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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115167/physician-assessment-of-pre-test-probability-of-malignancy-and-adherence-with-guidelines-for-pulmonary-nodule-evaluation
#1
Nichole T Tanner, Alexander Porter, Michael Gould, Xiao-Jun Li, Anil Vachani, Gerard A Silvestri
BACKGROUND: The annual incidence of pulmonary nodules is estimated at 1.57 million. Guidelines recommend utilizing an initial assessment of nodule probability for malignancy (pCA). A previous study found that despite this recommendation, physicians did not follow guidelines. METHODS: Physician (n= 337) and two previously validated risk model assessment of cancer pre-test probability were evaluated for performance in 337 patients with pulmonary nodules based on final diagnosis and compared...
January 20, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202342/the-impact-of-statin-use-on-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-copd-a-population-based-cohort-study
#2
A J N Raymakers, M Sadatsafavi, D D Sin, M A De Vera, L D Lynd
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive disease (COPD) are often prescribed statins due to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is considerable debate about the benefits conferred by statins in patients with COPD. This study evaluates the association of statin use with all-cause and pulmonary-related mortality in COPD patients. METHODS: This study uses population-based administrative data for the province of British Columbia, Canada...
February 12, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212835/chest-computed-tomography-signs-in-pulmonary-disease-a-pictorial-review
#3
REVIEW
Shine Raju, Subha Ghosh, Atul C Mehta
Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is one of the most important imaging modalities available to a pulmonologist. The advent of high-resolution CT of the chest has led to its increasing use. While chest radiographs are still useful as an initial test, their utility is limited in the diagnosis of lung diseases which depend on higher resolution images such as interstitial lung diseases and pulmonary vascular diseases. Several metaphorical chest CT signs have been described linking abnormal imaging patterns to lung diseases...
February 14, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232056/prophylactic-corticosteroids-for-prevention-of-post-extubation-stridor-and-reintubation-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Akira Kuriyama, Noriyuki Umakoshi, Rao Sun
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid administration before elective extubation has been employed to prevent post-extubation stridor and reintubation. We updated a systematic review to identify which patients would benefit from prophylactic corticosteroids before elective extubation. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Wanfang Database, the China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for eligible trials from inception through February 29, 2016...
February 20, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199173/accuracy-of-immunofluorescence-in-the-diagnosis-of-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia
#5
Amelia Shoemark, Emily Frost, Mellisa Dixon, Sarah Ollosson, Kate Kilpin, Mitali Patel, Juliet Scully, Andrew V Rogers, Hannah M Mitchison, Andrew Bush, Claire Hogg
Rationale The standard approach to diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in the UK consists of assessing ciliary function by high-speed-microscopy and ultrastructure by election microscopy, but equipment and expertise is not widely available internationally. The identification of bi-allelic disease causing mutations is also diagnostic, but many disease causing genes are unknown, and testing is not widely available outside the USA. Fluorescent antibodies to ciliary proteins are used to validate research genetic studies, but diagnostic utility in this disease has not been systematically evaluated...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248551/association-between-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-lung-health-from-young-adulthood-to-middle-age
#6
Lillian R Benck, Michael J Cuttica, Laura A Colangelo, Stephen Sidney, Mark T Dransfield, David M Mannino, David R Jacobs, Cora E Lewis, Na Zhu, George R Washko, Kiang Liu, Mercedes R Carnethon, Ravi Kalhan
RATIONALE: Beyond the risks of smoking, there are limited data on factors associated with change in lung function over time. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness was longitudinally associated with preservation of lung health. METHODS: Prospective data from 3332 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study aged 18 to 30 in 1985 who underwent treadmill exercise testing at baseline visit, and 2735 participants with a second treadmill test 20 years later...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223395/oxygen-therapy-for-interstitial-lung-disease-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Emily C Bell, Narelle S Cox, Nicole Goh, Ian Glaspole, Glen P Westall, Alice Watson, Anne E Holland
This review aims to establish the impact of oxygen therapy on dyspnoea, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), exercise capacity and mortality in interstitial lung disease (ILD).We included studies that compared oxygen therapy to no oxygen therapy in adults with ILD. No limitations were placed on study design or intervention type. Two reviewers independently evaluated studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcome was dyspnoea.Eight studies evaluated the acute effects of oxygen (n=1509)...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128970/global-strategy-for-the-diagnosis-management-and-prevention-of-chronic-obstructive-lung-disease-2017-report-gold-executive-summary
#8
Claus F Vogelmeier, Gerard J Criner, Fernando J Martinez, Antonio Anzueto, Peter J Barnes, Jean Bourbeau, Bartolome R Celli, Rongchang Chen, Marc Decramer, Leonardo M Fabbri, Peter Frith, David M G Halpin, M Victorina López Varela, Masaharu Nishimura, Nicolas Roche, Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin, Don D Sin, Dave Singh, Robert Stockley, Jørgen Vestbo, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Alvar Agustí
This Executive Summary of the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2017 report focuses primarily on the revised and novel parts of the document. The most significant changes include: (1) the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been refined to separate the spirometric assessment from symptom evaluation. ABCD groups are now proposed to be derived exclusively from patient symptoms and their history of exacerbations; (2) for each of the groups A to D, escalation strategies for pharmacologic treatments are proposed; (3) the concept of deescalation of therapy is introduced in the treatment assessment scheme; (4) nonpharmacologic therapies are comprehensively presented; and (5) the importance of comorbid conditions in managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is reviewed...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693594/osa-and-cardiac-arrhythmogenesis-mechanistic-insights
#9
REVIEW
Anna M May, David R Van Wagoner, Reena Mehra
A surge of data has reproducibly identified strong associations of OSA with cardiac arrhythmias. As an extension of epidemiologic and clinic-based findings, experimental investigations have made strides in advancing our understanding of the putative OSA and cardiac arrhythmogenesis mechanistic underpinnings. Although most studies have focused on the links between OSA and atrial fibrillation (AF), relationships with ventricular arrhythmias have also been characterized. Key findings implicate OSA-related autonomic nervous system fluctuations typified by enhanced parasympathetic activation during respiratory events and sympathetic surges subsequent to respiratory events, which contribute to augmented arrhythmic propensity...
January 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211572/low-dose-computed-tomography-screening-for-lung-cancer-in-populations-highly-exposed-to-tobacco-a%C3%A2-systematic-methodological-appraisal-of-published-randomised-controlled-trials
#10
REVIEW
Gaëlle Coureau, L Rachid Salmi, Cécile Etard, Hélène Sancho-Garnier, Catherine Sauvaget, Simone Mathoulin-Pélissier
Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening recommendations for lung cancer are contradictory. The French National Authority for Health commissioned experts to carry a systematic review on the effectiveness, acceptability and safety of lung cancer screening with LDCT in subjects highly exposed to tobacco. We used MEDLINE and Embase databases (2003-2014) and identified 83 publications representing ten randomised control trials. Control arms and methodology varied considerably, precluding a full comparison and questioning reproducibility of the findings...
July 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19771478/lack-of-association-between-asthma-and-abo-blood-group
#11
Mahdi Bijanzadeh, Nallur B Ramachandra, P A Mahesh, Mysore R Savitha, B S Manjunath, B S Jayaraj
ABO is the most important blood group system in transfusion and transplantation practices. Glycosyltransferases are controlled by the ABO system which is helpful in building oligosaccharide structures on the cell surface of erythrocytes and vascular endothelium and in the exocrine secretion system, including the respiratory tract. We analyzed the ABO blood group of 200 children and adults with asthma as well as that of 2000 healthy subjects as controls. The most common blood group among the patients and controls was "O" (43...
November 2009: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028990/acute-exacerbation-of-copd
#12
REVIEW
Fanny W Ko, Ka Pang Chan, David S Hui, John R Goddard, Janet G Shaw, David W Reid, Ian A Yang
The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations...
October 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164291/a-critical-review-of-the-quality-of-cough-clinical-practice-guidelines
#13
Mei Jiang, Wei-Jie Guan, Zhang-Fu Fang, Yan-Qing Xie, Jia-Xing Xie, Hao Chen, Dang Wei, Ke-Fang Lai, Nan-Shan Zhong
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed to provide health-care practitioners with the best possible evidence, but the quality of these CPGs varies greatly. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to systematically evaluate the quality of cough CPGs and identify gaps limiting evidence-based practice. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted to identify cough CPGs in guideline databases, developers' Websites, and Medline...
October 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27035787/what-is-a-lung-nodule
#14
Christopher G Slatore, Renda Soylemez Wiener, Amber D Laing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009070/lung-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-in-national-lung-screening-trial-participants-who-underwent-low-dose-ct-prevalence-screening-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis-of-a-randomised-multicentre-diagnostic-screening-trial
#15
Edward F Patz, Erin Greco, Constantine Gatsonis, Paul Pinsky, Barnett S Kramer, Denise R Aberle
BACKGROUND: Annual low-dose CT screening for lung cancer has been recommended for high-risk individuals, but the necessity of yearly low-dose CT in all eligible individuals is uncertain. This study examined rates of lung cancer in National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants who had a negative prevalence (initial) low-dose CT screen to explore whether less frequent screening could be justified in some lower-risk subpopulations. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort analysis of data from the NLST, a randomised, multicentre screening trial comparing three annual low-dose CT assessments with three annual chest radiographs for the early detection of lung cancer in high-risk, eligible individuals (aged 55-74 years with at least a 30 pack-year history of cigarette smoking, and, if a former smoker, had quit within the past 15 years), recruited from US medical centres between Aug 5, 2002, and April 26, 2004...
May 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921304/pulmonary-nodules-and-ct-screening-the-past-present-and-future
#16
REVIEW
M Ruparel, S L Quaife, N Navani, J Wardle, S M Janes, D R Baldwin
Lung cancer screening has come a long way since the early studies with chest X-ray. Advancing technology and progress in the processing of images have enabled low dose CT to be tried and tested, and evidence suggests its use can result in a significant mortality benefit. There are several issues that need refining in order to successfully implement screening in the UK and elsewhere. Some countries have started patchy implementation of screening and there is increased recognition that the appropriate management of pulmonary nodules is crucial to optimise benefits of early detection, while reducing harm caused by inappropriate medical intervention...
April 2016: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26621899/-2015-esc-ers-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pulmonary-hypertension-the-joint-task-force-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-european-society-of-cardiology-esc-and-the-european-respiratory-society-ers-nazzareno-gali%C3%A3
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26426314/treatment-of-unexplained-chronic-cough-chest-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#18
REVIEW
Peter Gibson, Gang Wang, Lorcan McGarvey, Anne E Vertigan, Kenneth W Altman, Surinder S Birring
BACKGROUND: Unexplained chronic cough (UCC) causes significant impairments in quality of life. Effective assessment and treatment approaches are needed for UCC. METHODS: This systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) asked: What is the efficacy of treatment compared with usual care for cough severity, cough frequency, and cough-related quality of life in patients with UCC? Studies of adults and adolescents aged > 12 years with a chronic cough of > 8 weeks' duration that was unexplained after systematic investigation and treatment were included and assessed for relevance and quality...
January 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25176967/differential-diagnosis-of-usual-interstitial-pneumonia-when-is-it-truly-idiopathic
#19
Wim A Wuyts, Alberto Cavazza, Giulio Rossi, Francesco Bonella, Nicola Sverzellati, Paolo Spagnolo
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most common and lethal of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, is defined by a radiological and/or pathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). However, UIP is not synonymous with IPF as other clinical conditions may be associated with UIP, including chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, collagen vascular disease, drug toxicity, asbestosis, familial IPF and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Differentiating IPF ("idiopathic UIP") from conditions that mimic IPF ("secondary UIP") has substantial therapeutic and prognostic implications...
September 2014: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24897105/images-in-clinical-medicine-tattoos-and-sarcoidosis
#20
Lisa K Torres, Saadia A Faiz
A 29-year-old man presented with an acute onset of right pleuritic chest pain and a 3-month history of dyspnea, cough, and skin lesions. Physical examination revealed crackles in both lungs and multiple nonerythematous papules along the ink lines of a tattoo (Panel A). A chest radiograph (Panel B)..
June 5, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
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