its atypical morphological features rather than on the pathogenetic mechanisms that underlie the different presentations of the disease...
2016: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
P Staubach, T Zuberbier, C Vestergaard, F Siebenhaar, E Toubi, G Sussman
This supplement reports proceedings of the second international Global Urticaria Forum, which was held in Berlin, Germany in November 2015. Despite the clear international guideline, there remain a number of controversies and challenges in the management of patients with chronic urticaria (CU). As a result of major advancements in urticaria over the past 4 years, the current EAACI/GA(2) LEN/EDF/WAO urticaria guideline treatment algorithm requires updating. Case studies from patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) [also called chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU)], chronic inducible urticaria (CIndU) or diseases and syndromes related to CU are useful in describing and exploring challenges in disease management...
July 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Benjamin M Perry, Anne Nguyen, Bryce L Desmond, Collin M Blattner, R Scott Thomas, R John Young
Eruptive melanocytic nevi have been reported in association with severe blistering diseases, renal transplantation, malignancy, AIDS, and medications. Eruptive nevi associated with medications have been reported with increasing frequency. Of particular interest are eruptive nevi associated with medications developing in association with biologic therapies, which we anticipate will continue to become more common as use of these medications continues to increase. We searched the databases PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature for associated medications using the terms "eruptive nevi," "melanocytic + medications," and "nevi + medications" for relevant articles...
May 27, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Masaru Honma, Takashi Shibuya, Shin Iinuma, Mari Kishibe, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Akemi Ishida-Yamamoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
Vincent J Lempers, Roger J Brüggemann
The Information Age has revolutionized the ability of healthcare professionals (HCPs) to oversee a substantial body of clinically relevant information literally at one's fingertips. In the field of clinical pharmacology, this may be particularly useful for managing drug-drug interactions (DDIs). A thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DDIs allows the HCP to predict such interactions and avoid those of greatest clinical significance. Specifically, successful treatment with antifungal agents is complicated by the high potential to interact with other concomitant medications...
February 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Stamatis Gregoriou, Ourania Efthymiou, Christina Stefanaki, Dimitris Rigopoulos
The main objective in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris is to control the disease, prevent relapses, and avoid adverse events associated with the prolonged use of steroids and immunosuppressive agents. Systemic corticosteroids remain the gold standard treatment for pemphigus vulgaris. Azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil are the first line of steroid-sparing treatment. Rituximab is extremely effective in recalcitrant pemphigus, when other treatments fail to control the disease. The European Dermatology Forum recommends tapering prednisolone by 25% every 2 weeks after the consolidation phase, and a 5 mg reduction every 4 weeks when the dose is reduced to <20 mg...
2015: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
C I Wootton, R P E Cartwright, P Manning, H C Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2014: British Journal of Dermatology
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