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Outstanding Clinical Review

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285 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686441/rheumatic-fever-new-diagnostic-criteria
#1
REVIEW
Izabela Szczygielska, Elżbieta Hernik, Beata Kołodziejczyk, Agnieszka Gazda, Maria Maślińska, Piotr Gietka
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an autoimmune disease associated with group A β-hemolytic streptococcal infection, in the course of which the patient develops carditis, arthritis, chorea, subcutaneous nodules and erythema marginatum. Rheumatic fever diagnosis is based on the Jones criteria, developed in 1944, then revised twice by the American Heart Association (AHA), in 1992 and recently in 2015. The last revision of the Jones criteria consists mainly in the supplementation of the major criteria with echocardiographic examination, the introduction of a concept of subclinical carditis and the isolation of low, medium and high risk populations among the patients...
2018: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171247/care-of-patients-undergoing-weaning-from-mechanical-ventilation-in-critical-care
#2
Susan Elliott, Nicola Morrell-Scott
There are several reasons why mechanical ventilation - the use of an artificial device to assist a patient to breathe - may be initiated, for example to enable general anaesthesia for patients undergoing surgery, and for those with a compromised airway or respiratory failure. It is important that critical care nurses have the skills and knowledge to care for patients who are undergoing weaning from mechanical ventilation. This is to ensure that patients are weaned safely and as soon as possible, to improve their outcomes and avoid an increase in patient mortality and morbidity through complications that can arise such as airway trauma and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
November 22, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253554/heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia-in-the-critically-ill-patient
#3
REVIEW
James M East, Christine M Cserti-Gazdewich, John T Granton
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is associated with clinically significant morbidity and mortality. Patients who are critically ill are commonly thrombocytopenic and exposed to heparin. Although HIT should be considered, it is not usually the cause of thrombocytopenia in the medical-surgical ICU population. A systematic approach to the patient who is critically ill who has thrombocytopenia according to clinical features, complemented by appropriate laboratory confirmation, should lead to a reduction in inappropriate laboratory testing and reduce the use of more expensive and less reliable anticoagulants...
December 16, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752492/pulmonary-involvement-in-systemic-vasculitis
#4
REVIEW
Luis Felipe Flores-Suárez, Marco A Alba, Heidegger Mateos-Toledo, Natllely Ruiz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study is to describe the most relevant advances concerning lung involvement in the ANCA-associated vasculitides (excluding eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis which may have different disease mechanisms). Focus is on pathophysiology, recent important imagenological procedures, treatment, and outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging information exists on potential newly investigated diagnostic procedures (v.g. transbronchial cryobiopsies), detailed tomographic abnormalities, the potential favorable role of rituximab and the still uncertain one of plasma exchange in the treatment, and the increasing description of interstitial lung disease...
September 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477250/chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia
#5
REVIEW
Michael Hallek, Tait D Shanafelt, Barbara Eichhorst
Important advances in understanding the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in the past two decades have led to the development of new prognostic tools and novel targeted therapies that have improved clinical outcome. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is the most common type of leukaemia in developed countries, and the median age at diagnosis is 72 years. The criteria for initiating treatment rely on the Rai and Binet staging systems and on the presence of disease-related symptoms. For many patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, treatment with chemotherapy and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies is the standard of care...
April 14, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235612/pharmacologic-therapies-for-rheumatologic-and-autoimmune-conditions
#6
REVIEW
Alison M Bays, Gregory Gardner
Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are commonly prescribed by rheumatologists to reduce disease activity and induce remission in autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Steroids are sometimes used in combination with DMARD therapy and should be used at the lowest effective dose for the least amount of time. There are many biologic agents available for use for inflammatory arthritis and other autoimmune conditions. Care should be taken when prescribing and managing DMARDS, steroids and biologic agents medications with a careful eye towards screening for infectious disease, vaccination, bone heath and lab monitoring...
July 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518206/the-science-of-obesity-management-an-endocrine-society-scientific-statement
#7
George A Bray, William E Heisel, Ashkan Afshin, Michael D Jensen, William H Dietz, Michael Long, Robert F Kushner, Stephen R Daniels, Thomas A Wadden, Adam G Tsai, Frank B Hu, John M Jakicic, Donna H Ryan, Bruce M Wolfe, Thomas H Inge
The prevalence of obesity, measured by body mass index, has risen to unacceptable levels in both men and women in the United States and worldwide with resultant hazardous health implications. Genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors influence the development of obesity, and both the general public and health professionals stigmatize those who suffer from the disease. Obesity is associated with and contributes to a shortened life span, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, gout, osteoarthritis, and hepatobiliary disease, among others...
April 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572353/remember-the-retina-retinal-disorders-presenting-to-neurologists
#8
REVIEW
Zhaleh Khaleeli, William R Tucker, Lana Del Porto, Jonathan D Virgo, Gordon T Plant
General neurologists and stroke specialists are regularly referred cases of visual disturbance by general practitioners, emergency doctors and even ophthalmologists. Particularly when the referral comes from ophthalmologists, our assessment tends to focus on the optic nerve; however, retinal conditions may mimic optic neuropathy and are easily missed. Their diagnosis requires specific investigations that are rarely available in a neurology clinic. This article focuses on how a general neurologist can identify retinal problems from the clinical assessment and how to proceed with initial investigations...
April 2018: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588276/defining-refractory-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
REVIEW
Maya H Buch
While biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) have transformed outcomes of people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a proportion of patients are refractory to multiple bDMARDs. Definitions of refractory RA thus far have been arbitrary, and outcome data and impact of such cohorts remain limited. Extrapolation from randomised controlled trial and some real-life data suggest approximately 20% progress onto a third bDMARD with a more modest proportion failing additional bDMARDs. This viewpoint discusses an opinion of refractory RA disease and proposes key principles to accurately identify refractory cohorts...
March 27, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283512/efficacy-of-biological-disease-modifying-antirheumatic-drugs-a-systematic-literature-review-informing-the-2016-update-of-the-eular-recommendations-for-the-management-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
REVIEW
Jackie L Nam, Kaoru Takase-Minegishi, Sofia Ramiro, Katerina Chatzidionysiou, Josef S Smolen, Désirée van der Heijde, Johannes W Bijlsma, Gerd R Burmester, Maxime Dougados, Marieke Scholte-Voshaar, Ronald van Vollenhoven, Robert Landewé
OBJECTIVES: To update the evidence for the efficacy of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to inform European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Task Force treatment recommendations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for phase III or IV (or phase II, if these studies were lacking) randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published between January 2013 and February 2016. Abstracts from the American College of Rheumatology and EULAR conferences were obtained...
June 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097621/clinical-decision-support-for-in-hospital-aki
#11
Mohammed Al-Jaghbeer, Dilhari Dealmeida, Andrew Bilderback, Richard Ambrosino, John A Kellum
AKI carries a significant mortality and morbidity risk. Use of a clinical decision support system (CDSS) might improve outcomes. We conducted a multicenter, sequential period analysis of 528,108 patients without ESRD before admission, from October of 2012 to September of 2015, to determine whether use of a CDSS reduces hospital length of stay and in-hospital mortality for patients with AKI. We compared patients treated 12 months before (181,696) and 24 months after (346,412) implementation of the CDSS. Coprimary outcomes were hospital mortality and length of stay adjusted by demographics and comorbidities...
February 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324487/renal-replacement-therapy-in-critically-ill-patients-who-when-why-and-how
#12
Melanie Meersch, Alexander Zarbock
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increasing incidence of acute kidney injury has the immediate effect of a growing need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Shedding light on the questions of who, when, why, and how RRT should be performed is difficult to accomplish because of ambiguous study results, poor quality evidence, and low standardization. RECENT FINDINGS: Critically ill patients are exposed to multiple factors known to deteriorate kidney function. Especially severe fluid overload is strongly associated with worse outcome and may be considered as a trigger for initiating RRT...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482260/beta-blockers-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-evidence-based-recommendations
#13
REVIEW
Matthew A Weir, Charles A Herzog
For patients who require hemodialysis, beta blockers offer a simultaneous opportunity and challenge in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Beta blockers are well supported by data from nondialysis populations and directly mitigate the sympathetic overactivity that links chronic kidney disease with cardiovascular sequelae. However, the evidence supporting their use in patients receiving hemodialysis is sparse and the heterogeneity of the beta blocker class makes it difficult to prescribe these medications with confidence...
May 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496021/post-myocardial-infarction-heart-failure
#14
REVIEW
M Cecilia Bahit, Ajar Kochar, Christopher B Granger
Heart failure (HF) complicating myocardial infarction (MI) is common and may be present at admission or develop during the hospitalization. Among patients with MI, there is a strong relationship between degree of HF and mortality. The optimal management of the patient with HF complicating MI varies according to time since the onset of infarction. Medical therapy for HF after MI includes early (within 24 h) initiation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and early (within 7 days) use of aldosterone antagonists...
March 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508275/eadsg-guidelines-insulin-therapy-in-diabetes
#15
Bahendeka Silver, Kaushik Ramaiya, Swai Babu Andrew, Otieno Fredrick, Sarita Bajaj, Sanjay Kalra, Bavuma M Charlotte, Karigire Claudine, Anthony Makhoba
A diagnosis of diabetes or hyperglycemia should be confirmed prior to ordering, dispensing, or administering insulin (A). Insulin is the primary treatment in all patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (A). Typically, patients with T1DM will require initiation with multiple daily injections at the time of diagnosis. This is usually short-acting insulin or rapid-acting insulin analogue given 0 to 15 min before meals together with one or more daily separate injections of intermediate or long-acting insulin...
April 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358285/eular-recommendations-for-the-use-of-imaging-in-large-vessel-vasculitis-in-clinical-practice
#16
Christian Dejaco, Sofia Ramiro, Christina Duftner, Florent L Besson, Thorsten A Bley, Daniel Blockmans, Elisabeth Brouwer, Marco A Cimmino, Eric Clark, Bhaskar Dasgupta, Andreas P Diamantopoulos, Haner Direskeneli, Annamaria Iagnocco, Thorsten Klink, Lorna Neill, Cristina Ponte, Carlo Salvarani, Riemer H J A Slart, Madeline Whitlock, Wolfgang A Schmidt
To develop evidence-based recommendations for the use of imaging modalities in primary large vessel vasculitis (LVV) including giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TAK). European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) standardised operating procedures were followed. A systematic literature review was conducted to retrieve data on the role of imaging modalities including ultrasound, MRI, CT and [18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) in LVV. Based on evidence and expert opinion, the task force consisting of 20 physicians, healthcare professionals and patients from 10 EULAR countries developed recommendations, with consensus obtained through voting...
May 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169086/basal-insulin-treatment-intensification-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-comprehensive-systematic-review-of-current-options
#17
REVIEW
D Raccah
AIM: As type 2 diabetes mellitus progresses, most patients require treatment with basal insulin in combination with another agent to achieve recommended glycaemic targets. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the evidence supporting the use of the available add-on treatments [rapid-acting insulin (RAI), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors] to basal insulin...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864332/associations-of-fats-and-carbohydrate-intake-with-cardiovascular-disease-and-mortality-in-18-countries-from-five-continents-pure-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Mahshid Dehghan, Andrew Mente, Xiaohe Zhang, Sumathi Swaminathan, Wei Li, Viswanathan Mohan, Romaina Iqbal, Rajesh Kumar, Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen, Annika Rosengren, Leela Itty Amma, Alvaro Avezum, Jephat Chifamba, Rafael Diaz, Rasha Khatib, Scott Lear, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Xiaoyun Liu, Rajeev Gupta, Noushin Mohammadifard, Nan Gao, Aytekin Oguz, Anis Safura Ramli, Pamela Seron, Yi Sun, Andrzej Szuba, Lungiswa Tsolekile, Andreas Wielgosz, Rita Yusuf, Afzal Hussein Yusufali, Koon K Teo, Sumathy Rangarajan, Gilles Dagenais, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Shofiqul Islam, Sonia S Anand, Salim Yusuf
BACKGROUND: The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median follow-up of 7·4 years (IQR 5·3-9·3)...
November 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242891/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hypertension-in-the-2017-acc-aha-guidelines-and-in-the-real-world
#19
John P A Ioannidis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167102/coffee-consumption-and-health-umbrella-review-of-meta-analyses-of-multiple-health-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Robin Poole, Oliver J Kennedy, Paul Roderick, Jonathan A Fallowfield, Peter C Hayes, Julie Parkes
Objectives  To evaluate the existing evidence for associations between coffee consumption and multiple health outcomes. Design  Umbrella review of the evidence across meta-analyses of observational and interventional studies of coffee consumption and any health outcome. Data sources  PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and screening of references. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies  Meta-analyses of both observational and interventional studies that examined the associations between coffee consumption and any health outcome in any adult population in all countries and all settings...
November 22, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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