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Ketamine & alternatives

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6 papers 0 to 25 followers Ketamine injections trigger addiction.
Chittaranjan Andrade
Intranasal drug delivery (INDD) systems offer a route to the brain that bypasses problems related to gastrointestinal absorption, first-pass metabolism, and the blood-brain barrier; onset of therapeutic action is rapid, and the inconvenience and discomfort of parenteral administration are avoided. INDD has found several applications in neuropsychiatry, such as to treat migraine, acute and chronic pain, Parkinson disease, disorders of cognition, autism, schizophrenia, social phobia, and depression. INDD has also been used to test experimental drugs, such as peptides, for neuropsychiatric indications; these drugs cannot easily be administered by other routes...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Panos Zanos, Ruin Moaddel, Patrick J Morris, Polymnia Georgiou, Jonathan Fischell, Greg I Elmer, Manickavasagom Alkondon, Peixiong Yuan, Heather J Pribut, Nagendra S Singh, Katina S S Dossou, Yuhong Fang, Xi-Ping Huang, Cheryl L Mayo, Irving W Wainer, Edson X Albuquerque, Scott M Thompson, Craig J Thomas, Carlos A Zarate, Todd D Gould
Major depressive disorder affects around 16 per cent of the world population at some point in their lives. Despite the availability of numerous monoaminergic-based antidepressants, most patients require several weeks, if not months, to respond to these treatments, and many patients never attain sustained remission of their symptoms. The non-competitive, glutamatergic NMDAR (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor) antagonist (R,S)-ketamine exerts rapid and sustained antidepressant effects after a single dose in patients with depression, but its use is associated with undesirable side effects...
May 26, 2016: Nature
Yu Liu, Deyong Lin, Boliang Wu, Wenhua Zhou
Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor and has been long used as an anesthetic agent in humans and veterinary medicine. The present article reviews the epidemiology, pharmacology, neurochemistry, and treatment of ketamine abuse. Ketamine has a unique mood controlling property and a number of studies have demonstrated a significant and rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine. However, the therapeutic value of ketamine to treat psychiatric disorders faces a major challenge that ketamine also owns significant reinforcing and toxic effects...
September 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Batumalai Suppiah, Balasingam Vicknasingam, Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan
Despite the rise in recreational use of ketamine in Malaysia, there have been no studies of users or of the health-related consequences they face. This study was initiated to examine ketamine use and its health consequences. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information. A final sample of 127 males was divided into persons who used only ketamine and those who were poly-drug users. Each group was further divided into long-period and short-period users. Urine toxicology screening for ketamine and other illicit drugs commonly used in Malaysia was also done...
April 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Darragh Downey, Arpan Dutta, Shane McKie, Gerard R Dawson, Colin T Dourish, Kevin Craig, Mark A Smith, Dennis J McCarthy, Catherine J Harmer, Guy M Goodwin, Steve Williams, J F William Deakin
Intravenous infusion of lanicemine (formerly AZD6765), a low trapping non-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, induces antidepressant effects with a similar time course to ketamine. We investigated whether a single dose lanicemine infusion would reproduce the previously reported decrease in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) activity evoked by ketamine, a potential mechanism of antidepressant efficacy. Sixty un-medicated adults meeting the criteria for major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to receive constant intravenous infusions of ketamine, lanicemine or saline during a 60min pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) scan...
June 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Udo Bonnet
Sub-anaesthetic ketamine is of special interest for depression research due to its rapid and potent but short-lived antidepressant response (after-effect). The presented case is the first one in the literature which deals in detail with the transfer from ketamine's antidepressant action to ketamine addiction. A 50-year-old anaesthetic nurse, who had never been treated with antidepressants before, started with self-injecting ketamine racemate 50 mg IM once a week to cope with her major depression. She continuously stole ketamine from hospital stocks...
September 2015: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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