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Neuroradiology CNS tumours

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28 papers 0 to 25 followers Neuroradiology articles related to central nervous system tumours.
By Sebastian Bravo-Grau Neuroradiology Fellow - Radiologist
Tyler J Uppstrom, Ranjodh Singh, Georgios F Hadjigeorgiou, Rajiv Magge, Rohan Ramakrishna
The importance of surgery and maximal extent of resection (EOR) is well established in primary low-grade glioma (LGG) management. However, the role of surgery in the management of recurrent LGG is less clear. A recent review on the management of recurrent LGG concluded there was insufficient evidence to recommend surgery. Here, we summarize the recent advances regarding the role of surgery, radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy in the management of recurrent LGG. There is increasing evidence to support maximal EOR for treating recurrent LGG, as it may improve progression free survival (PFS) after recurrence and overall survival (OS)...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Andreas F Hottinger, Monika E Hegi, Brigitta G Baumert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of patients suffering from low-grade gliomas (LGGs) remains a challenge in absence of a definite curative therapy. The median survival is highly variable, from 2 years (high-risk disease) to over 15 years (low risk). The aim of this review is to provide a practical step-by-step evaluation of the available treatment options for patients with LGGs. RECENT FINDINGS: Next to clinical prognostic markers, both the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status and the status of 1p/19q codeletion are key prognostic factors for the optimal management of patients with LGG...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Mohamed Said Abbas, Mohammad Najm AlBerawi, Issam Al Bozom, Nissar F Shaikh, Khalid Yacout Salem
BACKGROUND Pituitary macroadenoma is a common benign tumor that usually presents with visual field defects or hormonal abnormalities. Cerebral infarction can be a complication of a large pituitary adenoma. We report a rare case of bilateral anterior cerebral arteries infarcts by a large pituitary macroadenoma with apoplexy. CASE REPORT A 48-year-old male patient presented with altered conscious level and sudden loss of vision for one-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a large seller and suprasellar hemorrhagic mass of pituitary origin, with associated bilateral areas of diffusion restriction in the frontal parasagittal regions, consistent with infarctions...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Bargavee Venkat, Neeti Aggarwal, Sushma Makhaik, Ramgopal Sood
Cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease most commonly affecting brain, eye and muscles, causing significant morbidity. Transmitted by faeco-oral route, this disease was endemic in many developing countries; it is now seen worldwide due to globalisation. Manifestations are produced by the mass effect of the parasite and by the immune response mounted by the host on the parasite. There are myriad clinical features and imaging findings. Radiological features depend on the number, stage and location of the parasite and associated complications...
April 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Akira Kunimatsu, Natsuko Kunimatsu, Kouhei Kamiya, Masaki Katsura, Harushi Mori, Kuni Ohtomo
Meningiomas are common neoplasms that frequently occur in the brain and spine. Among the 15 histological subtypes of meningiomas in the WHO classification, the incidence of meningothelial meningiomas is the highest, followed by fibrous and transitional meningiomas. These three subtypes account for approximately 80 % of all meningiomas, and thus could be regarded as typical meningiomas. For this reason, other uncommon histological subtypes may be considered as imaging variants, and diagnosis is often challenging for radiologists solely based on imaging features of typical meningiomas...
July 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Corrado Santarosa, Antonella Castellano, Gian Marco Conte, Marcello Cadioli, Antonella Iadanza, Maria Rosa Terreni, Alberto Franzin, Lorenzo Bello, Massimo Caulo, Andrea Falini, Nicoletta Anzalone
INTRODUCTION: Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-MRI is a perfusion technique with high diagnostic accuracy for glioma grading, despite limitations due to inherent susceptibility effects. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI has been proposed as an alternative technique able to overcome the DSC-MRI shortcomings. This pilot study aimed at comparing the diagnostic accuracy of DSC and DCE-MRI for glioma grading by evaluating two estimates of blood volume, the DCE-derived plasma volume (Vp) and the DSC-derived relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and a measure of vessel permeability, the DCE-derived volume transfer constant K(trans)...
June 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Emine Sevcan Ata, Mehmet Turgut, Cenk Eraslan, Yelda Özsunar Dayanır
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to preliminarily compare unenhanced arterial spin-labeled (ASL) imaging, dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced cerebral blood volume (DSCE-CBV) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluation of tumor perfusion in patients with brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 27 patients with brain tumors were examined in 1,5T MRI. Single phase and multiphase ASL, DSCE-CBV examinations were assessed by both qualitative and quantitative analysis for the detection of malignancy...
September 2016: European Journal of Radiology
S Yang, B Zhao, G Wang, J Xiang, S Xu, Y Liu, P Zhao, J Pfeuffer, T Qian
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Systematic and accurate glioma grading has clinical significance. We present the utility of multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging and provide the bolus arrival time maps for grading astrocytomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with astrocytomas (21 men; mean age, 51 years) were recruited. The classification abilities of conventional MR imaging features, normalized CBF value derived from multi-TI arterial spin-labeling imaging, normalized bolus arrival time, and normalized CBF derived from single-TI arterial spin-labeling were compared in patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, III, and IV astrocytomas...
August 25, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Alexander Nguyen, Mitsukuni Yoshida, Hani Goodarzi, Sohail F Tavazoie
Individual cells within a tumour can exhibit distinct genetic and molecular features. The impact of such diversification on metastatic potential is unknown. Here we identify clonal human breast cancer subpopulations that display different levels of morphological and molecular diversity. Highly variable subpopulations are more proficient at metastatic colonization and chemotherapeutic survival. Through single-cell RNA-sequencing, inter-cell transcript expression variability is identified as a defining feature of the highly variable subpopulations that leads to protein-level variation...
2016: Nature Communications
Thomas C Chen
Primary intraosseous meningiomas are a subtype of primary extradural meningiomas. They represent approximately two-thirds of extradural meningiomas and fewer than 2% of meningiomas overall. These tumors originate within the bones of the skull and can have a clinical presentation and radiographic differential diagnosis different from those for intradural meningiomas. Primary intraosseous meningiomas are classified based on location and histopathologic characteristics. Treatment is primarily surgical resection with wide margins if possible...
April 2016: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Gabriel Zada, Randy L Jensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Marc C Mabray, Benjamin A Cohen, Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Francisco E Valles, Ramon F Barajas, James L Rubenstein, Soonmee Cha
OBJECTIVE: Tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDLs) remain one of the most common brain lesions to mimic a brain tumor, particularly primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) and high-grade gliomas. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the ability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and conventional MRI features to differentiate TDLs from PCNSLs and high-grade gliomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients (24 patients with TDLs, 28 with PCNSLs, and 23 with high-grade gliomas) with 168 brain lesions (70 TDLs, 68 PCNSLs, and 30 high-grade gliomas) who underwent DWI before surgery or therapy were included in the study...
November 2015: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Matthias Osswald, Erik Jung, Felix Sahm, Gergely Solecki, Varun Venkataramani, Jonas Blaes, Sophie Weil, Heinz Horstmann, Benedikt Wiestler, Mustafa Syed, Lulu Huang, Miriam Ratliff, Kianush Karimian Jazi, Felix T Kurz, Torsten Schmenger, Dieter Lemke, Miriam Gömmel, Martin Pauli, Yunxiang Liao, Peter Häring, Stefan Pusch, Verena Herl, Christian Steinhäuser, Damir Krunic, Mostafa Jarahian, Hrvoje Miletic, Anna S Berghoff, Oliver Griesbeck, Georgios Kalamakis, Olga Garaschuk, Matthias Preusser, Samuel Weiss, Haikun Liu, Sabine Heiland, Michael Platten, Peter E Huber, Thomas Kuner, Andreas von Deimling, Wolfgang Wick, Frank Winkler
Astrocytic brain tumours, including glioblastomas, are incurable neoplasms characterized by diffusely infiltrative growth. Here we show that many tumour cells in astrocytomas extend ultra-long membrane protrusions, and use these distinct tumour microtubes as routes for brain invasion, proliferation, and to interconnect over long distances. The resulting network allows multicellular communication through microtube-associated gap junctions. When damage to the network occurred, tumour microtubes were used for repair...
December 3, 2015: Nature
Harald Sontheimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 3, 2015: Nature
Nils D Arvold, Eudocia Q Lee, Minesh P Mehta, Kim Margolin, Brian M Alexander, Nancy U Lin, Carey K Anders, Riccardo Soffietti, D Ross Camidge, Michael A Vogelbaum, Ian F Dunn, Patrick Y Wen
The clinical management/understanding of brain metastases (BM) has changed substantially in the last 5 years, with key advances and clinical trials highlighted in this review. Several of these changes stem from improvements in systemic therapy, which have led to better systemic control and longer overall patient survival, associated with increased time at risk for developing BM. Development of systemic therapies capable of preventing BM and controlling both intracranial and extracranial disease once BM are diagnosed is paramount...
August 2016: Neuro-oncology
Yan Tan, Xiao-Chun Wang, Hui Zhang, Jun Wang, Jiang-Bo Qin, Xiao-Feng Wu, Lei Zhang, Le Wang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the value of MRI diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in differentiating high-grade-astrocytomas from solitary-brain-metastases. METHODS: Thirty-one high-grade-astrocytomas and twenty solitary-brain-metastases were retrospectively identified. DKI parameters [mean kurtosis (MK), radial kurtosis (Kr), and axial kurtosis (Ka)] and DTI parameters [fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD)] values with and without correction by contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in the tumoral solid part and peritumoral edema, were compared using the t-test...
December 2015: European Journal of Radiology
Reid Hoshide, Rahul Jandial
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Otto Rapalino, Tracy Batchelor, R Gilberto González
There is a wide variety of intra-axial primary and secondary brain neoplasms. Many of them have characteristic imaging features while other tumors can present in a similar fashion. There are peculiar posttreatment imaging phenomena that can present as intra-axial mass-like lesions (such as pseudoprogression or radiation necrosis), further complicating the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of patients with intracerebral tumors. The purpose of this chapter is to present a general overview of the most common intra-axial brain tumors and peculiar posttreatment changes that are very important in the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of patients with brain tumors...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Otto Rapalino, James G Smirniotopoulos
Extra-axial brain tumors are the most common adult intracranial neoplasms and encompass a broad spectrum of pathologic subtypes. Meningiomas are the most common extra-axial brain tumor (approximately one-third of all intracranial neoplasms) and typically present as slowly growing dural-based masses. Benign meningiomas are very common, and may occasionally be difficult to differentiate from more aggressive subtypes (i.e., atypical or malignant varieties) or other dural-based masses with more aggressive biologic behavior (e...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Stergios Zacharoulis, Andres Morales La Madrid, Pratiti Bandopadhayay, Susan N Chi, Peter Manley, Nicole N J Ullrich, Karen Marcus, Liliana Goumnerova, Robert M Scott, Mark Proctor, Tina Young-Poussaint, Umberto De Girolami, Mark W Kieran
BACKGROUND: Central neurocytomas (CN) are rare pediatric CNS tumors most often with a benign clinical course. Occasionally, these tumors occur outside the ventricles and are called extraventricular neurocytomas (EVN). We present a retrospective institutional analysis of children with neurocytoma with prolonged follow-up. PROCEDURE: Twelve patients were diagnosed with neurocytoma at our institution between 1993 and 2004. RESULTS: Six patients were male and the median age at diagnosis was 12 years (1...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
2016-07-22 22:39:42
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