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Stéphane Gaudry, David Hajage, Fréderique Schortgen, Laurent Martin-Lefevre, Bertrand Pons, Eric Boulet, Alexandre Boyer, Guillaume Chevrel, Nicolas Lerolle, Dorothée Carpentier, Nicolas de Prost, Alexandre Lautrette, Anne Bretagnol, Julien Mayaux, Saad Nseir, Bruno Megarbane, Marina Thirion, Jean-Marie Forel, Julien Maizel, Hodane Yonis, Philippe Markowicz, Guillaume Thiery, Florence Tubach, Jean-Damien Ricard, Didier Dreyfuss
BACKGROUND: The timing of renal-replacement therapy in critically ill patients who have acute kidney injury but no potentially life-threatening complication directly related to renal failure is a subject of debate. METHODS: In this multicenter randomized trial, we assigned patients with severe acute kidney injury (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] classification, stage 3 [stages range from 1 to 3, with higher stages indicating more severe kidney injury]) who required mechanical ventilation, catecholamine infusion, or both and did not have a potentially life-threatening complication directly related to renal failure to either an early or a delayed strategy of renal-replacement therapy...
July 14, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
John J Squiers, Brian Lima, J Michael DiMaio
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides days to weeks of support for patients with respiratory, cardiac, or combined cardiopulmonary failure. Since ECMO was first reported in 1974, nearly 70,000 runs of ECMO have been implemented, and the use of ECMO in adults increased by more than 400% from 2006 to 2011 in the United States. A variety of factors, including the 2009 influenza A epidemic, results from recent clinical trials, and improvements in ECMO technology, have motivated this increased use in adults...
July 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Thomas Bein, Salvatore Grasso, Onnen Moerer, Michael Quintel, Claude Guerin, Maria Deja, Anita Brondani, Sangeeta Mehta
PURPOSE: Severe ARDS is often associated with refractory hypoxemia, and early identification and treatment of hypoxemia is mandatory. For the management of severe ARDS ventilator settings, positioning therapy, infection control, and supportive measures are essential to improve survival. METHODS AND RESULTS: A precise definition of life-threating hypoxemia is not identified. Typical clinical determinations are: arterial partial pressure of oxygen < 60 mmHg and/or arterial oxygenation < 88 % and/or the ratio of PaO2/FIO2 < 100...
May 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Lorenzo Del Sorbo, Marcelo Cypel, Eddy Fan
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is an artificial means of maintaining adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination to enable injured lungs to recover from underlying disease. Technological advances have made ECLS devices smaller, less invasive, and easier to use. ECLS might, therefore, represent an important step towards improved management and outcomes of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Nevertheless, rigorous evidence of the ability of ECLS to improve short-term and long-term outcomes is needed before it can be widely implemented...
February 2014: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Rob Mac Sweeney, Daniel F McAuley
Acute respiratory distress syndrome presents as hypoxia and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging in the absence of heart failure sufficient to account for this clinical state. Management is largely supportive, and is focused on protective mechanical ventilation and the avoidance of fluid overload. Patients with severe hypoxaemia can be managed with early short-term use of neuromuscular blockade, prone position ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The use of inhaled nitric oxide is rarely indicated and both β2 agonists and late corticosteroids should be avoided...
April 28, 2016: Lancet
Zhe Zheng, Raja Jayaram, Lixin Jiang, Jonathan Emberson, Yan Zhao, Qi Li, Juan Du, Silvia Guarguagli, Michael Hill, Zhengming Chen, Rory Collins, Barbara Casadei
BACKGROUND: Complications after cardiac surgery are common and lead to substantial increases in morbidity and mortality. Meta-analyses of small randomized trials have suggested that perioperative statin therapy can prevent some of these complications. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1922 patients in sinus rhythm who were scheduled for elective cardiac surgery to receive perioperative rosuvastatin (at a dose of 20 mg daily) or placebo. The primary outcomes were postoperative atrial fibrillation within 5 days after surgery, as assessed by Holter electrocardiographic monitoring, and myocardial injury within 120 hours after surgery, as assessed by serial measurements of the cardiac troponin I concentration...
May 5, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Zolt Arany, Uri Elkayam
Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a potentially life-threatening pregnancy-associated disease that typically arises in the peripartum period and is marked by left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. The disease is relatively uncommon, but its incidence is rising. Women often recover cardiac function, but long-lasting morbidity and mortality are not infrequent. Management of peripartum cardiomyopathy is largely limited to the same neurohormonal antagonists used in other forms of cardiomyopathy, and no proven disease-specific therapies exist yet...
April 5, 2016: Circulation
Sachin Sud, Maneesh Sud, Jan O Friedrich, Hannah Wunsch, Maureen O Meade, Niall D Ferguson, Neill K J Adhikari
BACKGROUND: High-frequency oscillation (HFO) is an alternative to conventional mechanical ventilation that is sometimes used to treat people with acute respiratory distress syndrome, but effects on oxygenation, mortality and adverse clinical outcomes are uncertain. This review was originally published in 2004 and was updated in 2013 and again in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of HFO compared to conventional mechanical ventilation on physiological outcomes, clinical outcomes, and mortality when used for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
April 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
A Marc Gillinov, Emilia Bagiella, Alan J Moskowitz, Jesse M Raiten, Mark A Groh, Michael E Bowdish, Gorav Ailawadi, Katherine A Kirkwood, Louis P Perrault, Michael K Parides, Robert L Smith, John A Kern, Gladys Dussault, Amy E Hackmann, Neal O Jeffries, Marissa A Miller, Wendy C Taddei-Peters, Eric A Rose, Richard D Weisel, Deborah L Williams, Ralph F Mangusan, Michael Argenziano, Ellen G Moquete, Karen L O'Sullivan, Michel Pellerin, Kinjal J Shah, James S Gammie, Mary Lou Mayer, Pierre Voisine, Annetine C Gelijns, Patrick T O'Gara, Michael J Mack
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery is associated with increased rates of death, complications, and hospitalizations. In patients with postoperative atrial fibrillation who are in stable condition, the best initial treatment strategy--heart-rate control or rhythm control--remains controversial. METHODS: Patients with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation were randomly assigned to undergo either rate control or rhythm control. The primary end point was the total number of days of hospitalization within 60 days after randomization, as assessed by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test...
May 19, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Jens Lohser, Peter Slinger
Lung injury is the leading cause of death after thoracic surgery. Initially recognized after pneumonectomy, it has since been described after any period of 1-lung ventilation (OLV), even in the absence of lung resection. Overhydration and high tidal volumes were thought to be responsible at various points; however, it is now recognized that the pathophysiology is more complex and multifactorial. All causative mechanisms known to trigger ventilator-induced lung injury have been described in the OLV setting. The ventilated lung is exposed to high strain secondary to large, nonphysiologic tidal volumes and loss of the normal functional residual capacity...
August 2015: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Alexandra K Pratt, Nimesh S Shah, Steven W Boyce
OBJECTIVES: To review left ventricular assist device physiology, initial postoperative management, common complications, trouble shooting and management of hypotension, and other common ICU problems. DATA SOURCE: Narrative review of relevant medical literature. DATA SYNTHESIS: Left ventricular assist devices prolong the lives of patients with end-stage heart failure, and their use is increasing. Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices have replaced first-generation pulsatile devices...
January 2014: Critical Care Medicine
Mansoor N Bangash, Ming-Li Kong, Rupert M Pearse
Inotropes and vasopressors are biologically and clinically important compounds that originate from different pharmacological groups and act at some of the most fundamental receptor and signal transduction systems in the body. More than 20 such agents are in common clinical use, yet few reviews of their pharmacology exist outside of physiology and pharmacology textbooks. Despite widespread use in critically ill patients, understanding of the clinical effects of these drugs in pathological states is poor. The purpose of this article is to describe the pharmacology and clinical applications of inotropic and vasopressor agents in critically ill patients...
April 2012: British Journal of Pharmacology
Christopher B Overgaard, Vladimír Dzavík
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2008: Circulation
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