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Diabetes

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69 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605603/efficacy-and-safety-of-degludec-versus-glargine-in-type-2-diabetes
#1
Steven P Marso, Darren K McGuire, Bernard Zinman, Neil R Poulter, Scott S Emerson, Thomas R Pieber, Richard E Pratley, Poul-Martin Haahr, Martin Lange, Kirstine Brown-Frandsen, Alan Moses, Simon Skibsted, Kajsa Kvist, John B Buse
Background Degludec is an ultralong-acting, once-daily basal insulin that is approved for use in adults, adolescents, and children with diabetes. Previous open-label studies have shown lower day-to-day variability in the glucose-lowering effect and lower rates of hypoglycemia among patients who received degludec than among those who received basal insulin glargine. However, data are lacking on the cardiovascular safety of degludec. Methods We randomly assigned 7637 patients with type 2 diabetes to receive either insulin degludec (3818 patients) or insulin glargine U100 (3819 patients) once daily between dinner and bedtime in a double-blind, treat-to-target, event-driven cardiovascular outcomes trial...
June 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606344/empa-reg-outcome-the-endocrinologist-s-point-of-view
#2
Leigh Perreault
For many years, it was widely accepted that control of plasma lipids and blood pressure could lower macrovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whereas the benefits of lowering plasma glucose were largely limited to improvements in microvascular complications. The Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients-Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) study demonstrated for the first time that a glucose-lowering agent, the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin, could reduce major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization for heart failure, and overall mortality when given in addition to standard care in patients with T2DM at high cardiovascular risk...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605608/canagliflozin-and-cardiovascular-and-renal-events-in-type-2-diabetes
#3
Bruce Neal, Vlado Perkovic, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Dick de Zeeuw, Greg Fulcher, Ngozi Erondu, Wayne Shaw, Gordon Law, Mehul Desai, David R Matthews
Background Canagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that reduces glycemia as well as blood pressure, body weight, and albuminuria in people with diabetes. We report the effects of treatment with canagliflozin on cardiovascular, renal, and safety outcomes. Methods The CANVAS Program integrated data from two trials involving a total of 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Participants in each trial were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin or placebo and were followed for a mean of 188...
June 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565889/renal-function-markers-and-metformin-eligibility
#4
Carlos Tavares Bello, Ricardo Castro Fonseca, Francisco Sousa Santos, João Sequeira Duarte, Jorge Azinheira, Carlos Vasconcelos
BACKGROUND: Metformin is the cornerstone of the pharmacological therapy for type 2 Diabetes (T2D). It belongs to the biguanide class of drugs and it improves hepatic insulin resistance and enhances GLP-1 and peptide YY secretion. Although being considered safe regarding hypoglycemic risk, renal dysfunction remains the main obstacle to its use due to the underlying risk of lactic acidosis. In the recent past many authors used creatinine values as the decisive marker when it came to choose between pharmacological agents in DM...
May 31, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514615/bariatric-surgery-or-intensive-medical-therapy-for-diabetes-after-5-years
#5
LETTER
David L Howard
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 376, Issue 20, Page 1995-1997, May 2017.
May 18, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451823/bilateral-lower-limb-edema-induced-by-rapid-improvement-of-glycemic-control-with-insulin-therapy-in-a-subject-with-poorly-controlled-type-2-diabetes
#6
LETTER
Yuki Kan, Takatoshi Anno, Fumiko Kawasaki, Maiko Takai, Ryo Shigemoto, Hideaki Kaneto, Kohei Kaku, Niro Okimoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453780/variation-in-maturity-onset-diabetes-of-the-young-genes-influence-response-to-interventions-for-diabetes-prevention
#7
Liana K Billings, Kathleen A Jablonski, A Sofia Warner, Yu-Chien Cheng, Jarred B McAteer, Laura Tipton, Alan R Shuldiner, David A Ehrmann, Alisa K Manning, Dana Dabelea, Paul W Franks, Steven E Kahn, Toni I Pollin, William C Knowler, David Altshuler, Jose C Florez
CONTEXT: Variation in genes that cause Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) has been associated with diabetes incidence and glycemic traits. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether genetic variation in MODY genes leads to differential responses to insulin-sensitizing interventions. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), involving 27 U...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364357/treatment-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-dka-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state-hhs-novel-advances-in-the-management-of-hyperglycemic-crises-uk-versus-usa
#8
REVIEW
Ketan K Dhatariya, Priyathama Vellanki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are diabetic emergencies that cause high morbidity and mortality. Their treatment differs in the UK and USA. This review delineates the differences in diagnosis and treatment between the two countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale studies to determine optimal management of DKA and HHS are lacking. The diagnosis of DKA is based on disease severity in the USA, which differs from the UK...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404659/early-glycemic-control-and-magnitude-of-hba1c-reduction-predict-cardiovascular-events-and-mortality-population-based-cohort-study-of-24-752-metformin-initiators
#9
Elisabeth Svensson, Lisbeth M Baggesen, Søren P Johnsen, Lars Pedersen, Helene Nørrelund, Esben S Buhl, Christiane L Haase, Reimar W Thomsen
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of early achieved HbA1c level and magnitude of HbA1c reduction with subsequent risk of cardiovascular events or death in patients with type 2 diabetes who initiate metformin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study including all metformin initiators with HbA1c tests in Northern Denmark, 2000-2012. Six months after metformin initiation, we classified patients by HbA1c achieved (<6.5% or higher) and by magnitude of HbA1c change from the pretreatment baseline...
June 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381450/management-of-endocrine-disease-pathogenesis-and-management-of-hypoglycemia
#10
REVIEW
Nana Esi Kittah, Adrian Vella
Glucose is the main substrate utilized by the brain and as such multiple regulatory mechanisms exist to maintain glucose concentrations. When these mechanisms fail or are defective, hypoglycemia ensues. Due to these robust mechanisms, hypoglycemia is uncommon and usually occurs in the setting of the treatment of diabetes using glucose-lowering agents such as sulfonylureas or insulin. The symptoms of hypoglycemia are non-specific and as such it is important to confirm hypoglycemia by establishing the presence of Whipple's triad before embarking on an evaluation for hypoglycemia...
July 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325800/is-hba1c-7-a-marker-of-poor-performance-in-individuals-65-years-old
#11
Zachary T Bloomgarden, Daniel Einhorn, Yehuda Handelsman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325795/the-pathophysiology-of-hyperglycemia-in-older-adults-clinical-considerations
#12
REVIEW
Pearl G Lee, Jeffrey B Halter
Nearly a quarter of older adults in the U.S. have type 2 diabetes, and this population is continuing to increase with the aging of the population. Older adults are at high risk for the development of type 2 diabetes due to the combined effects of genetic, lifestyle, and aging influences. The usual defects contributing to type 2 diabetes are further complicated by the natural physiological changes associated with aging as well as the comorbidities and functional impairments that are often present in older people...
April 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325798/management-of-inpatient-hyperglycemia-and-diabetes-in-older-adults
#13
Guillermo E Umpierrez, Francisco J Pasquel
Adults aged 65 years and older are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population, and their number is expected to double to 89 million between 2010 and 2050. The prevalence of diabetes in hospitalized adults aged 65-75 years and over 80 years of age has been estimated to be 20% and 40%, respectively. Similar to general populations, the presence of hyperglycemia and diabetes in elderly patients is associated with increased risk of hospital complications, longer length of stay, and increased mortality compared with subjects with normoglycemia...
April 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288484/pharmacologic-therapy-for-type-2-diabetes-synopsis-of-the-2017-american-diabetes-association-standards-of-medical-care-in-diabetes
#14
James J Chamberlain, William H Herman, Sandra Leal, Andrew S Rhinehart, Jay H Shubrook, Neil Skolnik, Rita Rastogi Kalyani
Description: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) annually updates the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested parties with evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with diabetes. Methods: For the 2017 Standards, the ADA Professional Practice Committee updated previous MEDLINE searches performed from 1 January 2016 to November 2016 to add, clarify, or revise recommendations based on new evidence...
April 18, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223503/mitochondrial-energy-deficiency-leads-to-hyperproliferation-of-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-and-enhanced-insulin-sensitivity
#15
Ryan M Morrow, Martin Picard, Olga Derbeneva, Jeremy Leipzig, Meagan J McManus, Gilles Gouspillou, Sébastien Barbat-Artigas, Carlos Dos Santos, Russell T Hepple, Deborah G Murdock, Douglas C Wallace
Diabetes is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in the presence of excess insulin. Glucose and fatty acids provide reducing equivalents to mitochondria to generate energy, and studies have reported mitochondrial dysfunction in type II diabetes patients. If mitochondrial dysfunction can cause diabetes, then we hypothesized that increased mitochondrial metabolism should render animals resistant to diabetes. This was confirmed in mice in which the heart-muscle-brain adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 1 (ANT1) was inactivated...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223445/diabetic-retinopathy-a-position-statement-by-the-american-diabetes-association
#16
REVIEW
Sharon D Solomon, Emily Chew, Elia J Duh, Lucia Sobrin, Jennifer K Sun, Brian L VanderBeek, Charles C Wykoff, Thomas W Gardner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167928/clinical-review-of-antidiabetic-drugs-implications-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-management
#17
REVIEW
Arun Chaudhury, Chitharanjan Duvoor, Vijaya Sena Reddy Dendi, Shashank Kraleti, Aditya Chada, Rahul Ravilla, Asween Marco, Nawal Singh Shekhawat, Maria Theresa Montales, Kevin Kuriakose, Appalanaidu Sasapu, Alexandria Beebe, Naveen Patil, Chaitanya K Musham, Govinda Prasad Lohani, Wasique Mirza
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global pandemic, as evident from the global cartographic picture of diabetes by the International Diabetes Federation (http://www.diabetesatlas.org/). Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, progressive, incompletely understood metabolic condition chiefly characterized by hyperglycemia. Impaired insulin secretion, resistance to tissue actions of insulin, or a combination of both are thought to be the commonest reasons contributing to the pathophysiology of T2DM, a spectrum of disease originally arising from tissue insulin resistance and gradually progressing to a state characterized by complete loss of secretory activity of the beta cells of the pancreas...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849359/basal-insulin-4-0-updating-your-clinical-practice-with-ultralong-acting-insulins-and-insulin-combination-therapy
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605513/neonatal-hypoglycemia
#19
REVIEW
David H Adamkin
A consistent definition for neonatal hypoglycemia in the first 48 h of life continues to elude us. Enhanced understanding of metabolic disturbances and genetic disorders that underlie alterations in postnatal glucose homeostasis has added useful information to understanding transitional hypoglycemia. This growth in knowledge still has not led to what we need to know: "How low is too low and for how long?" This article reviews the current state of understanding of neonatal hypoglycemia and how different approaches reach different "expert" opinions...
February 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140674/concentrated-insulins-clinical-applications-use-in-practical-settings
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2017: Endocrine Practice
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