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Necrotizing enterocolitis

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15 papers 0 to 25 followers
Francesco Esposito, Rosanna Mamone, Marco Di Serafino, Carmela Mercogliano, Valerio Vitale, Gianfranco Vallone, Patrizia Oresta
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory process, characterized by intestinal necrosis of variable extension, leading to perforation, generalized peritonitis and death. The classical pathogenetic theory focuses on mucosal damage related to a stress induced intestinal ischemia leading to mucosal injury and bacterial colonization of the wall. A more recent hypothesis emphasizes the role of immaturity of gastrointestinal and immune system, particularly of the premature, responsible of bowel wall vulnerability and suffering...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Michael P Meyer, Tanith Alexander
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants remain at high risk of adverse outcomes following necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and late onset sepsis (LOS). Meta-analysis of randomized trials has indicated a reduction in severe NEC following use of probiotics and bovine lactoferrin (LF). Overall, however, uncertainty remains over which probiotic, or combination to use. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of severe NEC and LOS before and after routine supplementation with Lactobacillus GG (LGG) and LF...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
John P Thomas, Tim Raine, Sanath Reddy, Gusztav Belteki
We performed an updated meta-analysis incorporating the results of recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to measure the effectiveness of probiotic supplementation in preventing necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and death in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants, and to investigate any differences in efficacy by probiotic agent. Using meta-regression analysis, we assessed the contribution of other measured variables on the overall effect size and between-study variability. CONCLUSION: Overall, probiotics lead to significant reductions in NEC incidence and mortality in VLBW infants...
November 2017: Acta Paediatrica
Elad Mei-Dan, Jyotsna Shah, Shoo Lee, Prakesh S Shah, Kellie E Murphy
Objective  This retrospective cohort study examined the effect of birth order on neonatal morbidity and mortality in very preterm twins. Study Design Using 2005 to 2012 data from the Canadian Neonatal Network, very preterm twins born between 24 (0/7) and 32 (6/7) weeks of gestation were included. Odds of morbidity and mortality of second-born cotwins compared with first-born cotwins were examined by matched-pair analysis. Outcomes were neonatal death, severe brain injury (intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3 or 4 or persistent periventricular echogenicity), bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (> stage 2), necrotizing enterocolitis (≥ stage 2), and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)...
July 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
Cheryl Battersby, Nick Longford, Kate Costeloe, Neena Modi
Importance: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preventive and therapeutic research, surveillance, and quality improvement initiatives are hindered by variations in case definitions. Objective: To develop a gestational age (GA)-specific case definition for NEC. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a prospective 34-month population study using clinician-recorded findings from the UK National Neonatal Research Database between December 2011 and September 2014 across all 163 neonatal units in England...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
Qingfeng Sheng, Zhibao Lv, Weijue Xu, Jiangbin Liu, Yibo Wu, Jingyi Shi, Zhengjun Xi
The purpose of this study was to analyze the nature of the disease, the surgical procedures, complications, and survival of preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) at our institution.Medical records of 34 preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) infants with surgical NEC were retrospectively analyzed from January 2010 to December 2014. Patients were divided into 2 groups: low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g, n = 27) and normal birth weight (NBW, ≥2500 g, n = 7).The LBW and NBW groups differed dramatically in gestational age (31...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Deepak Sharma, Sweta Shastri, Pradeep Sharma
BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin (LF) is present in breast milk and have numerous properties including antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancer. Recent studies have emphasized the role of LF in neonatal care Aims and objective: To evaluate the various roles of LF in neonatal care in preterm infants. SEARCH METHODS: The literature search was done for this systematic review by searching the electronic database namely Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Index Copernicus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Thomson Reuters (ESCI), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), SCIWIN (Scientific World Index), Google Scholar, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information System (LILACS), Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Index Medicus for the South-East Asian Region (IMSEAR), Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM), various sites for ongoing trials namely clinical trial registry ( www...
August 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Qi Lu, Shupeng Cheng, Min Zhou, Jialin Yu
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates is devastating, and risk-factor identification is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors for NEC in different gestational age (GA) groups. METHODS: Risk factors associated with NEC were investigated using a retrospective case-control design. Patients with Bell's Stage NEC≥II were divided into three groups based on GA: I, <34 weeks; II, ≥34 weeks but <37 weeks; III, ≥37 weeks. Each case was paired with two GA- and weight-matched controls...
April 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Silvia Martini, Arianna Aceti, Mario Lima, Michela Maffi, Giacomo Faldella, Luigi Corvaglia
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most severe gastrointestinal complication of prematurity. Surgery, either peritoneal drainage placement or laparotomy with resection of the intestinal necrotic tracts, is the definitive treatment of perforated NEC; however, when clinical conditions contraindicate surgical approaches, little is known about medical treatments adjuvant or alternative to surgery. Octreotide is a synthetic somatostatin analog that inhibits pancreatic secretion and leads to splanchnic vasoconstriction...
August 2016: Pediatrics
Simon Eaton, Clare M Rees, Nigel J Hall
Despite decades of research on necrotizing enterocolitis, we still do not fully understand the pathogenesis of the disease, how to prevent or how to treat the disease. However, as a result of recent significant advances in the microbiology, molecular biology, and cell biology of the intestine of premature infants and infants with necrotizing enterocolitis, there is some hope that research into this devastating disease will yield some important translation into improved outcomes.
June 2016: Early Human Development
Éric Tremblay, Marie-Pier Thibault, Emanuela Ferretti, Corentin Babakissa, Valérie Bertelle, Marcos Bettolli, Karolina Maria Burghardt, Jean-François Colombani, David Grynspan, Emile Levy, Peng Lu, Sandeep Mayer, Daniel Ménard, Olivier Mouterde, Ingrid B Renes, Ernest G Seidman, Jean-François Beaulieu
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most frequent life-threatening gastrointestinal disease experienced by premature infants in neonatal intensive care units. The challenge for neonatologists is to detect early clinical manifestations of NEC. One strategy would be to identify specific markers that could be used as early diagnostic tools to identify preterm infants most at risk of developing NEC or in the event of a diagnostic dilemma of suspected disease. As a first step in this direction, we sought to determine the specific gene expression profile of NEC...
2016: BMC Medical Genomics
Duc Ninh Nguyen, Eva Fuglsang, Pingping Jiang, Malene M Birck, Xiaoyu Pan, Shamrulazhar B S Kamal, Susanne E Pors, Pernille L Gammelgaard, Dennis S Nielsen, Thomas Thymann, Ofer Levy, Hanne Frøkiær, Per T Sangild
Immature immunity may predispose preterm neonates to infections and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intravenous antibiotics are frequently given to prevent and treat sepsis, while oral antibiotics are seldom used. We hypothesized that oral antibiotics promote maturation of systemic immunity and delay gut bacterial colonization and thereby protect preterm neonates against both NEC and bacteremia in the immediate postnatal period. Preterm pigs were given formula and administered saline (CON) or broad-spectrum antibiotics orally (ORA) or systemically (SYS) for 5 d after birth...
January 2016: Innate Immunity
Augusto Zani, Elke Zani-Ruttenstock, Forouhideh Peyvandi, Carol Lee, Bo Li, Agostino Pierro
PURPOSE: To compare the degree of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)-like damage under different stress conditions in neonatal mice. METHODS: 5-day-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to: (A) breastfed and no stress factors; (B) breastfed+maternal separation (3 h daily); (C) breastfed+hypoxia+lipopolysaccharide (LPS-4 mg/kg/day); (D) hyperosmolar formula+hypoxia+LPS. Mice were killed at 9 days of life. Ileum and colon were stained for hematoxylin/eosin and blindly assessed...
January 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
F H Heida, M H J Loos, L Stolwijk, B J C Te Kiefte, S J van den Ende, W Onland, R R van Rijn, R Dikkers, F A M van den Dungen, E M W Kooi, A F Bos, J B F Hulscher, R Bakx
INTRODUCTION: Survivors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) often develop a post-NEC intestinal stricture, causing severe and prolonged morbidity. OBJECTIVES: We first aimed to determine the incidence of post-NEC strictures. Second, we aimed to determine risk factors associated with intestinal post-NEC strictures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 441 patients diagnosed with NEC Bell's stage ≥2 were retrospectively included in three academic pediatric surgical centers between January 2005 and January 2013...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Ausra Urboniene, Arvydas Palepsaitis, Rimantas Uktveris, Vidmantas Barauskas
PURPOSE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious gastrointestinal disorder in newborns. Early diagnosis and rapid treatment is essential for seeking good outcome for neonates. The aim of our study was to evaluate intestinal blood flow in superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and portal vein (PV) in neonates with suspected or confirmed NEC and investigate the prognostic cut-off values to develop NEC. METHODS: Doppler flowmetry of SMA and PV was performed for 62 newborns...
November 2015: Pediatric Surgery International
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