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Global Health

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By Ana Monteiro Md/phd student
Natalie R Lazar Adler, Brenda Govan, Meabh Cullinane, Marina Harper, Ben Adler, John D Boyce
Melioidosis, a febrile illness with disease states ranging from acute pneumonia or septicaemia to chronic abscesses, was first documented by Whitmore & Krishnaswami (1912). The causative agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, was subsequently identified as a motile, gram-negative bacillus, which is principally an environmental saprophyte. Melioidosis has become an increasingly important disease in endemic areas such as northern Thailand and Australia (Currie et al., 2000). This health burden, plus the classification of B...
November 2009: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Ella M Meumann, Allen C Cheng, Linda Ward, Bart J Currie
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is an important cause of community-acquired sepsis in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, and pneumonia is the most common presentation. Clinical manifestations range from acute fulminant sepsis to chronic infection mimicking tuberculosis. Pneumonia may be the primary presenting feature, or it can develop secondary to initial disease at a distant focus. METHODS: A prospective database of all melioidosis patients at Royal Darwin Hospital (Australia) between 1989 and 2010 was reviewed...
February 1, 2012: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ramar Perumal Samy, Bradley G Stiles, Gautam Sethi, Lina H K Lim
This review briefly summarizes the geographical distribution and clinical impact of melioidosis, especially in the tropics. Burkholderia pseudomallei (a gram-negative bacterium) is the major causative agent for melioidosis, which is prevalent in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Northern Australia. Melioidosis patients are increasingly being recognized in other parts of the world. The bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antimicrobial agents, but prolonged treatment, especially with combinations of antibiotics, may be effective...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Dianne P Stephens, Jane H Thomas, Linda M Ward, Bart J Currie
OBJECTIVES: Melioidosis is increasing in incidence with newly recognized foci of melioidosis in the Americas, Africa, and elsewhere. This review describes the demographics, management, and outcomes of a large cohort of critically ill patients with melioidosis. DESIGN: Data were extracted from two prospective databases-the Menzies School of Health Research Melioidosis Database (1989-2013) and the Royal Darwin Hospital ICU Melioidosis Database (2001-2013). SETTING AND PATIENTS: The Royal Darwin Hospital ICU is the only ICU in the tropical Top End of Northern Territory of Australia, an endemic area for melioidosis...
August 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Elise O'Connell, Lindsey B Rosen, Richard W LaRue, Valeria Fabre, Michael T Melia, Paul G Auwaerter, Steven M Holland, Sarah K Browne
INTRODUCTION: Anti-interferon-γ (IFNγ) autoantibodies have been associated with disseminated mycobacterial infections, mostly in patients from Southeast Asia. PURPOSE: We studied an American-born, Caucasian female with M. avium complex infection of the subglottic mucosa and brain for underlying etiologies of infection. METHODS: Plasma was screened for anticytokine autoantibodies using a Luminex-based approach. The ability of patient plasma to block IFNγ-induced STAT1 phosphorylation in normal blood cells was evaluated by flow cytometry with intracellular staining...
November 2014: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Liwang Cui, Sungano Mharakurwa, Daouda Ndiaye, Pradipsinh K Rathod, Philip J Rosenthal
Antimalarial drugs are key tools for the control and elimination of malaria. Recent decreases in the global malaria burden are likely due, in part, to the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies. Therefore, the emergence and potential spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites in southeast Asia and changes in sensitivities to artemisinin partner drugs have raised concerns. In recognition of this urgent threat, the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMRs) are closely monitoring antimalarial drug efficacy and studying the mechanisms underlying drug resistance...
September 2015: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Kevin S Griffith, Linda S Lewis, Sonja Mali, Monica E Parise
CONTEXT: Many US clinicians and laboratory personnel are unfamiliar with the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. OBJECTIVES: To examine the evidence base for management of uncomplicated and severe malaria and to provide clinicians with practical recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria in the United States. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Systematic MEDLINE search from 1966 to 2006 using the search term malaria (with the subheadings congenital, diagnosis, drug therapy, epidemiology, and therapy)...
May 23, 2007: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Sonja A Rasmussen, Denise J Jamieson, Margaret A Honein, Lyle R Petersen
Summary. The Zika virus has spread rapidly in the Americas since its first identification in Brazil in early 2015. Prenatal Zika virus infection has been linked to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, most notably microcephaly and other serious brain anomalies. To determine whether Zika virus..
May 19, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Arjen Dondorp, François Nosten, Kasia Stepniewska, Nick Day, Nick White
BACKGROUND: In the treatment of severe malaria, intravenous artesunate is more rapidly acting than intravenous quinine in terms of parasite clearance, is safer, and is simpler to administer, but whether it can reduce mortality is uncertain. METHODS: We did an open-label randomised controlled trial in patients admitted to hospital with severe falciparum malaria in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, and Myanmar. We assigned individuals intravenous artesunate 2.4 mg/kg bodyweight given as a bolus (n=730) at 0, 12, and 24 h, and then daily, or intravenous quinine (20 mg salt per kg loading dose infused over 4 h then 10 mg/kg infused over 2-8 h three times a day; n=731)...
August 27, 2005: Lancet
David G Lalloo, Delane Shingadia, David J Bell, Nicholas J Beeching, Christopher J M Whitty, Peter L Chiodini
1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other species of plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi...
June 2016: Journal of Infection
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