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Pathophysiology of Pain

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101 papers 0 to 25 followers
By Xander Zuidema MD, pharmD, Anesthesiologist, intensivist, pain specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697531/mice-lacking-kcns1-in-peripheral-neurons-show-increased-basal-and-neuropathic-pain-sensitivity
#1
Christoforos Tsantoulas, Franziska Denk, Massimo Signore, Mohammed A Nassar, Kensuke Futai, Stephen B McMahon
Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are increasingly recognised as key regulators of nociceptive excitability. Kcns1 is one of the first potassium channels to be associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and mechanical sensitivity in the rat, as well as pain intensity and risk of developing chronic pain in humans. Here, we show that in mice Kcns1 is predominantly expressed in the cell body and axons of myelinated sensory neurons positive for neurofilament-200, including Aδ-fiber nociceptors and low-threshold Aβ mechanoreceptors...
April 24, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672454/pronociceptive-effects-mediated-by-adenosinergic-a2a-activity-at-the-nucleus-accumbens-but-what-about-the-autonomic-nervous-system
#2
James K Ruffle, Qasim Aziz, Adam D Farmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624516/neural-pathways-in-medial-septal-cholinergic-modulation-of-chronic-pain-distinct-contribution-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-ventral-hippocampus
#3
Ying-Ying Jiang, Shan Shao, Yu Zhang, Jie Zheng, Xi Chen, Shuang Cui, Feng-Yu Liu, You Wan, Ming Yi
One specific behavior can be synergistically modulated by different neural pathways. Medial septal (MS) cholinergic system innervates widespread cortical and subcortical regions and participates in pain modulation, but the underlying neural pathways are not fully understood. The present study examined the contribution of MS cholinergic neurons and two neural pathways: MS-rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and MS-ventral hippocampal CA1 (vCA1), in modulating perceptual and affective pain behaviors in a mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain...
April 5, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226044/neuroanatomy-and-neuropsychology-of-pain
#4
REVIEW
Shehzad Khalid, R Shane Tubbs
We have reviewed here the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological literature of the human brain and have proposed the various pain mechanisms that we currently know of. Essentially when tissue is damaged, peripheral nociceptors are activated continuously and prostanoids are hence produced. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and medications aim to target these prostanoids to treat the inflammatory component of pain. Normal pain tends to have a protective response. It is important for the nervous system to learn and recognize this painful stimulus earlier and quicker with repeated exposure to avoid tissue damage...
October 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481977/pain-after-spinal-cord-injury-is-associated-with-abnormal-presynaptic-inhibition-in-the-posterior-nucleus-of-the-thalamus
#5
Anthony Park, Olivia Uddin, Ying Li, Radi Masri, Asaf Keller
Pain after spinal cord injury (SCI-Pain) is one of the most debilitating sequelae of spinal cord injury, characterized as relentless, excruciating pain that is largely refractory to treatments. Although it is generally agreed that SCI-Pain results from maladaptive plasticity in the pain processing pathway that includes the spinothalamic tract and somatosensory thalamus, the specific mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of such pain are yet unclear. However, accumulating evidence suggests that SCI-Pain may be causally related to abnormal thalamic disinhibition, leading to hyperactivity in the posterior thalamic nucleus (PO), a higher-order nucleus involved in somatosensory and pain processing...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462012/neuroinflammation-and-central-sensitization-in-chronic-and-widespread-pain
#6
Ru-Rong Ji, Andrea Nackley, Yul Huh, Niccolò Terrando, William Maixner
Chronic pain is maintained in part by central sensitization, a phenomenon of synaptic plasticity, and increased neuronal responsiveness in central pain pathways after painful insults. Accumulating evidence suggests that central sensitization is also driven by neuroinflammation in the peripheral and central nervous system. A characteristic feature of neuroinflammation is the activation of glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, in the spinal cord and brain, leading to the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
February 19, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447138/inflammation-in-the-pathophysiology-of-neuropathic-pain
#7
Claudia Sommer, Mathias Leinders, Nurcan Üçeyler
Peripheral nerve injuries and diseases often lead to pain persisting beyond the resolution of damage, indicating an active disease-promoting process, which may result in chronic pain. This is regarded as a maladaptive mechanism resulting from neuroinflammation that originally serves to promote regeneration and healing. Knowledge on these physiological and pathophysiological processes has accumulated over the last few decades and has started to yield potential therapeutic targets. Key players are macrophages, T-lymphocytes, cytokines, and chemokines...
March 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811270/exploring-pain-pathophysiology-in-patients
#8
REVIEW
Claudia Sommer
Although animal models of pain have brought invaluable information on basic processes underlying pain pathophysiology, translation to humans is a problem. This Review will summarize what information has been gained by the direct study of patients with chronic pain. The techniques discussed range from patient phenotyping using quantitative sensory testing to specialized nociceptor neurophysiology, imaging methods of peripheral nociceptors, analyses of body fluids, genetics and epigenetics, and the generation of sensory neurons from patients via inducible pluripotent stem cells...
November 4, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377496/gene-transfer-of-a-naked-plasmid-pudk-hgf-encoding-human-hepatocyte-growth-factor-attenuates-skin-muscle-incision-and-retraction-induced-chronic-post-surgical-pain-in-rats
#9
C Hu, Y Lu, X Chen, Z Wu, Q Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) remains a major clinical problem and is often refractory to current treatments. New analgesic medications and strategies for pain relief are needed. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is known to be a multi-functional growth factor and regulates various biological activities. METHODS: We investigated the analgesic effect and underlying mechanism of plasmid pUDK-HGF encoding human HGF gene on CPSP induced by skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR) in rats...
May 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355609/is-the-nociception-mechanism-altered-in-offspring-of-morphine-abstinent-rats
#10
Ghorbangol Ashabi, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Ardeshir Akbarabadi, Nasim Vousooghi, Zahra Kheiri, Heidar Toolee, Solmaz Khalifeh, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
To investigate the effect of parental drug abuse on children, nociception, electrophysiological alteration, mRNA expression of opioid receptors, and expression of certain intracellular proteins in offspring of morphine-abstinent rats were studied. Adult male and female animals received water-soluble morphine for 21 days. Ten days after the last morphine administration, animals were placed for mating in 4 groups as follows: healthy (drug naive) female and male, morphine-abstinent female and healthy male, morphine-abstinent male and healthy female, morphine-abstinent male and morphine-abstinent female...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351125/central-inhibition-of-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-is-analgesic-in-experimental-neuropathic-pain
#11
Louise S C Nicol, Peter Thornton, Jon P Hatcher, Colin P Glover, Carl I Webster, Matthew Burrell, Kessia Hammett, Clare A Jones, Matthew A Sleeman, Andrew Billinton, Iain Chessell
With less than 50% of patients responding to the current standard of care and poor efficacy and selectivity of current treatments, neuropathic pain continues to be an area of considerable unmet medical need. Biological therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) provide better intrinsic selectivity; however, delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a challenge. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is well described in inflammation-induced pain, and early-phase clinical trials evaluating its antagonism have exemplified its importance as a peripheral pain target...
March 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351171/spinal-pkc-erk-signal-pathway-mediates-hyperalgesia-priming
#12
Wei-Hsin Chen, Ya-Ting Chang, Yong-Cyuan Chen, Sin-Jhong Cheng, Chien-Chang Chen
Chronic pain can be initiated by one or more acute stimulations to sensitize neurons into the primed state. In the primed state, the basal nociceptive thresholds of the animal are normal, but in response to another hyperalgesic stimulus, the animal develops enhanced and prolonged hyperalgesia. The exact mechanism of how primed state is formed is not completely understood. Here we showed that spinal PKC/ERK signal pathway is required for neuronal plasticity change, hyperalgesic priming formation and the development of chronic hyperalgesia using acid-induced muscle pain (AIMP) model in mice...
January 18, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334500/overexpression-of-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptors-in-peripheral-afferents-but-not-in-combination-with-enkephalin-decreases-neuropathic-pain-behavior-and-enhances-opioid-analgesia-in-mouse
#13
Amanda H Klein, Husam K Mohammad, Rabiah Ali, Brad Peper, Steven P Wilson, Srinivasa N Raja, Matthias Ringkamp, Sarah Sweitzer
BACKGROUND: The current study used recombinant herpes simplex virus type I to increase expression of µ-opiate receptors and the opioid ligand preproenkephalin in peripheral nerve fibers in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. It was predicted that viral vector delivery of a combination of genes encoding the µ-opioid receptor and preproenkephalin would attenuate neuropathic pain and enhance opioid analgesia. The behavioral effects would be paralleled by changes in response properties of primary afferent neurons...
January 15, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302197/amygdala-plasticity-and-pain
#14
REVIEW
Jeremy M Thompson, Volker Neugebauer
The amygdala is a limbic brain region that plays a key role in emotional processing, neuropsychiatric disorders, and the emotional-affective dimension of pain. Preclinical and clinical studies have identified amygdala hyperactivity as well as impairment of cortical control mechanisms in pain states. Hyperactivity of basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons generates enhanced feedforward inhibition and deactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), resulting in pain-related cognitive deficits. The mPFC sends excitatory projections to GABAergic neurons in the intercalated cell mass (ITC) in the amygdala, which project to the laterocapsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeLC; output nucleus) and serve gating functions for amygdala output...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295977/staphylococcus-aureus-produces-pain-through-pore-forming-toxins-and-neuronal-trpv1-that-is-silenced-by-qx-314
#15
Kimbria J Blake, Pankaj Baral, Tiphaine Voisin, Ashira Lubkin, Felipe Almeida Pinho-Ribeiro, Kelsey L Adams, David P Roberson, Yuxin C Ma, Michael Otto, Clifford J Woolf, Victor J Torres, Isaac M Chiu
The hallmark of many bacterial infections is pain. The underlying mechanisms of pain during live pathogen invasion are not well understood. Here, we elucidate key molecular mechanisms of pain produced during live methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. We show that spontaneous pain is dependent on the virulence determinant agr and bacterial pore-forming toxins (PFTs). The cation channel, TRPV1, mediated heat hyperalgesia as a distinct pain modality. Three classes of PFTs-alpha-hemolysin (Hla), phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs), and the leukocidin HlgAB-directly induced neuronal firing and produced spontaneous pain...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319606/disruption-of-nnos-nos1ap-protein-protein-interactions-suppresses-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#16
Wan-Hung Lee, Li-Li Li, Aarti Chawla, Andy Hudmon, Yvonne Y Lai, Michael J Courtney, Andrea G Hohmann
Elevated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity is linked to central sensitization and chronic pain. However, NMDAR antagonists display limited therapeutic potential because of their adverse side effects. Novel approaches targeting the NR2B-PSD95-nNOS complex to disrupt signaling pathways downstream of NMDARs show efficacy in preclinical pain models. Here, we evaluated the involvement of interactions between neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) in pronociceptive signaling and neuropathic pain...
January 9, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294124/higher-cortical-facilitation-and-serum-bdnf-are-associated-with-increased-sensitivity-to-heat-pain-and-reduced-endogenous-pain-inhibition-in-healthy-males
#17
Jairo Alberto Dussán-Sarria, Nadia Regina Jardim da Silva, Alicia Deitos, Luciana Cadore Stefani, Gabriela Laste, Andressa de Souza, Iraci L S Torres, Felipe Fregni, Wolnei Caumo
Background: Although the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been intensively investigated in animal models of chronic pain, its role in human pain processing is less understood. Objective: To study the neurophysiology of BDNF modulation on acute experimental pain, we performed a cross-sectional study. Methods: We recruited 20 healthy male volunteers (19-40 years old) and assessed their serum BDNF levels, quantitative sensory testing, and cortical excitability parameters using transcranial magnetic stimulation...
December 27, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251663/pain-or-nociception-subjective-experience-mediates-the-effects-of-acute-noxious-heat-on-autonomic-responses
#18
Dominik Mischkowski, Esther E Palacios-Barrios, Lauren Banker, Troy C Dildine, Lauren Y Atlas
Nociception reliably elicits an autonomic nervous system (ANS) response. Because pain and ANS circuitry interact on multiple spinal, subcortical, and cortical levels, it remains unclear whether autonomic responses are simply a reflexive product of noxious stimulation regardless of how stimulation is consciously perceived or whether the experience of pain mediates ANS responses to noxious stimulation. To test these alternative predictions, we examined the relative contribution of noxious stimulation and individual pain experience to ANS responses in healthy volunteers who underwent 1 or 2 pain assessment tasks...
April 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271535/the-effect-of-visual-feedback-of-body-parts-on-pain-perception-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-and-experimental-studies
#19
REVIEW
P G Wittkopf, D M Lloyd, M I Johnson
The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of visual feedback techniques on pain perception by analysing the effect of normal-sized, magnified or minified visual feedback of body parts on clinical and experimentally-induced pain. Databases searched: Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, PEDro, CINAHL, CENTRAL and OpenSIGLE. Studies investigating pain patients and pain-free participants exposed to experimentally-induced pain were analysed separately. Risk of bias was assessed and data were meta-analysed...
April 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271803/transcriptional-changes-in-dorsal-spinal-cord-persist-after-surgical-incision-despite-preemptive-analgesia-with-peripheral-resiniferatoxin
#20
Stephen J Raithel, Matthew R Sapio, Danielle M LaPaglia, Michael J Iadarola, Andrew J Mannes
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nociceptors expressing the ion channel transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1, play an important role in mediating postoperative pain. Signaling from these nociceptors in the peri- and postoperative period can lead to plastic changes in the spinal cord and, when controlled, can yield analgesia. The transcriptomic changes in the dorsal spinal cord after surgery, and potential coupling to transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1-positive nociceptor signaling, remain poorly studied...
March 2018: Anesthesiology
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