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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768154/tuberculous-pericarditis
#1
Daniel Faria, Antonio Freitas
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 378, Issue 20, May 2018.
May 17, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778658/marijuana-and-lung-disease
#2
REVIEW
Donald P Tashkin
As marijuana smoking prevalence increases in the U.S. concern regarding its potential risks to lung health has also risen, given the general similarity in the smoke contents between marijuana and tobacco. Most studies have found a significant association between marijuana smoking and chronic bronchitis symptoms after adjustment for tobacco. While reports are mixed regarding associations between marijuana smoking and lung function, none has shown a relationship to decrements in forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and few have found a relationship to a decreased ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC), possibly related to an association between marijuana and an increased FVC...
May 17, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778660/sarcoidosis-diagnostic-score-sds-a-systematic-evaluation-to-enhance-the-diagnosis-of-sarcoidosis
#3
Alexandra N Bickett, Elyse E Lower, Robert P Baughman
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of sarcoidosis is made by the combination of clinical features and biopsy results. The clinical features of sarcoidosis can be quite variable. We developed a Sarcoidosis Diagnostic Score (SDS) to summarize the clinical features of possible sarcoidosis patients. METHODS: Biopsy confirmed sarcoidosis patients seen during a seven-month time period at the University of Cincinnati Sarcoidosis clinic were prospectively identified. Non-sarcoidosis patients seen at the same clinic were used as controls...
May 17, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705307/a-new-method-for-enhanced-expectoration-of-sputum-by-vibratory-stimulation-of-the-cervical-trachea
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mitsuhiro Kamimura, Nobuhisa Kameyama, Chie Homma, Tatsuya Ibe, Shinjiro Takeoka, Atsuto Mouri, Yoichiro Hamamoto
BACKGROUND: Expectoration of sputum can be difficult for patients with respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, or bronchiectasis because of the effects of decreased pulmonary function, respiratory muscle fatigue, altered sputum properties, and impaired ciliary function. We developed a new method for the vibratory stimulation of the cervical trachea and this study aimed to compare it with the Acapella (a current oscillation device) method...
July 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554732/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-atorvastatin-in-patients-with-bronchiectasis-infected-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-proof-of-concept-study
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Pallavi Bedi, James D Chalmers, Catriona Graham, Andrea Clarke, Samantha Donaldson, Catherine Doherty, John R W Govan, Donald J Davidson, Adriano G Rossi, Adam T Hill
BACKGROUND: There are no randomized controlled trials of statin therapy in patients with severe bronchiectasis who are chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. METHODS: Thirty-two patients chronically infected with P aeruginosa were recruited in this double-blind cross-over randomized controlled trial. Sixteen patients were recruited in each arm, were given atorvastatin 80 mg or placebo for 3 months followed by a washout period for 6 weeks, and then crossed over and administered the alternative therapy for 3 months...
August 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052582/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#6
REVIEW
Fernando J Martinez, Harold R Collard, Annie Pardo, Ganesh Raghu, Luca Richeldi, Moises Selman, Jeffrey J Swigris, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Athol U Wells
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive lung disease characterized by progressive lung scarring and the histological picture of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). It is associated with increasing cough and dyspnoea and impaired quality of life. IPF affects ∼3 million people worldwide, with incidence increasing dramatically with age. The diagnostic approach includes the exclusion of other interstitial lung diseases or overlapping conditions and depends on the identification of the UIP pattern, usually with high-resolution CT; lung biopsy might be required in some patients...
October 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240562/guidelines-for-management-of-incidental-pulmonary-nodules-detected-on-ct-images-from-the-fleischner-society-2017
#7
Heber MacMahon, David P Naidich, Jin Mo Goo, Kyung Soo Lee, Ann N C Leung, John R Mayo, Atul C Mehta, Yoshiharu Ohno, Charles A Powell, Mathias Prokop, Geoffrey D Rubin, Cornelia M Schaefer-Prokop, William D Travis, Paul E Van Schil, Alexander A Bankier
The Fleischner Society Guidelines for management of solid nodules were published in 2005, and separate guidelines for subsolid nodules were issued in 2013. Since then, new information has become available; therefore, the guidelines have been revised to reflect current thinking on nodule management. The revised guidelines incorporate several substantive changes that reflect current thinking on the management of small nodules. The minimum threshold size for routine follow-up has been increased, and recommended follow-up intervals are now given as a range rather than as a precise time period to give radiologists, clinicians, and patients greater discretion to accommodate individual risk factors and preferences...
July 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115167/physician-assessment-of-pretest-probability-of-malignancy-and-adherence-with-guidelines-for-pulmonary-nodule-evaluation
#8
MULTICENTER STUDY
Nichole T Tanner, Alexander Porter, Michael K Gould, Xiao-Jun Li, Anil Vachani, Gerard A Silvestri
BACKGROUND: The annual incidence of pulmonary nodules is estimated at 1.57 million. Guidelines recommend using an initial assessment of nodule probability of malignancy (pCA). A previous study found that despite this recommendation, physicians did not follow guidelines. METHODS: Physician assessments (N = 337) and two previously validated risk model assessments of pretest probability of cancer were evaluated for performance in 337 patients with pulmonary nodules based on final diagnosis and compared...
August 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202342/the-impact-of-statin-drug-use-on-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-copd-a-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Adam J N Raymakers, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Don D Sin, Mary A De Vera, Larry D Lynd
BACKGROUND: Patients with COPD are often prescribed statin drugs due to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease. There is considerable debate about the benefits conferred by statin drugs in patients with COPD. This study evaluates the association of statin drug use with all-cause and lung-related mortality in patients with COPD. METHODS: This study uses population-based administrative data for the province of British Columbia, Canada. A cohort of patients with COPD was identified based on individual patient prescription records...
September 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212835/chest-ct-signs-in-pulmonary-disease-a-pictorial-review
#10
REVIEW
Shine Raju, Subha Ghosh, Atul C Mehta
CT scanning of the chest is one of the most important imaging modalities available to a pulmonologist. The advent of high-resolution CT scanning of the chest has led to its increasing use. Although chest radiographs are still useful as an initial test, their utility is limited in the diagnosis of lung diseases that depend on higher resolution images such as interstitial lung diseases and pulmonary vascular diseases. Several metaphoric chest CT scan signs have been described linking abnormal imaging patterns to lung diseases...
June 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232056/prophylactic-corticosteroids-for-prevention-of-postextubation-stridor-and-reintubation-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Akira Kuriyama, Noriyuki Umakoshi, Rao Sun
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid administration before elective extubation has been used to prevent postextubation stridor and reintubation. We updated a systematic review to identify which patients would benefit from prophylactic corticosteroid administration before elective extubation. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Wanfang Database, the China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for eligible trials from inception through February 29, 2016...
May 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199173/accuracy-of-immunofluorescence-in-the-diagnosis-of-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia
#12
Amelia Shoemark, Emily Frost, Mellisa Dixon, Sarah Ollosson, Kate Kilpin, Mitali Patel, Juliet Scully, Andrew V Rogers, Hannah M Mitchison, Andrew Bush, Claire Hogg
RATIONALE: The standard approach to diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in the United Kingdom consists of assessing ciliary function by high-speed microscopy and ultrastructure by election microscopy, but equipment and expertise is not widely available internationally. The identification of biallelic disease-causing mutations is also diagnostic, but many disease-causing genes are unknown, and testing is not widely available outside the United States. Fluorescent antibodies to ciliary proteins are used to validate research genetic studies, but diagnostic utility in this disease has not been systematically evaluated...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248551/association-between-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-lung-health-from-young-adulthood-to-middle-age
#13
Lillian R Benck, Michael J Cuttica, Laura A Colangelo, Stephen Sidney, Mark T Dransfield, David M Mannino, David R Jacobs, Cora E Lewis, Na Zhu, George R Washko, Kiang Liu, Mercedes R Carnethon, Ravi Kalhan
RATIONALE: Beyond the risks of smoking, there are limited data on factors associated with change in lung function over time. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness was longitudinally associated with preservation of lung health. METHODS: Prospective data were collected from 3,332 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study aged 18-30 in 1985 who underwent treadmill exercise testing at baseline visit, and 2,735 participants with a second treadmill test 20 years later...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223395/oxygen-therapy-for-interstitial-lung-disease-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Emily C Bell, Narelle S Cox, Nicole Goh, Ian Glaspole, Glen P Westall, Alice Watson, Anne E Holland
This review aims to establish the impact of oxygen therapy on dyspnoea, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), exercise capacity and mortality in interstitial lung disease (ILD).We included studies that compared oxygen therapy to no oxygen therapy in adults with ILD. No limitations were placed on study design or intervention type. Two reviewers independently evaluated studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcome was dyspnoea.Eight studies evaluated the acute effects of oxygen (n=1509)...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128970/global-strategy-for-the-diagnosis-management-and-prevention-of-chronic-obstructive-lung-disease-2017-report-gold-executive-summary
#15
Claus F Vogelmeier, Gerard J Criner, Fernando J Martinez, Antonio Anzueto, Peter J Barnes, Jean Bourbeau, Bartolome R Celli, Rongchang Chen, Marc Decramer, Leonardo M Fabbri, Peter Frith, David M G Halpin, M Victorina López Varela, Masaharu Nishimura, Nicolas Roche, Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin, Don D Sin, Dave Singh, Robert Stockley, Jørgen Vestbo, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Alvar Agustí
This Executive Summary of the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2017 report focuses primarily on the revised and novel parts of the document. The most significant changes include: (1) the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been refined to separate the spirometric assessment from symptom evaluation. ABCD groups are now proposed to be derived exclusively from patient symptoms and their history of exacerbations; (2) for each of the groups A to D, escalation strategies for pharmacologic treatments are proposed; (3) the concept of deescalation of therapy is introduced in the treatment assessment scheme; (4) nonpharmacologic therapies are comprehensively presented; and (5) the importance of comorbid conditions in managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is reviewed...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693594/osa-and-cardiac-arrhythmogenesis-mechanistic-insights
#16
REVIEW
Anna M May, David R Van Wagoner, Reena Mehra
A surge of data has reproducibly identified strong associations of OSA with cardiac arrhythmias. As an extension of epidemiologic and clinic-based findings, experimental investigations have made strides in advancing our understanding of the putative OSA and cardiac arrhythmogenesis mechanistic underpinnings. Although most studies have focused on the links between OSA and atrial fibrillation (AF), relationships with ventricular arrhythmias have also been characterized. Key findings implicate OSA-related autonomic nervous system fluctuations typified by enhanced parasympathetic activation during respiratory events and sympathetic surges subsequent to respiratory events, which contribute to augmented arrhythmic propensity...
January 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211572/low-dose-computed-tomography-screening-for-lung-cancer-in-populations-highly-exposed-to-tobacco-a-systematic-methodological-appraisal-of-published-randomised-controlled-trials
#17
REVIEW
Gaëlle Coureau, L Rachid Salmi, Cécile Etard, Hélène Sancho-Garnier, Catherine Sauvaget, Simone Mathoulin-Pélissier
Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening recommendations for lung cancer are contradictory. The French National Authority for Health commissioned experts to carry a systematic review on the effectiveness, acceptability and safety of lung cancer screening with LDCT in subjects highly exposed to tobacco. We used MEDLINE and Embase databases (2003-2014) and identified 83 publications representing ten randomised control trials. Control arms and methodology varied considerably, precluding a full comparison and questioning reproducibility of the findings...
July 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19771478/lack-of-association-between-asthma-and-abo-blood-group
#18
Mahdi Bijanzadeh, Nallur B Ramachandra, P A Mahesh, Mysore R Savitha, B S Manjunath, B S Jayaraj
ABO is the most important blood group system in transfusion and transplantation practices. Glycosyltransferases are controlled by the ABO system which is helpful in building oligosaccharide structures on the cell surface of erythrocytes and vascular endothelium and in the exocrine secretion system, including the respiratory tract. We analyzed the ABO blood group of 200 children and adults with asthma as well as that of 2000 healthy subjects as controls. The most common blood group among the patients and controls was "O" (43...
November 2009: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028990/acute-exacerbation-of-copd
#19
REVIEW
Fanny W Ko, Ka Pang Chan, David S Hui, John R Goddard, Janet G Shaw, David W Reid, Ian A Yang
The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations...
October 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164291/a-critical-review-of-the-quality-of-cough-clinical-practice-guidelines
#20
REVIEW
Mei Jiang, Wei-Jie Guan, Zhang-Fu Fang, Yan-Qing Xie, Jia-Xing Xie, Hao Chen, Dang Wei, Ke-Fang Lai, Nan-Shan Zhong
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed to provide health-care practitioners with the best possible evidence, but the quality of these CPGs varies greatly. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to systematically evaluate the quality of cough CPGs and identify gaps limiting evidence-based practice. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted to identify cough CPGs in guideline databases, developers' Websites, and Medline...
October 2016: Chest
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