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D M Cardo, D H Culver, C A Ciesielski, P U Srivastava, R Marcus, D Abiteboul, J Heptonstall, G Ippolito, F Lot, P S McKibben, D M Bell
BACKGROUND: The average risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection after percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood is 0.3 percent, but the factors that influence this risk are not well understood. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of health care workers with occupational, percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood. The case patients were those who became seropositive after exposure to HIV, as reported by national surveillance systems in France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States...
November 20, 1997: New England Journal of Medicine
Anupam B Jena, DeWitt C Baldwin, Steven R Daugherty, David O Meltzer, Vineet M Arora
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2010: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Vineet Chopra, Dana P Edelson, Sanjay Saint
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Ermias D Belay, Lawrence B Schonberger, Paul Brown, Suzette A Priola, Bruce Chesebro, Robert G Will, David M Asher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2010: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Hajime Kanamori, William A Rutala, Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, David J Weber
Hospital construction and renovation activities are an ever-constant phenomenon in healthcare facilities, causing dust contamination and possible dispersal of fungal spores. We reviewed fungal outbreaks that occurred during construction and renovation over the last 4 decades as well as current infection prevention strategies and control measures. Fungal outbreaks still occur in healthcare settings, especially among patients with hematological malignancies and those who are immunocompromised. The causative pathogens of these outbreaks were usually Aspergillus species, but Zygomycetes and other fungi were occasionally reported...
August 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
William A Rutala, David J Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2014: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Daniel J Morgan, Elizabeth Rogawski, Kerri A Thom, J Kristie Johnson, Eli N Perencevich, Michelle Shardell, Surbhi Leekha, Anthony D Harris
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of environmental contamination in the transmission of multidrug-resistant bacteria to healthcare workers' clothing. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Six intensive care units at a tertiary care hospital. SUBJECTS: Healthcare workers including registered nurses, patient care technicians, respiratory therapists, occupational/physical therapists, and physicians. INTERVENTIONS: None...
April 2012: Critical Care Medicine
Marlene R Miller, Michael Griswold, J Mitchell Harris, Gayane Yenokyan, W Charles Huskins, Michele Moss, Tom B Rice, Debra Ridling, Deborah Campbell, Peter Margolis, Stephen Muething, Richard J Brilli
OBJECTIVE: Despite the magnitude of the problem of catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CA-BSIs) in children, relatively little research has been performed to identify effective strategies to reduce these complications. In this study, we aimed to develop and evaluate effective catheter-care practices to reduce pediatric CA-BSIs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Our study was a multi-institutional, interrupted time-series design with historical control data and was conducted in 29 PICUs across the United States...
February 2010: Pediatrics
Leah M Feazel, Ashish Malhotra, Eli N Perencevich, Peter Kaboli, Daniel J Diekema, Marin L Schweizer
OBJECTIVES: Despite vigorous infection control measures, Clostridium difficile continues to cause significant disease burden. Antibiotic stewardship programmes (ASPs) may prevent C. difficile infections by limiting exposure to certain antibiotics. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the effect of ASPs on the risk of C. difficile infection in hospitalized adult patients. METHODS: Searches of PubMed, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and two Cochrane databases were conducted to find all published studies on interventions related to antibiotic stewardship and C...
July 2014: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
George G Zhanel, Doris Cheung, Heather Adam, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Alyssa Golden, Frank Schweizer, Bala Gorityala, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew Walkty, Alfred S Gin, Daryl J Hoban, James A Karlowsky
Eravacycline is an investigational, synthetic fluorocycline antibacterial agent that is structurally similar to tigecycline with two modifications to the D-ring of its tetracycline core: a fluorine atom replaces the dimethylamine moiety at C-7 and a pyrrolidinoacetamido group replaces the 2-tertiary-butyl glycylamido at C-9. Like other tetracyclines, eravacycline inhibits bacterial protein synthesis through binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Eravacycline demonstrates broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
April 2016: Drugs
Cecilia Jernberg, Sonja Löfmark, Charlotta Edlund, Janet K Jansson
Although it is known that antibiotics have short-term impacts on the human microbiome, recent evidence demonstrates that the impacts of some antibiotics remain for extended periods of time. In addition, antibiotic-resistant strains can persist in the human host environment in the absence of selective pressure. Both molecular- and cultivation-based approaches have revealed ecological disturbances in the microbiota after antibiotic administration, in particular for specific members of the bacterial community that are susceptible or alternatively resistant to the antibiotic in question...
November 2010: Microbiology
Marin L Schweizer, Hsiu-Yin Chiang, Edward Septimus, Julia Moody, Barbara Braun, Joanne Hafner, Melissa A Ward, Jason Hickok, Eli N Perencevich, Daniel J Diekema, Cheryl L Richards, Joseph E Cavanaugh, Jonathan B Perlin, Loreen A Herwaldt
IMPORTANCE: Previous studies suggested that a bundled intervention was associated with lower rates of Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infections (SSIs) among patients having cardiac or orthopedic operations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the implementation of an evidence-based bundle is associated with a lower risk of S. aureus SSIs in patients undergoing cardiac operations or hip or knee arthroplasties. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Twenty hospitals in 9 US states participated in this pragmatic study; rates of SSIs were collected for a median of 39 months (range, 39-43) during the preintervention period (March 1, 2009, to intervention) and a median of 21 months (range, 14-22) during the intervention period (from intervention start through March 31, 2014)...
June 2, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Peter Pronovost, Dale Needham, Sean Berenholtz, David Sinopoli, Haitao Chu, Sara Cosgrove, Bryan Sexton, Robert Hyzy, Robert Welsh, Gary Roth, Joseph Bander, John Kepros, Christine Goeschel
BACKGROUND: Catheter-related bloodstream infections occurring in the intensive care unit (ICU) are common, costly, and potentially lethal. METHODS: We conducted a collaborative cohort study predominantly in ICUs in Michigan. An evidence-based intervention was used to reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Multilevel Poisson regression modeling was used to compare infection rates before, during, and up to 18 months after implementation of the study intervention...
December 28, 2006: New England Journal of Medicine
Jennifer H Han, Nancy Sullivan, Brian F Leas, David A Pegues, Janice L Kaczmarek, Craig A Umscheid
The cleaning of hard surfaces in hospital rooms is critical for reducing health care-associated infections. This review describes the evidence examining current methods of cleaning, disinfecting, and monitoring cleanliness of patient rooms, as well as contextual factors that may affect implementation and effectiveness. Key informants were interviewed, and a systematic search for publications since 1990 was done with the use of several bibliographic and gray literature resources. Studies examining surface contamination, colonization, or infection with Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or vancomycin-resistant enterococci were included...
October 20, 2015: Annals of Internal Medicine
Sanjay K Jain, Deborah Persaud, Trish M Perl, Margaret A Pass, Kathleen M Murphy, John M Pisciotta, Peter F Scholl, James F Casella, David J Sullivan
An investigation of malaria in a US patient without recent travel established Plasmodium falciparum molecular genotype identity in 2 patients who shared a hospital room. P. falciparum can be transmitted in a hospital environment from patient to patient by blood inoculum if standard precautions are breached.
July 2005: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Eyal Zimlichman, Daniel Henderson, Orly Tamir, Calvin Franz, Peter Song, Cyrus K Yamin, Carol Keohane, Charles R Denham, David W Bates
IMPORTANCE: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) account for a large proportion of the harms caused by health care and are associated with high costs. Better evaluation of the costs of these infections could help providers and payers to justify investing in prevention. OBJECTIVE: To estimate costs associated with the most significant and targetable HAIs. DATA SOURCES: For estimation of attributable costs, we conducted a systematic review of the literature using PubMed for the years 1986 through April 2013...
December 9, 2013: JAMA Internal Medicine
E Berry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2014: Journal of Hospital Infection
Michael Y Lin, Keith F Woeltje, Yosef M Khan, Bala Hota, Joshua A Doherty, Tara B Borlawsky, Kurt B Stevenson, Scott K Fridkin, Robert A Weinstein, William E Trick
OBJECTIVE: Central line-associated bloodstream infection (BSI) rates are a key quality metric for comparing hospital quality and safety. Traditional BSI surveillance may be limited by interrater variability. We assessed whether a computer-automated method of central line-associated BSI detection can improve the validity of surveillance. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Eight medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in 4 academic medical centers...
December 2014: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Keith F Woeltje, Michael Y Lin, Michael Klompas, Marc Oliver Wright, Gianna Zuccotti, William E Trick
Electronic surveillance for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) is increasingly widespread. This is driven by multiple factors: a greater burden on hospitals to provide surveillance data to state and national agencies, financial pressures to be more efficient with HAI surveillance, the desire for more objective comparisons between healthcare facilities, and the increasing amount of patient data available electronically. Optimal implementation of electronic surveillance requires that specific information be available to the surveillance systems...
September 2014: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Michael J Noto, Henry J Domenico, Daniel W Byrne, Tom Talbot, Todd W Rice, Gordon R Bernard, Arthur P Wheeler
IMPORTANCE: Daily bathing of critically ill patients with the broad-spectrum, topical antimicrobial agent chlorhexidine is widely performed and may reduce health care-associated infections. OBJECTIVE: To determine if daily bathing of critically ill patients with chlorhexidine decreases the incidence of health care-associated infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A pragmatic cluster randomized, crossover study of 9340 patients admitted to 5 adult intensive care units of a tertiary medical center in Nashville, Tennessee, from July 2012 through July 2013...
January 27, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
2016-05-18 17:31:29
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