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34 papers 0 to 25 followers
Scott E Hadland, J Frank Wharam, Mark A Schuster, Fang Zhang, Jeffrey H Samet, Marc R Larochelle
Importance: Opioid use disorder (OUD) frequently begins in adolescence and young adulthood. Intervening early with pharmacotherapy is recommended by major professional organizations. No prior national studies have examined the extent to which adolescents and young adults (collectively termed youth) with OUD receive pharmacotherapy. Objective: To identify time trends and disparities in receipt of buprenorphine and naltrexone among youth with OUD in the United States...
August 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
Christy E Cauley, Geoffrey Anderson, Alex B Haynes, Mariano Menendez, Brian T Bateman, Karim Ladha
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe national trends and outcomes of in-hospital postoperative opioid overdose (OD) and identify predictors of postoperative OD. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In 2000, the Joint Commission recommended making pain the 5th vital sign, increasing the focus on postoperative pain control. However, the benefits of pain management must be weighed against the potentially lethal risk of opioid OD. METHODS: This is a retrospective multi-institutional cohort study of patients undergoing 1 of 6 major elective inpatient operation from 2002 to 2011 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, an approximately 20% representative sample of all United States hospital admissions...
April 2017: Annals of Surgery
Joseph A Burleson, Yifrah Kaminer
Youth substance abuse relapse prevention was examined as a function of patients' situational self-efficacy (SE), their confidence to abstain from substance use in high-risk situations. An increase in SE has been shown to be enhanced by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in adults. Eighty-eight adolescent substance abusers were randomly assigned to either CBT or psycho-education (PET) group therapy. Substance use and SE were assessed at end of treatment, 3- and 9-months after the end of planned treatment. Increased SE predicted subsequent abstinence independently from drug urinalysis and treatment condition only during treatment, while previous substance use predicted subsequent self-efficacy...
October 2005: Addictive Behaviors
Andrew Jones, Paul Christiansen, Chantal Nederkoorn, Katrijn Houben, Matt Field
Disinhibition is present in various maladaptive behaviors, including substance use disorders. Most previous research has assumed that disinhibition is a psychological construct that is relatively stable within individuals. However, recent evidence suggests that the ability to inhibit behavior fluctuates in response to environmental and psychological triggers. In this review we discuss some of the factors that cause (dis)inhibition to fluctuate, we examine whether these fluctuations contribute to subjective craving and substance consumption, and we ask if they might increase the risk of relapse in those who are attempting to abstain...
2013: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Peter K Boulos, Manish S Dalwani, Jody Tanabe, Susan K Mikulich-Gilbertson, Marie T Banich, Thomas J Crowley, Joseph T Sakai
METHODS: We recruited right-handed female patients, 14-19 years of age, from a university-based treatment program for youths with substance use disorders and community controls similar for age, race and zip code of residence. We obtained 43 T1-weighted structural brain images (22 patients and 21 controls) to examine group differences in cortical thickness across the entire brain as well as six a priori regions-of-interest: 1) medial orbitofrontal cortex; 2) rostral anterior cingulate cortex; and 3) middle frontal cortex, in each hemisphere...
2016: PloS One
Julia Nicholls, Petra Karin Staiger, James Stephen Williams, Ben Richardson, Nicolas Kambouropoulos
Although most conceptualizations of social anxiety emphasise that socially anxious individuals are overtly shy, and utilise avoidant behavioural strategies (e.g., risk-aversion, passivity, and submissiveness), there is tentative support for the existence of an approach-motivated subtype, characterised by risk taking and a greater propensity for substance misuse. It is likely that this subtype may help explain the reported co-occurrence of substance misuse and social anxiety. The current study sought to test via latent class analysis whether an approach-motivated social anxiety subtype could be identified within a community sample...
December 30, 2014: Psychiatry Research
Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Jon M Houck, Angela D Bryan
OBJECTIVE: HASH(0x38c7448) INTRODUCTION: While many have identified the important role of the developing brain in youth risk behavior, few have examined the relationship between salient cognitive factors (response inhibition) and different types of real-world adolescent health risk behaviors such as substance use and risky sex, within the same sample of youth. METHODS: We therefore sought to examine these relationships with 95 high-risk youth (ages 14-18; M age = 16...
May 2015: Addictive Behaviors
Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
This article reviews the emerging research on cognitive training for substance use disorders, and discusses the neuroscientific mechanisms that underlie cognitive training effects in addiction. Four cognitive training interventions are reviewed: cognitive bias modification (CBM), response inhibition, working memory (including specific and multi-component approaches), and goal-directed interventions. Based on the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in these trainings they can be clustered in two classes: (1) CBM and response inhibition, which have shown to operate via reorientation of stimulus-action approach biases and rewiring of the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala; (2) Working memory and goal-oriented interventions, which have been associated with improvements in stimulus-outcome representations e...
September 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Petra K Staiger, Sharon Dawe, Ben Richardson, Kate Hall, Nicolas Kambouropoulos
The evidence linking the personality trait of impulsivity and substance misuse is well established. Importantly, impulsivity not only predicts substance misuse problems but has an association with duration in treatment, likelihood of completing treatment and time to relapse. Treatment that focuses on increasing awareness and acceptance of thoughts and emotions may potentially address impulsive behaviour and in this respect improve treatment outcomes for substance misuse. The current paper investigated the relationship between the facet of impulsivity that taps into poor inhibitory control and treatment outcome...
November 2014: Addictive Behaviors
Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain
Substance use disorders are prevalent and debilitating. Certain behavioral syndromes ('behavioral addictions') characterized by repetitive habits, such as gambling disorder, stealing, shopping, and compulsive internet use, may share clinical, co-morbid, and neurobiological parallels with substance addictions. This review considers overlap between substance and behavioral addictions with a particular focus on impulsive action (inability to inhibit motor responses), and impulsive choice (preference for immediate smaller rewards to the detriment of long-term outcomes)...
November 2014: Addictive Behaviors
Samuel Asensio, Julia L Morales, Isabel Senabre, Maria J Romero, Miguel A Beltran, Miguel Flores-Bellver, Jorge M Barcia, Francisco J Romero
Despite the suggestion that impulsivity plays a central role in the transfer from a recreational drug use to a substance use disorder, very few studies focused on neurobiological markers for addiction. This study aimed to identify volumetric alterations in a sample of patients with mild alcohol use disorder with a short history of alcohol use, compared with a control group, and also focused on its association with impulsivity levels. Most magnetic resonance imaging studies have focused on severe alcohol use disorder, formerly called alcohol-dependent patients, showing alcohol-related structural alterations and their association with alcohol use history variables but not with personality parameters like impulsivity...
July 2016: Addiction Biology
Eleanor M Taylor, Anna Murphy, Venkat Boyapati, Karen D Ersche, Remy Flechais, Shankar Kuchibatla, John McGonigle, Anotonio Metastasio, Liam Nestor, Csaba Orban, Fillippo Passetti, Louise Paterson, Dana Smith, John Suckling, Roger Tait, Anne R Lingford-Hughes, Trevor W Robbins, David J Nutt, J F William Deakin, Rebecca Elliott
RATIONALE: Dependence on drugs and alcohol is associated with impaired impulse control, but deficits are rarely compared across individuals dependent on different substances using several measures within a single study. OBJECTIVES: We investigated impulsivity in abstinent substance-dependent individuals (AbD) using three complementary techniques: self-report, neuropsychological and neuroimaging. We hypothesised that AbDs would show increased impulsivity across modalities, and that this would depend on length of abstinence...
April 2016: Psychopharmacology
Elise E DeVito, Shashwath A Meda, Rachel Jiantonio, Marc N Potenza, John H Krystal, Godfrey D Pearlson
Individuals family-history positive (FHP) for alcoholism have increased risk for the disorder, which may be mediated by intermediate behavioral traits such as impulsivity. Given the sex differences in the risk for and clinical presentation of addictive disorders, risk for addiction may be differentially mediated by impulsivity within FHP males and females. FHP (N=28) and family-history negative (FHN, N=31) healthy, non-substance-abusing adults completed an fMRI Go/No-Go task and were assessed on impulsivity and alcohol use...
September 2013: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Emily B Ansell, Holly B Laws, Michael J Roche, Rajita Sinha
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use is increasingly prevalent among young adults. While research has found adverse effects associated with marijuana use within experimentally controlled laboratory settings, it is unclear how recreational marijuana use affects day-to-day experiences in users. The present study sought to examine the effects of marijuana use on within-person changes in impulsivity and interpersonal hostility in daily life using smartphone administered assessments. METHODS: Forty-three participants with no substance dependence reported on their alcohol consumption, tobacco use, recreational marijuana use, impulsivity, and interpersonal hostility over the course of 14 days...
March 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Leigh Sharma, Kristian E Markon, Lee Anna Clark
Impulsivity is considered a personality trait affecting behavior in many life domains, from recreational activities to important decision making. When extreme, it is associated with mental health problems, such as substance use disorders, as well as with interpersonal and social difficulties, including juvenile delinquency and criminality. Yet, trait impulsivity may not be a unitary construct. We review commonly used self-report measures of personality trait impulsivity and related constructs (e.g., sensation seeking), plus the opposite pole, control or constraint...
March 2014: Psychological Bulletin
Woo-Young Ahn, Divya Ramesh, Frederick Gerard Moeller, Jasmin Vassileva
BACKGROUND: Identifying objective and accurate markers of cocaine dependence (CD) can innovate its prevention and treatment. Existing evidence suggests that CD is characterized by a wide range of cognitive deficits, most notably by increased impulsivity. Impulsivity is multidimensional and it is unclear which of its various dimensions would have the highest predictive utility for CD. The machine-learning approach is highly promising for discovering predictive markers of disease. Here, we used machine learning to identify multivariate predictive patterns of impulsivity phenotypes that can accurately classify individuals with CD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Antoine Bechara
Here I argue that addicted people become unable to make drug-use choices on the basis of long-term outcome, and I propose a neural framework that explains this myopia for future consequences. I suggest that addiction is the product of an imbalance between two separate, but interacting, neural systems that control decision making: an impulsive, amygdala system for signaling pain or pleasure of immediate prospects, and a reflective, prefrontal cortex system for signaling pain or pleasure of future prospects. After an individual learns social rules, the reflective system controls the impulsive system via several mechanisms...
November 2005: Nature Neuroscience
Birgitte Thylstrup, Morten Hesse
Patients with antisocial personality disorder in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders are at high risk of drop-out. Using a randomized design, this study tested the impact of adding a brief psycho-educational program, the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program, to outpatient substance abuse treatment in order to prevent treatment dropout. Patients (N=175) were recruited from 13 municipal treatment centers in Denmark, and assigned to treatment as usual or to the experimental condition. In all, 172 patients could be included in the analyses...
June 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Lara Moody, Christopher Franck, Laura Hatz, Warren K Bickel
Understanding the association between polysubstance use and impulsivity is pertinent to treatment planning and efficacy. Delay discounting, a measure of impulsivity, supplies the rate at which a reinforcer loses value as the temporal delay to its receipt increases. Excessive delay discounting has been widely observed among drug-using individuals, though the impact of using more than 1 substance has been only minimally studied. Here, after controlling for demographic variables, we systematically compared delay discounting in community controls, heavy smokers, and alcohol- and cocaine-dependent individuals to assess the impact of non-, mono-, dual-, and trisubstance use...
February 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, Jean R S├ęguin, Frank Vitaro, Sophie Parent, Richard E Tremblay
BACKGROUND: Adolescent substance use is associated with both earlier childhood behavioural problems and serious lifetime addiction problems later in life. AIMS: To examine whether, and through which mechanisms, targeting risk factors in early childhood prevents substance use across adolescence. METHOD: Disruptive kindergarten boys (n = 172) living in Montreal were randomly allocated to a preventive intervention and a control condition. The intervention was delivered over 2 years (7-9 years of age) with two main components: (a) social and problem-solving skills training for the boys; and (b) training for parents on effective child-rearing skills...
September 2013: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
2016-06-12 15:03:48
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