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18 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778091/delayed-graft-function-and-its-management-in-children
#1
Ryszard Grenda
Delayed graft function (DGF) is commonly defined as the requirement for dialysis within the first 7 days following renal transplantation. The major underlying mechanism is related to ischaemia/reperfusion injury, which includes microvascular inflammation and cell death and apoptosis, and to the regeneration processes. Several clinical factors related to donor, recipient and organ procurement/transplantation procedures may increase the risk of DGF, including donor cardiovascular instability, older donor age, donor creatinine concentration, long cold ischaemia time and marked body mass index of both the donor and recipient...
October 24, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18661414/the-comparative-safety-of-various-intravenous-iron-preparations-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#2
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ganguli Anirban, H S Kohli, Vivekanand Jha, K L Gupta, Vinay Sakhuja
The relative safety of parenteral iron preparations is a controversial issue in the management of anemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD), as direct head-to-head comparative trials are lacking. In this study, patients of CKD were randomized to receive intravenous low molecular weight iron dextran (ID), sodium ferrigluconate complex (SFGC), and iron sucrose (IS) at doses and infusion rates recommended by the product manufacturer. One time test dose was used only for ID and SFGC. A total of 2,980 injections (n = 339) of i...
2008: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525699/comparison-of-cotrimoxazole-vs-second-generation-cephalosporins-for-prevention-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-children
#3
Charalampos Antachopoulos, Maria Ioannidou, Athanasios Tratselas, Elias Iosifidis, Aspasia Katragkou, Paschalis Kadiltzoglou, Konstantinos Kollios, Emmanuel Roilides
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended for the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI) in high-risk children. However, there is growing concern about the use of β-lactams as prophylaxis and subsequent development of antibiotic resistance. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, crossover controlled trial we compared cotrimoxazole (SXT) and second-generation cephalosporins (2GC) as UTI prophylaxis in children ranging in age from 1 to 60 months...
August 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307246/normal-values-of-urine-total-protein-and-albumin-to-creatinine-ratios-in-term-newborns
#4
Chahrazed El Hamel, Thierry Chianea, Séverine Thon, Anne Lepichoux, Catherine Yardin, Vincent Guigonis
BACKGROUND: It is important to have an accurate assessment of urinary protein when glomerulopathy or kidney injury is suspected. Currently available normal values for the neonate population have limited value, in part because they are based on small populations and obsolete creatinine assays. We have performed a prospective study with the aim to update the normal upper values of the urinary total protein-to-creatinine and albumin-to-creatinine ratios in term newborns. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from 277 healthy, full-term newborns within the first 48 hours (D0-1) and between 72 and 120 h of life (D3-4)...
June 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234911/genetic-causes-of-hypomagnesemia-a-clinical-overview
#5
Daan H H M Viering, Jeroen H F de Baaij, Stephen B Walsh, Robert Kleta, Detlef Bockenhauer
Magnesium is essential to the proper functioning of numerous cellular processes. Magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) deficits, as reflected in hypomagnesemia, can cause neuromuscular irritability, seizures and cardiac arrhythmias. With normal Mg(2+) intake, homeostasis is maintained primarily through the regulated reabsorption of Mg(2+) by the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and distal convoluted tubule of the kidney. Inadequate reabsorption results in renal Mg(2+) wasting, as evidenced by an inappropriately high fractional Mg(2+) excretion...
May 27, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27056062/c3-glomerulopathy
#6
Magdalena Riedl, Paul Thorner, Christoph Licht
Recent advances in our understanding of the disease pathology of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis has resulted in its re-classification as complement C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) and immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (IC-GN). The new consensus is based on its underlying pathomechanism, with a key pathogenetic role for the complement alternative pathway (AP), rather than on histomorphological characteristics. In C3G, loss of AP regulation leads to predominant glomerular C3 deposition, which distinguishes C3G from IC-GN with predominant immunoglobulin G staining...
January 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300205/genotype-phenotype-analysis-of-pediatric-patients-with-wt1-glomerulopathy
#7
Yo Han Ahn, Eu Jin Park, Hee Gyung Kang, Seong Heon Kim, Hee Yeon Cho, Jae Il Shin, Joo Hoon Lee, Young Seo Park, Kyo Sun Kim, Il-Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong
BACKGROUND: WT1 is one of the genes commonly reported as mutated in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). We analyzed genotype-phenotype correlations in pediatric SRNS patients with WT1 mutations. METHODS: From 2001 to 2015, WT1 mutations were detected in 21 out of 354 children with SRNS by genetic screening (5.9 %). The patients were grouped into missense (n = 11) and KTS splicing (n = 10) mutation groups. RESULTS: Nine (82 %) patients with missense mutations presented with congenital/infantile nephrotic syndrome, while 8 (80 %) with KTS splicing mutations presented with childhood-onset SRNS...
June 14, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312386/effect-of-mycophenolic-acid-in-experimental-nontransplant-glomerular-diseases-new-mechanisms-beyond-immune-cells
#8
Agnes Hackl, Rasmus Ehren, Lutz Thorsten Weber
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) was introduced into clinical practice as immunosuppressive drug therapy to prevent allograft rejection. Since then, its clinical application has widened. Our goal was to review the lessons learned from experimental nontransplant glomerular disease models on the mechanisms of MPA therapy. T and B lymphocytes are preferentially dependent on de novo purine synthesis. By inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of de novo purine synthesis, MPA depletes the pool of deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) and inhibits proliferation of these immune cells...
June 16, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27115887/measuring-and-estimating-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-children
#9
Hans Pottel
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the best index for kidney function in health and disease. Knowledge of the GFR is essential for the detection (diagnosis) and monitoring of renal function during disease progression and for ensuring correct medication doses. Inulin clearance (plasma or urine) is currently considered to be the gold standard for measuring GFR, but in clinical practice the measurement of other exogenous filtration markers from the plasma often replaces that of inulin clearance. Different protocols can be used to determine the area under the plasma disappearance curve, and an understanding of these methods is important...
April 26, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25475610/cystatin-c-in-acute-kidney-injury-diagnosis-early-biomarker-or-alternative-to-serum-creatinine
#10
Paola Lagos-Arevalo, Ana Palijan, Laura Vertullo, Prasad Devarajan, Michael R Bennett, Venkata Sabbisetti, Joseph V Bonventre, Qing Ma, Ronald D Gottesman, Michael Zappitelli
BACKGROUND: Early acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis is needed to pursue treatment trials. We evaluated cystatin C (CysC) as an early biomarker of serum creatinine (SCr)-AKI and an alternative to define AKI. METHODS: We studied 160 non-cardiac children in the intensive care unit (ICU). We measured daily CysC and SCr. AKI was staged by KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) guidelines using SCr and CysC (CysC-AKI). We calculated area under the curve (AUC) for (1) neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and urine CysC to diagnose SCr- and CysC-AKI; and (2) for CysC to diagnose SCr-AKI...
April 2015: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139899/atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-a-clinical-conundrum
#11
Prabesh Bajracharya, Amrish Jain, Rossana Baracco, Tej K Mattoo, Gaurav Kapur
BACKGROUND: Patients negative for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are categorized as having atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and are associated with an increased risk for complement mutations and poorer prognosis compared with typical HUS. However, STEC identification is limited by the natural history of HUS. METHODS: The current study is aimed at identifying HUS patients with poor outcomes based on the presence or absence of diarrhea (D) or Shiga toxin (S)...
October 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234910/the-significance-of-tubulointerstitial-lesions-in-childhood-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-nephritis
#12
Beom Jin Lim, Jae Il Shin, Sung-Eun Choi, Hyechang Rhim, Jae Seung Lee, Pyung Kil Kim, Hyeon Joo Jeong, Ji Hong Kim
BACKGROUND: Little information is currently available on the development of tubulointerstitial lesions in children with Henoch-Schönlein nephritis (HSN). To identify the impact of the development of tubulointerstitial changes in HSN, we retrospectively analyzed renal biopsies obtained from children with HSN. METHODS: Twenty-eight children with HSN from whom serial renal biopsies had been obtained before and after immunosuppressive therapy were enrolled in the study...
November 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27286687/urinary-biomarkers-for-the-differentiation-of-prerenal-and-intrinsic-pediatric-acute-kidney-injury
#13
Jens H Westhoff, Alexander Fichtner, Sina Waldherr, Nikolaos Pagonas, Felix S Seibert, Nina Babel, Burkhard Tönshoff, Frederic Bauer, Timm H Westhoff
BACKGROUND: Urinary calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) have recently been identified as promising biomarkers for the differentiation of prerenal and intrinsic acute kidney injury (AKI) in adults. In the study reported here we examined the diagnostic accuracy of calprotectin, NGAL, and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) in pediatric patients. METHODS: Urinary calprotectin, NGAL, and KIM-1 concentrations were assessed in a study population of 139 pediatric subjects including 39 patients with intrinsic AKI, 14 with prerenal AKI, and 86 non-AKI subjects...
June 11, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263020/mycophenolate-mofetil-in-steroid-dependent-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome
#14
Laurène Dehoux, Julien Hogan, Claire Dossier, Marc Fila, Olivier Niel, Anne Maisin, Marie Alice Macher, Thérésa Kwon, Véronique Baudouin, Georges Deschênes
BACKGROUND: Prospective studies have established the mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) efficiency in childhood idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) but reports on the long-term outcome are lacking. Moreover, the search for factors influencing its efficiency would be useful to define its place among the other treatments. METHODS: We performed a monocentric retrospective study including 96 children with steroid-dependent INS followed for 4.7 years (median) (IQ 3-6) after the onset of MMF treatment...
November 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194424/potassium-friend-or-foe
#15
REVIEW
Aylin R Rodan
The kidney plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis of ion concentrations in the blood. Because the concentration gradient of potassium across the cell membrane is a key determinant of the membrane potential of cells, even small deviations in serum potassium level from the normal setpoint can lead to severe muscle dysfunction, resulting in respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Less severe hypo- and hyperkalemia are also associated with morbidity and mortality across various patient populations. In addition, deficiencies in potassium intake have been associated with hypertension and adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes, likely due in part to the interrelated handling of sodium and potassium by the kidney...
May 18, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139900/biopsy-proven-paediatric-tubulointerstitial-nephritis
#16
Marianella Howell, Neil J Sebire, Stephen D Marks, Kjell Tullus
BACKGROUND: Tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is an uncommon condition in which the aetiology, treatment and outcome is not well defined. We describe a large series of children with biopsy-proven TIN. METHODS: All children with biopsy-proven TIN presenting to our institution during a 23-year period were retrospectively reviewed for aetiology, symptoms, treatment, and long-term outcome. RESULTS: A total of 27 children (16 girls) were described...
October 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034070/the-spectrum-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-in-children-and-adolescents
#17
Bharathi V Reddy, Arlene B Chapman
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disorder. It is characterized by the development of renal cysts and kidney enlargement and ultimately leads to renal failure typically in the sixth decade of life. Although most patients are asymptomatic until well into adulthood, renal cysts develop much earlier, often in utero. Significant renal anatomic and cystic expansion typically occurs before clinical manifestations in children and young adults with AKPKD. The cyst burden detected by imaging represents the minority of cyst burden, and renal and cardiovascular abnormalities are the most common manifestations in children with ADPKD...
March 31, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26386590/hemodialysis-in-children-with-ventriculoperitoneal-shunts-prevalence-management-and-outcomes
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Elizabeth Wright, Michel Fischbach, Ariane Zaloszyc, Fabio Paglialonga, Christoph Aufricht, Stephanie Dufek, Sevcan Bakkaloğlu, Günter Klaus, Aleksandra Zurowska, Mesiha Ekim, Gema Ariceta, Tuula Holtta, Augustina Jankauskiene, Claus Peter Schmitt, Constantinos J Stefanidis, Johan Vande Walle, Karel Vondrak, Alberto Edefonti, Rukshana Shroff
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis (HD) in children with a concomitant ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is rare. Registry data suggest that peritoneal dialysis with a VPS is safe, but little is known about HD in the presence of a VPS. METHODS: We performed a 10-year survey to determine the prevalence of a VPS, complications and outcome in children with a VPS on HD in 15 dialysis units from the 13 countries participating in the European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group. RESULTS: Eleven cases of HD with a VPS were reported (prevalence 1...
January 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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