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By Norma Ruiz R1 medicina interna
Richard H Sterns, Marvin Grieff, Paul L Bernstein
Treatment options for hyperkalemia have not changed much since the introduction of the cation exchange resin, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate, Covis Pharmaceuticals, Cary, NC), over 50 years ago. Although clinicians of that era did not have ready access to hemodialysis or loop diuretics, the other tools that we use today-calcium, insulin, and bicarbonate-were well known to them. Currently recommended insulin regimens provide too little insulin to achieve blood levels with a maximal kalemic effect and too little glucose to avoid hypoglycemia...
March 2016: Kidney International
Benjamin Lazarus, Yuan Chen, Francis P Wilson, Yingying Sang, Alex R Chang, Josef Coresh, Morgan E Grams
IMPORTANCE: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly used drugs worldwide and have been linked to acute interstitial nephritis. Less is known about the association between PPI use and chronic kidney disease (CKD). OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between PPI use and incident CKD in a population-based cohort. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In total, 10,482 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 60 mL/min/1...
February 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Ione de Brito-Ashurst, Mira Varagunam, Martin J Raftery, Muhammad M Yaqoob
Bicarbonate supplementation preserves renal function in experimental chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether the same benefit occurs in humans is unknown. Here, we randomly assigned 134 adult patients with CKD (creatinine clearance [CrCl] 15 to 30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and serum bicarbonate 16 to 20 mmol/L to either supplementation with oral sodium bicarbonate or standard care for 2 yr. The primary end points were rate of CrCl decline, the proportion of patients with rapid decline of CrCl (>3 ml/min per 1...
September 2009: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
James Stray-Gundersen, Erin J Howden, Dora Beth Parsons, Jeffrey R Thompson
Patients treated with hemodialysis develop severely reduced functional capacity, which can be partially ameliorated by correcting anemia and through exercise training. In this study, we determined perturbations of an erythroid-stimulating agent and exercise training to examine if and where limitation to oxygen transport exists in patients on hemodialysis. Twenty-seven patients on hemodialysis completed a crossover study consisting of two exercise training phases at two hematocrit (Hct) values: 30% (anemic) and 42% (physiologic; normalized by treatment with erythroid-stimulating agent)...
May 6, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Fabrizio Fabrizi, Paul Martin, Piergiorgio Messa
The evidence that chronic hepatitis C plays a detrimental role in survival among patients on maintenance dialysis or renal transplant recipients promotes the antiviral treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among chronic kidney disease patients. Also, it seems that HCV infection is associated with an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease in the adult general population. Interferon-based regimens have provided limited efficacy and safety among chronic kidney disease patients, whereas the advent of the new direct-acting antivirals for the treatment of hepatitis C (launched over the past 5 years) has given the opportunity to reach sustained virologic response rates of 90% for many patient groups...
May 2016: Kidney International
Stephanie M Toth-Manikowski, Stephen M Sozio
The use of cooled dialysate temperatures first came about in the early 1980s as a way to curb the incidence of intradialytic hypotension (IDH). IDH was then, and it remains today, the most common complication affecting chronic hemodialysis patients. It decreases quality of life on dialysis and is an independent risk factor for mortality. Cooling dialysate was first employed as a technique to incite peripheral vasoconstriction on dialysis and in turn reduce the incidence of intradialytic hypotension. Although it has become a common practice amongst in-center hemodialysis units, cooled dialysate results in up to 70% of patients feeling cold while on dialysis and some even experience shivering...
March 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
Ramon Roca-Tey
Heart failure (HF) is the most frequent cardiovascular disease associated with chronic kidney disease and represents a high risk for cardiovascular mortality in incident hemodialysis (HD) patients. This risk is especially high during the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation period due to the marked hemodynamic changes related to the large increase in the blood flow and also within the first 120 days after HD inception because in this period the highest mortality rate occurs. When planning the vascular access for each incident HF patient, the risk of aggravating HF after AVF creation must be evaluated carefully alongside the risk of catheter-related complications, but avoiding a non-selective 'catheter first' approach for all these patients...
March 2016: Journal of Vascular Access
Anna Meyring-Wösten, Hanjie Zhang, Xiaoling Ye, Doris H Fuertinger, Lili Chan, Franz Kappel, Mikhail Artemyev, Nancy Ginsberg, Yuedong Wang, Stephan Thijssen, Peter Kotanko
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intradialytic hypoxemia has been recognized for decades, but its associations with outcomes have not yet been assessed in a large patient cohort. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Our retrospective cohort study was conducted between January of 2012 and January of 2015. We recorded blood oxygen saturation every minute during hemodialysis in patients with arteriovenous access. A 6-month baseline period with at least 10 treatments with oxygen saturation measurements preceded a 12-month follow-up...
April 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Piergiorgio Bolasco, Adamasco Cupisti, Francesco Locatelli, Stefania Caria, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Initiation of thrice-weekly hemodialysis often results in a rapid loss of residual kidney function (RKF) including reduction in urine output. Preserving RKF longer is associated with better outcomes including greater survival in dialysis patients. An alternative approach aimed at preserving RKF is an incremental transition with less frequent hemodialysis sessions at the beginning with gradual increase in hemodialysis frequency over months. In addition to favorable clinical and economic implications, an incremental transition would also enhance a less stressful adaptation of the patient to dialysis therapy...
February 28, 2016: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Johanna Kuipers, Jurjen K Oosterhuis, Wim P Krijnen, Judith J Dasselaar, Carlo A J M Gaillard, Ralf Westerhuis, Casper F M Franssen
BACKGROUND: Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is considered one of the most frequent complications of haemodialysis with an estimated prevalence of 20-50 %, but studies investigating its exact prevalence are scarce. A complicating factor is that several definitions of IDH are used. The goal of this study was, to assess the prevalence of IDH, primarily in reference to the European Best Practice Guideline (EBPG) on haemodynamic instability: A decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥20 mmHg or in mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥10 mmHg associated with a clinical event and the need for nursing intervention...
2016: BMC Nephrology
Laurent Bitker, Frédérique Bayle, Hodane Yonis, Florent Gobert, Véronique Leray, Romain Taponnier, Sophie Debord, Alina Stoian-Cividjian, Claude Guérin, Jean-Christophe Richard
BACKGROUND: Hypotension is a frequent complication of intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) performed in intensive care units (ICUs). Passive leg raising (PLR) combined with continuous measurement of cardiac output is highly reliable to identify preload dependence, and may provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in IHD-related hypotension. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors of preload dependence-related hypotension during IHD in the ICU. METHODS: A single-center prospective observational study performed on ICU patients undergoing IHD for acute kidney injury and monitored with a PiCCO® device...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Viviane Pollo, Danielle Dionízio, Edwa Maria Bucuvic, João Henrique Castro, Daniela Ponce
Introduction Thrombosis of tunneled central venous catheters (CVC) in hemodialysis (HD) patients is common and it can lead to the elimination of vascular sites. To compare the efficacy of alteplase vs. urokinase in reestablishing adequate blood flow through completely occluded vascular catheters. Methods In this randomized study, patients with completely occluded tunneled HD catheters received 40 minutes intracatheter dwell with alteplase (1 mg/mL) or urokinase (5000 IU/mL). Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with occluded catheters achieving post-thrombolytic blood flow of ≥250 mL/min...
July 2016: Hemodialysis International
Manuela Ferrario, Jochen G Raimann, Brett Larive, Andreas Pierratos, Stephan Thijssen, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Tom Greene, Sergio Cerutti, Gerald Beck, Christopher Chan, Peter Kotanko
BACKGROUND: Non-linear heart rate variability (HRV) indices were hypothesized to correlate with cardiac function, fluid overload and physical performance in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour Holter electrocardiograms were recorded in patients enrolled in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily Dialysis Trial. Correlations between non-linear HRV indices and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), extracellular volume (ECV)/total body water (TBW) ratio, the SF-36 Physical Health Composite (PHC) and Physical Functioning (PF) scores were tested...
2015: Blood Purification
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