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Mental health

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8 papers 100 to 500 followers
Scott A Freeman
Many mentally ill people are currently held in correctional settings, and general psychiatrists should be familiar with criminal forensic psychiatry in order to understand the legal aspects of the evaluation and treatment of these individuals, especially with regard to competency to stand trial and insanity. This educational activity briefly explains these evaluations and reviews relevant landmark legal cases.
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Belel Ait Oumeziane, Dan Foti
Recent theoretical models underline reward sensitivity as a potential endophenotype for major depressive disorder. Neural and behavioral evidence reveals depression is associated with reduced reward sensitivity. However, reward dysfunction is not unique to depression, as it is also common across disorders of poor impulse control. We examined the interrelationships of depression (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale [DASS-21]) and impulsivity (UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale) with reward sensitivity among a large, representative sample (N = 260)...
August 2016: Psychophysiology
Weiwei Tao, Yu Dong, Qiang Su, Hanqing Wang, Yanyan Chen, Wenda Xue, Chang Chen, Baomei Xia, Jinao Duan, Gang Chen
Major depression is a common long-lasting or recurrent psychiatric disease with high lifetime prevalence and high incidence of suicide. The main purpose of the current study was to verify whether liquiritigenin conferred an antidepressant-like effect on the depressive mouse model established by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and explore its possible mechanism. The results of depression-related behaviors including sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) indicated that both liquiritigenin (7...
July 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Marco D Huesch, Aram Galstyan, Michael K Ong, Jason N Doctor
OBJECTIVE: To pilot public health interventions at women potentially interested in maternity care via campaigns on social media (Twitter), social networks (Facebook), and online search engines (Google Search). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Primary data from Twitter, Facebook, and Google Search on users of these platforms in Los Angeles between March and July 2014. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study measuring the responses of targeted users of Twitter, Facebook, and Google Search exposed to our sponsored messages soliciting them to start an engagement process by clicking through to a study website containing information on maternity care quality information for the Los Angeles market...
June 2016: Health Services Research
Zhen Ren, Horia Pribiag, Sarah J Jefferson, Matthew Shorey, Thomas Fuchs, David Stellwagen, Bernhard Luscher
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is increasingly recognized to involve functional deficits in both gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission. To elucidate the relationship between these phenotypes, we used GABAA receptor γ2 subunit heterozygous (γ2(+/-)) mice, which we previously characterized as a model animal with construct, face, and predictive validity for major depressive disorder. METHODS: To assess possible consequences of GABAergic deficits on glutamatergic transmission, we quantitated the cell surface expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors and the function of synapses in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex of γ2(+/-) mice...
September 15, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Michelle Brasure, Erika Fuchs, Roderick MacDonald, Victoria A Nelson, Erin Koffel, Carin M Olson, Imran S Khawaja, Susan Diem, Maureen Carlyle, Timothy J Wilt, Jeannine Ouellette, Mary Butler, Robert L Kane
BACKGROUND: Psychological and behavioral interventions are frequently used for insomnia disorder. PURPOSE: To assess benefits and harms of psychological and behavioral interventions for insomnia disorder in adults. DATA SOURCES: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO through September 2015, supplemented with hand-searching. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized, controlled trials of psychological or behavioral interventions that were published in English and enrolled adults with insomnia disorder lasting 4 or more weeks...
July 19, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jerome Sarris, Jenifer Murphy, David Mischoulon, George I Papakostas, Maurizio Fava, Michael Berk, Chee H Ng
OBJECTIVE: There is burgeoning interest in augmentation strategies for improving inadequate response to antidepressants. The adjunctive use of standardized pharmaceutical-grade nutrients, known as nutraceuticals, has the potential to modulate several neurochemical pathways implicated in depression. While many studies have been conducted in this area, to date no specialized systematic review (or meta-analysis) has been conducted. METHOD: A systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science was conducted up to December 2015 for clinical trials using adjunctive nutrients for depression...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Edina Szűcs, Alexandra Büki, Gabriella Kékesi, Gyöngyi Horváth, Sándor Benyhe
Schizophrenia is a complex mental health disorder. Clinical reports suggest that many patients with schizophrenia are less sensitive to pain than other individuals. Animal models do not interpret schizophrenia completely, but they can model a number of symptoms of the disease, including decreased pain sensitivities and increased pain thresholds of various modalities. Opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides have a substantial role in analgesia. In this biochemical study we investigated changes in the signaling properties of the mu-opioid (MOP) receptor in different brain regions, which are involved in the pain transmission, i...
April 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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