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Chiaki Iwamura, Nicolas Bouladoux, Yasmine Belkaid, Alan Sher, Dragana Jankovic
The microbiota are known to influence the generation of hematopoietic progenitors although the pathways underlying this process are still poorly understood. NOD1 and NOD2 are intracellular sensors for both Gram-positive and negative bacteria, but their role in steady-state hematopoiesis has never been characterized. We observed that stimulation with NOD1 or NOD2 ligand had no effect on the survival/proliferation of hematopoietic precursors. Nonetheless, NOD1 but not NOD2 ligand induced expression of multiple hematopoietic cytokines (IL-7, Flt3L, SCF, ThPO and IL-6) from bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in vitro...
October 31, 2016: Blood
Jeffrey L Carson, Simon J Stanworth, Nareg Roubinian, Dean A Fergusson, Darrell Triulzi, Carolyn Doree, Paul C Hebert
BACKGROUND: There is considerable uncertainty regarding the optimal haemoglobin threshold for the use of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in anaemic patients. Blood is a scarce resource, and in some countries, transfusions are less safe than others because of a lack of testing for viral pathogens. Therefore, reducing the number and volume of transfusions would benefit patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to compare 30-day mortality and other clinical outcomes in participants randomized to restrictive versus liberal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion thresholds (triggers) for all conditions...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nabin Khanal, R Gregory Bociek, Baojiang Chen, Julie M Vose, James O Armitage, Philip J Bierman, Lori J Maness, Matthew A Lunning, Krishna Gundabolu, Vijaya R Bhatt
The optimal management of hematologic malignancy-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with moderate-to-severe thrombocytopenia is unclear. This is a retrospective study of 128 adult patients with hematologic malignancies who were diagnosed with VTE. The outcome of patients with significant thrombocytopenia (≤50,000/µL) was compared with those without. Forty-seven patients (36.7%) had a platelet count ≤50,000/µL during a period of time of perceived need for new or continued anticoagulation...
November 2016: American Journal of Hematology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2016: Blood
Matthew S Davids, Haesook T Kim, Pavan Bachireddy, Caitlin Costello, Rebecca Liguori, Alexandra Savell, Alexander P Lukez, David Avigan, Yi-Bin Chen, Peter McSweeney, Nicole R LeBoeuf, Michael S Rooney, Michaela Bowden, Chensheng W Zhou, Scott R Granter, Jason L Hornick, Scott J Rodig, Masahiro Hirakawa, Mariano Severgnini, F Stephen Hodi, Catherine J Wu, Vincent T Ho, Corey Cutler, John Koreth, Edwin P Alyea, Joseph H Antin, Philippe Armand, Howard Streicher, Edward D Ball, Jerome Ritz, Asad Bashey, Robert J Soiffer
BACKGROUND: Loss of donor-mediated immune antitumor activity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) permits relapse of hematologic cancers. We hypothesized that immune checkpoint blockade established by targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 with ipilimumab could restore antitumor reactivity through a graft-versus-tumor effect. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1/1b multicenter, investigator-initiated study to determine the safety and efficacy of ipilimumab in patients with relapsed hematologic cancer after allogeneic HSCT...
July 14, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
I De Kouchkovsky, M Abdul-Hay
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults, with an incidence of over 20 000 cases per year in the United States alone. Large chromosomal translocations as well as mutations in the genes involved in hematopoietic proliferation and differentiation result in the accumulation of poorly differentiated myeloid cells. AML is a highly heterogeneous disease; although cases can be stratified into favorable, intermediate and adverse-risk groups based on their cytogenetic profile, prognosis within these categories varies widely...
July 1, 2016: Blood Cancer Journal
Yisu Gu, Lise J Estcourt, Carolyn Doree, Sally Hopewell, Paresh Vyas
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow failure disorders include a heterogenous group of disorders, of which myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), forms the largest subgroup. MDS is predominantly a disease of the elderly, with many elderly people managed conservatively with regular allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions to treat their anaemia. However, RBC transfusions are not without risk. Despite regular transfusions playing a central role in treating such patients, the optimal RBC transfusion strategy (restrictive versus liberal) is currently unclear...
October 5, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
T Barbui, J Thiele, H Gisslinger, G Finazzi, A M Vannucchi, A Tefferi
Clinical evidence supports the need of changing the diagnostic criteria of the 2008 updated WHO classification for polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). In JAK2-mutated patients who show characteristic bone marrow (BM) morphology, clinical studies demonstrated that a hemoglobin level of 16.5g/dL in men and 16.0g/dl for women or a hematocrit value of 49% in men and 48% in women are the optimal cut off levels for distinguishing JAK2-mutated ET from "masked/prodromal" PV...
June 11, 2016: Blood Reviews
Nancy L Bartlett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Alfred L Garfall, Marcela V Maus, Wei-Ting Hwang, Simon F Lacey, Yolanda D Mahnke, J Joseph Melenhorst, Zhaohui Zheng, Dan T Vogl, Adam D Cohen, Brendan M Weiss, Karen Dengel, Naseem D S Kerr, Adam Bagg, Bruce L Levine, Carl H June, Edward A Stadtmauer
A patient with refractory multiple myeloma received an infusion of CTL019 cells, a cellular therapy consisting of autologous T cells transduced with an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor, after myeloablative chemotherapy (melphalan, 140 mg per square meter of body-surface area) and autologous stem-cell transplantation. Four years earlier, autologous transplantation with a higher melphalan dose (200 mg per square meter) had induced only a partial, transient response. Autologous transplantation followed by treatment with CTL019 cells led to a complete response with no evidence of progression and no measurable serum or urine monoclonal protein at the most recent evaluation, 12 months after treatment...
September 10, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Susan M Graham, W Conrad Liles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2016: Blood
Sonia Nestorowa, Fiona K Hamey, Blanca Pijuan Sala, Evangelia Diamanti, Mairi Shepherd, Elisa Laurenti, Nicola K Wilson, David G Kent, Berthold Göttgens
Maintenance of the blood system requires balanced cell fate decisions by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Because cell fate choices are executed at the individual cell level, new single-cell profiling technologies offer exciting possibilities for mapping the dynamic molecular changes underlying HSPC differentiation. Here, we have used single-cell RNA sequencing to profile more than 1600 single HSPCs, and deep sequencing has enabled detection of an average of 6558 protein-coding genes per cell...
August 25, 2016: Blood
Peter Schellongowski, Thomas Staudinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Panagiotis Tsirigotis, Bipin N Savani, Arnon Nagler
The use of tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has revolutionize the field of cancer immunotherapy. Although treatment of malignant diseases with MAbs is promising, many patients fail to respond or relapse after an initial response. Both solid tumors and hematological malignancies develop mechanisms that enable them to evade the host immune system by usurping immune checkpoint pathways such as PD-1, PD-2, PDL-1, or PDL-2 (programmed cell death protein-1 or 2 and PD-Ligand 1 or 2), which are expressed on activated T cells and on T-regulatory, B cells, natural killers, monocytes, and dendritic cells...
September 2016: Annals of Medicine
S Vincent Rajkumar
Multiple myeloma accounts for approximately 10% of hematologic malignancies.The diagnosis requires ≥10% clonal bone marrow plasma cells or a biopsy proven plasmacytoma plus evidence of one or more multiple myeloma defining events (MDE): CRAB (hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, or lytic bone lesions) features felt related to the plasma cell disorder, bone marrow clonal plasmacytosis ≥60%, serum involved/uninvolved free light chain (FLC) ratio ≥100 (provided involved FLC is ≥100 mg/L), or >1 focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging...
July 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Mrinal M Patnaik, Ayalew Tefferi
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by overlapping features of myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms. Diagnosis is based on the presence of persistent (>3 months) peripheral blood monocytosis (>1 × 10(9) /L), along with bone marrow dysplasia. Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities occur in ∼20-30% of patients, while >90% have gene mutations. Mutations involving TET2 (∼60%), SRSF2 (∼50%), ASXL1 (∼40%), and RAS (∼30%) are frequent; with only ASXL1 mutations negatively impacting overall survival...
June 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Adam F Binder, Janice Gabrilove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Sean Whittaker, Richard Hoppe, H Miles Prince
Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma variant and is closely related to a rare leukemic variant, Sézary syndrome (SS). MF patients at risk of disease progression can now be identified and an international consortium has been established to address the prognostic relevance of specific biologic factors and define a prognostic index. There are a lack of randomized clinical trial data in MF/SS and evidence is based on a traditional "stage-based" approach; treatment of early-stage disease (IA-IIA) involves skin directed therapies which include topical corticosteroids, phototherapy (psoralen with UVA or UVB), topical chemotherapy, topical bexarotene, and radiotherapy including total skin electron beam therapy...
June 23, 2016: Blood
L Cicconi, F Lo-Coco
The management of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has considerably evolved during the past two decades. The advent of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its inclusion in combinatorial regimens with anthracycline chemotherapy has provided cure rates exceeding 80%; however, this widely adopted approach also conveys significant toxicity including severe myelosuppression and rare occurrence of secondary leukemias. More recently, the advent of arsenic trioxide (ATO) and its use in association with ATRA with or without chemotherapy has further improved patient outcome by allowing to minimize the intensity of chemotherapy, thus reducing serious toxicity while maintaining high anti-leukemic efficacy...
August 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Luis Mario Aguirre Palma, Hanna Flamme, Iris Gerke, Karl-Anton Kreuzer
In actuality, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) remains an incurable haematopoietic malignancy of high prevalence amongst elderly populations in the West. Malignant CLL cells characteristically accumulate in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen of CLL patients. There is evidence that CLL cells express Ang2 and Tie1, two central components of the Ang-Tie2 pro-angiogenic pathway. Central to blood vessel development and maintenance, at present it remains unclear how the Ang-Tie2 pathway modulates CLL pathophysiology...
April 2016: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
2016-06-24 09:04:07
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