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By Gabi Djab Nephrologist
Samir G Mallat, Houssam S Itani, Rana M Abou-Mrad, Rima Abou Arkoub, Bassem Y Tanios
Rituximab is a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody that results in depletion of B-cell lymphocytes. It is currently used in the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases, in addition to CD20-positive lymphomas. The use of rituximab in the treatment of the adult primary glomerular diseases has emerged recently, although not yet established as first-line therapy in international guidelines. In patients with steroid-dependent minimal change disease or frequently relapsing disease, and in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), several retrospective and prospective studies support the use of rituximab to induce remission, whereas in idiopathic focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), the use of rituximab has resulted in variable results...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Manoocher Soleimani, Asghar Rastegar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Lei Zhang, Gavin Lee, Xusheng Liu, Elaine M Pascoe, Sunil V Badve, Neil C Boudville, Philip A Clayton, Carmel M Hawley, John Kanellis, Stephen P McDonald, Chen Au Peh, Kevan R Polkinghorne, David W Johnson
Patient outcomes in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) secondary to lupus nephritis have not been well described. To help define this we compared dialysis and transplant outcomes of patients with ESKD due to lupus nephritis to all other causes. All patients diagnosed with ESKD who commenced renal replacement therapy in Australia and New Zealand (1963-2012) were included. Clinical outcomes were evaluated in both a contemporary cohort (1998-2012) and the entire 50-year cohort. Of 64,160 included patients, 744 had lupus nephritis as the primary renal disease...
June 2016: Kidney International
Emily Joyce, Paulina Glasner, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Agnieszka Swiatecka-Urban
Tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is a frequent cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) that can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD). TIN is associated with an immune-mediated infiltration of the kidney interstitium by inflammatory cells, which may progress to fibrosis. Patients often present with nonspecific symptoms, which can lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Etiology can be drug-induced, infectious, idiopathic, genetic, or related to a systemic inflammatory condition such as tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, or immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-associated immune complex multiorgan autoimmune disease (MAD)...
April 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Agnes B Fogo, Mark A Lusco, Behzad Najafian, Charles E Alpers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Varun Agrawal
Nephrologists provide medical care to patients presenting with acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, glomerular diseases, and electrolyte or acid-base disorders, and perform lifesaving dialysis therapies and kidney transplantation. This editorial is an attempt to describe how to write a comprehensive, yet succinct, case report in nephrology. The essential elements of a nephrology case report are defined that can serve as a writing aid to the author.
April 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Francesco Paolo Cappuccio, Michelle Avril Miller
Cardiovascular disease, including stroke, heart failure and kidney disease, has been common in sub-Saharan Africa for many years, and rapid urbanization is causing an upsurge of ischaemic heart disease and metabolic disorders. At least two-thirds of cardiovascular deaths now occur in low- and middle-income countries, bringing a double burden of disease to poor and developing world economies. High blood pressure (or hypertension) is by far the commonest underlying risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Its prevention, detection, treatment and control in sub-Saharan Africa are haphazard and suboptimal...
April 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Julie R Ingelfinger, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Franz Schaefer
World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life...
2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Jaskanwal D S Sara, Ryan J Lennon, Rajiv Gulati, Mandeep Singh, David R Holmes, Lilach O Lerman, Amir Lerman
BACKGROUND: The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) effectively predicts the risk of cardiovascular events in the primary prevention setting. However, its use in identifying the risk of cardiovascular events among patients with established coronary heart disease is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of the FRS in predicting long-term secondary events in patients following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) across a 17-year period. METHODS: Consecutive patients (N=25,519, male=71%, mean age=66...
February 2016: American Heart Journal
Ahmed Hassaan Qavi, Rida Kamal, Robert W Schrier
Diuretics play significant role in pharmacology and treatment options in medicine. This paper aims to review and evaluate the clinical use of diuretics in conditions that lead to fluid overload in the body such as cardiac failure, cirrhosis, and nephrotic syndrome. To know the principles of treatment it is essential to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that cause the need of diuresis in the human body. Various classes of diuretics exist, each having a unique mode of action. A systemic approach for management is recommended based on the current guidelines, starting from thiazides and proceeding to loop diuretics...
2015: International Journal of Nephrology
Gearoid M McMahon, Sushrut S Waikar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2013: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Andrew Davenport, Jawad Ahmad, Ali Al-Khafaji, John A Kellum, Yuri S Genyk, Mitra K Nadim
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as the occurrence of renal dysfunction in a patient with end-stage liver cirrhosis in the absence of another identifiable cause of renal failure. The prognosis of HRS remains poor, with a median survival without liver transplantation of <6 months. However, understanding the pathogenesis of HRS has led to the introduction of treatments designed to increase renal perfusion and mean arterial blood pressure using vasopressors and albumin, which has led to improvement in renal function in ∼50% of patients...
January 2012: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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