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Psychiatric co -morbidities in Epilepsy

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Andrew M Williams, Susie H Park
Seizures are a known adverse effect of clozapine therapy. The literature varies on incidence rates of seizures, secondary to varying time frames in which each seizure occurred. Tonic-clonic seizures comprise the majority of seizures experienced secondary to clozapine use, but it is imperative to recognize the potential variety of seizure presentation. The exact etiology of clozapine-induced seizure is unknown. Conflicting reports regarding total oral dose, serum concentration, dose titration, and concomitant medications make it difficult to identify a single cause contributing to seizure risk...
February 2015: CNS Drugs
Andres M Kanner
The treatment of epileptic seizure disorders is not restricted to the achievement of seizure-freedom, but must also include the management of comorbid medical, neurological, psychiatric and cognitive comorbidities. Psychiatric and neurological comorbidities are relatively common and often co-exist in people with epilepsy (PWE). For example, depression and anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbidities in PWE, and they are particularly common in PWE who also have a neurological comorbidity, such as migraine, stroke, traumatic brain injury or dementia...
February 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Dan Sucksdorff, Alan S Brown, Roshan Chudal, Elina Jokiranta-Olkoniemi, Susanna Leivonen, Auli Suominen, Markus Heinimaa, Andre Sourander
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have demonstrated an overrepresentation of bipolar disorder (BPD) in individuals with epilepsy. However, few studies have examined the reverse association, i.e. comorbid epilepsy in individuals selected based on BPD diagnosis. No previous population-based study having examined the co-occurrence of BPD and epilepsy has adjusted for parental psychopathology. Such an adjustment is motivated by population-based studies reporting an overrepresentation of various types of parental psychiatric disorders in both BPD and epilepsy...
December 1, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
Alberto Verrotti, Danilo Carrozzino, Maddalena Milioni, Maria Minna, Mario Fulcheri
Psychiatric disorders seem to be more frequent in patients with epilepsy (PWE) than the general population. Although researchers have documented a strong association between epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities, the nature of this relationship is poorly understood. According to this, psychiatric diseases are often underdiagnosed and undertreated in PWE with further decrease of the quality of life of patients. The aim of the review was to examine the most frequent psychiatric comorbidities in adults with epilepsy (AWE) and the main psychiatric comorbidities in children with epilepsy (CWE) in order to better understand the relationship between epilepsy and the development of psychiatric disorders...
August 15, 2014: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Andres M Kanner, Andrey Mazarati, Matthias Koepp
The last decade has witnessed a significant shift on our understanding of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and epilepsy. While traditionally psychiatric disorders were considered as a complication of the underlying seizure disorder, new epidemiologic data, supported by clinical and experimental research, have suggested the existence of a bidirectional relation between the two types of conditions: not only are patients with epilepsy at greater risk of experiencing a psychiatric disorder, but patients with primary psychiatric disorders are at greater risk of developing epilepsy...
April 2014: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Heidi M Munger Clary
Although there has been increasing recognition of psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy, most research and attention in this area has focused on depression. However, comorbid anxiety in epilepsy is highly prevalent, affecting more than 40 % of patients in some reports. Many important outcomes are significantly impacted by anxiety in epilepsy, including quality of life, mortality, and seizure status. Recent evidence from epidemiologic studies suggests a bidirectional association of anxiety and epilepsy, and there is mounting evidence for possible common pathophysiology underlying anxiety and epilepsy...
May 2014: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Rony Cohen, Yehuda Senecky, Avinoam Shuper, Dov Inbar, Gabriel Chodick, Varda Shalev, Raanan Raz
Epilepsy and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were reported to co-occur at rates higher than expected for coincidental findings. This study investigated the prevalence of both disorders in community-based primary care practice. The central database of the second-largest health maintenance organization in Israel was searched for all children aged 6 to 13 years (n = 284 419; 51.5% males) diagnosed as having ADHD according to the physicians' records and/or the filling of at least 10 prescriptions for antiepileptic medications according to pharmacy records...
January 2013: Journal of Child Neurology
Cecilia Adelöw, Tomas Andersson, Anders Ahlbom, Torbjörn Tomson
OBJECTIVE: To study hospitalization for psychiatric disorders before and after onset of unprovoked epileptic seizures/epilepsy. METHOD: In this population-based case-control study, the cases were 1,885 persons from Stockholm with new onset of unprovoked seizures from September 1, 2000, through August 31, 2008, identified in the Stockholm Epilepsy Register. Controls, in total 15,080, were randomly selected from the register of the Stockholm County population. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to assess the risk of developing unprovoked epileptic seizures before and after hospitalization for a psychiatric diagnosis defined as a psychiatric hospital discharge diagnosis using International Classification of Disease codes from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry...
February 7, 2012: Neurology
Kenneth Alper, Kelly A Schwartz, Russell L Kolts, Arif Khan
BACKGROUND: Clinical trial data provide an approach to the investigation of the effects of psychopharmacological agents, and psychiatric disorders themselves, on seizure threshold. METHODS: We accessed public domain data from Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Phase II and III clinical trials as Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) reports that noted seizure incidence in trials of psychotropic drugs approved in the United States between 1985 and 2004, involving a total of 75,873 patients...
August 15, 2007: Biological Psychiatry
Frank G Gilliam, John J Barry, Bruce P Hermann, Kimford J Meador, Victoria Vahle, Andres M Kanner
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common comorbid disorder in epilepsy but is not routinely assessed in neurology clinics. We aimed to create a rapid yet accurate screening instrument for major depression in people with epilepsy. METHODS: We developed a set of 46 items to identify symptoms of depression that do not overlap with common comorbid cognitive deficits or adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. This preliminary instrument and several reliable and valid instruments for diagnosis of depression on the basis of criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV, depression symptom severity, health status, and toxic effects of medication were applied to 205 adult outpatients with epilepsy...
May 2006: Lancet Neurology
Dale C Hesdorffer, W Allen Hauser, Elias Olafsson, Petur Ludvigsson, Olafur Kjartansson
Major depression has been shown to increase the risk for development of epilepsy, but prior studies have not evaluated whether this is due to specific symptoms of depression. We conducted a population-based case-control study of all newly diagnosed unprovoked seizures among Icelandic children and adults aged 10 years and older to test the hypothesis that major depression is a risk factor for developing unprovoked seizure and epilepsy, and to address whether specific symptoms of depression account for this increased risk...
January 2006: Annals of Neurology
Dale C Hesdorffer, Petur Ludvigsson, Elias Olafsson, Gunnar Gudmundsson, Olafur Kjartansson, W Allen Hauser
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) occurs more frequently than expected in prevalent cohorts with epilepsy. The association has been attributed to the epilepsy or its treatment, although it is impossible to determine in previous studies which condition occurs first. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a population-based case-control study of all newly diagnosed unprovoked seizures among Icelandic children younger than 16 years to address the question of time order...
July 2004: Archives of General Psychiatry
L Forsgren, L Nyström
An epidemiological community-based study of incident cases with non-provoked epileptic seizures, using case-referent methodology, was carried out to explore possible risk factors for epileptic seizures. 83 cases, between 17 and 74 years of age, of whom 67.4% had seizures of localized onset, were compared with 2 age- and sex-matched referents. Higher birth weight, movement disabilities, mental retardation, head trauma, brain tumor, depression, a period of unemployment during the previous 6 months and a history of epilepsy in relatives were more common in cases than in referent subjects...
May 1990: Epilepsy Research
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