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Outstanding Clinical Review

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175 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431202/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-pancreatitis
#1
REVIEW
Elisabetta Moggia, Rahul Koti, Ajay P Belgaumkar, Federico Fazio, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366227/fast-renal-decline-to-end-stage-renal-disease-an-unrecognized-feature-of-nephropathy-in-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Andrzej S Krolewski, Jan Skupien, Peter Rossing, James H Warram
A new model of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes emerged from our studies of Joslin Clinic patients. The dominant feature is progressive renal decline, not albuminuria. This decline is a unidirectional process commencing while patients have normal renal function and, in the majority, progressing steadily (linearly) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While an individual's rate of renal decline is constant, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope varies widely among individuals from -72 to -3...
March 30, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23529939/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-perioperative-nutritional-metabolic-and-nonsurgical-support-of-the-bariatric-surgery-patient-2013-update-cosponsored-by-american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-the-obesity-society-and-american-society-for-metabolic
#3
Jeffrey I Mechanick, Adrienne Youdim, Daniel B Jones, W Timothy Garvey, Daniel L Hurley, M Molly McMahon, Leslie J Heinberg, Robert Kushner, Ted D Adams, Scott Shikora, John B Dixon, Stacy Brethauer
The development of these updated guidelines was commissioned by the AACE, TOS, and ASMBS Board of Directors and adheres to the AACE 2010 protocol for standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPG). Each recommendation was re-evaluated and updated based on the evidence and subjective factors per protocol. Examples of expanded topics in this update include: the roles of sleeve gastrectomy, bariatric surgery in patients with type-2 diabetes, bariatric surgery for patients with mild obesity, copper deficiency, informed consent, and behavioral issues...
March 2013: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342649/the-prognosis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#4
REVIEW
Christoph Mueller, Clive Ballard, Anne Corbett, Dag Aarsland
Dementia with Lewy bodies is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia, yet scarce evidence is available about its prognosis and natural history, which are crucial to inform clinical practice and research. Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies might have a less favourable prognosis, with accelerated cognitive decline, shorter lifespan, and increased admission to residential care than patients with Alzheimer's disease. Health-care costs and, importantly, caregiver burden, are also reported to be higher in dementia with Lewy bodies than in Alzheimer's disease...
May 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21482729/hiv-and-tuberculosis-a-deadly-human-syndemic
#5
REVIEW
Candice K Kwan, Joel D Ernst
A syndemic is defined as the convergence of two or more diseases that act synergistically to magnify the burden of disease. The intersection and syndemic interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics have had deadly consequences around the world. Without adequate control of the TB-HIV syndemic, the long-term TB elimination target set for 2050 will not be reached. There is an urgent need for additional resources and novel approaches for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of both HIV and TB...
April 2011: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25965233/achalasia-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
John E Pandolfino, Andrew J Gawron
IMPORTANCE: Achalasia significantly affects patients' quality of life and can be difficult to diagnose and treat. OBJECTIVE: To review the diagnosis and management of achalasia, with a focus on phenotypic classification pertinent to therapeutic outcomes. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Literature review and MEDLINE search of articles from January 2004 to February 2015. A total of 93 articles were included in the final literature review addressing facets of achalasia epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes...
May 12, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188579/cardiac-biomarkers-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-from-history-to-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin
#7
REVIEW
Pankaj Garg, Paul Morris, Asma Lina Fazlanie, Sethumadhavan Vijayan, Balazs Dancso, Amardeep Ghosh Dastidar, Sven Plein, Christian Mueller, Philip Haaf
The role of cardiac troponins as diagnostic biomarkers of myocardial injury in the context of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is well established. Since the initial 1st-generation assays, 5th-generation high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays have been developed, and are now widely used. However, its clinical adoption preceded guidelines and even best practice evidence. This review summarizes the history of cardiac biomarkers with particular emphasis on hs-cTn. We aim to provide insights into using hs-cTn as a quantitative marker of cardiomyocyte injury to help in the differential diagnosis of coronary versus non-coronary cardiac diseases...
March 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267992/clostridium-difficile-disease-diagnosis-pathogenesis-and-treatment-update
#8
REVIEW
Lena M Napolitano, Charles E Edmiston
Clostridium difficile infections are the leading cause of health care-associated infectious diarrhea, posing a significant risk for both medical and surgical patients. Because of the significant morbidity and mortality associated with C difficile infections, knowledge of the epidemiology of C difficile in combination with a high index of suspicion and susceptible patient populations (including surgical, postcolectomy, and inflammatory bowel disease patients) is warranted. C difficile infections present with a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis or small bowel enteritis and recurrent C difficile infections...
March 3, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279425/current-concepts-of-cardiac-amyloidosis-diagnosis-clinical-management-and-the-need-for-collaboration
#9
REVIEW
Alexandra J Ritts, Robert F Cornell, Kris Swiger, Jai Singh, Stacey Goodman, Daniel J Lenihan
Cardiac amyloidosis is a complex and vexing clinical condition that requires a high degree of suspicion for the diagnosis with a substantial amount of discipline to discern the extent of disease and the best available therapy. There is a complex interplay between multiple organ systems, and the clinical presentation may involve a myriad of confusing clinical symptoms. The diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis can be confirmed with a combination of physical findings, cardiac biomarkers, noninvasive testing, and, if necessary, myocardial biopsy...
April 2017: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324725/oesophageal-and-gastric-varices-historical-aspects-classification-and-grading-everything-in-one-place
#10
REVIEW
Cyriac Abby Philips, Amrish Sahney
Variceal disease and its management are of the utmost importance in the treatment of portal hypertension. Current guidelines are universal for management of variceal disease in portal hypertension. Classification and grading systems are numerous and differ according to geographical location. In this exhaustive review, the historical aspects of variceal disease, its classification and the grading systems in use are discussed, with self-explanatory tables and timelines. A better and clear understanding of the evolution of portal hypertension and variceal disease is provided...
August 2016: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26975792/haemochromatosis
#11
REVIEW
Lawrie W Powell, Rebecca C Seckington, Yves Deugnier
Haemochromatosis is now known to be an iron-storage disease with genetic heterogeneity but with a final common metabolic pathway resulting in inappropriately low production of the hormone hepcidin. This leads to increase in intestinal absorption and deposition of excessive amounts of iron in parenchymal cells which in turn results in eventual tissue damage and organ failure. A clinical enigma has been the variable clinical expression with some patients presenting with hepatic cirrhosis at a young age and others almost asymptomatic for life...
August 13, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864004/beta-adrenergic-blockade-and-decompensated-cirrhosis
#12
REVIEW
Thomas Reiberger, Mattias Mandorfer
Non-selective betablockers (NSBBs) remain the cornerstone of medical treatment of portal hypertension. The evidence for their efficacy to prevent variceal bleeding is derived from prospective trials, which largely excluded patients with refractory ascites and renal failure. In parallel to the increasing knowledge on portal hypertension-induced changes in systemic hemodynamics, cardiac function, and renal perfusion, emerging studies have raised concerns about harmful effects of NSBBs. Clinicians are facing an ongoing controversy on the use of NSBBs in patients with advanced cirrhosis...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729952/cirrhosis-and-autoimmune-liver-disease-current-understanding
#13
REVIEW
Rodrigo Liberal, Charlotte R Grant
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) constitute the classic autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). While AIH target the hepatocytes, in PBC and PSC the targets of the autoimmune attack are the biliary epithelial cells. Persistent liver injury, associated with chronic AILD, leads to un-resolving inflammation, cell proliferation and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts. Liver cirrhosis, and the resultant loss of normal liver function, inevitably ensues...
October 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25830425/molecular-physiology-of-water-balance
#14
REVIEW
Mark A Knepper, Tae-Hwan Kwon, Soren Nielsen
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 372, Issue 14, Page 1349-1358, April 2015.
April 2, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298398/management-of-copd-exacerbations-a%C3%A2-european-respiratory-society-american-thoracic-society-guideline
#15
Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Marc Miravitlles, John R Hurst, Peter M A Calverley, Richard K Albert, Antonio Anzueto, Gerard J Criner, Alberto Papi, Klaus F Rabe, David Rigau, Pawel Sliwinski, Thomy Tonia, Jørgen Vestbo, Kevin C Wilson, Jerry A Krishnan
This document provides clinical recommendations for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations.Comprehensive evidence syntheses, including meta-analyses, were performed to summarise all available evidence relevant to the Task Force's questions. The evidence was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach and the results were summarised in evidence profiles. The evidence syntheses were discussed and recommendations formulated by a multidisciplinary Task Force of COPD experts...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27212591/new-understandings-of-post-injury-coagulation-and-resuscitation
#16
REVIEW
Mitchell Jay Cohen, S Ariane Christie
Coagulopathy following injury is common and it predicts poor outcomes and increased mortality. For many decades, coagulopathy in trauma was considered as an iatrogenic phenomenon, and clinical practice focused on a resuscitation strategy using large volume crystalloid and packed red blood cells. The discovery of Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy as a distinct pathophysiologic state coupled with a transition towards balanced product resuscitation has fundamentally changed the paradigm of trauma care and represents one of the most active areas of current research in the field of trauma...
September 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26709059/structural-and-functional-changes-with-the-aging-kidney
#17
REVIEW
Aleksandar Denic, Richard J Glassock, Andrew D Rule
Senescence or normal physiologic aging portrays the expected age-related changes in the kidney as compared to a disease that occurs in some but not all individuals. The microanatomical structural changes of the kidney with older age include a decreased number of functional glomeruli from an increased prevalence of nephrosclerosis (arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, and tubular atrophy with interstitial fibrosis), and to some extent, compensatory hypertrophy of remaining nephrons. Among the macroanatomical structural changes, older age associates with smaller cortical volume, larger medullary volume until middle age, and larger and more numerous kidney cysts...
January 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475659/the-role-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Raymond K Hsu, Chi-Yuan Hsu
There is increasing recognition that acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are closely linked and likely promote one another. Underlying CKD now is recognized as a clear risk factor for AKI because both decreased glomerular filtration rate and increased proteinuria have been shown to be associated strongly with AKI. A growing body of literature also provides evidence that AKI accelerates the progression of CKD. Individuals who suffered dialysis-requiring AKI are particularly vulnerable to worse long-term renal outcomes, including end-stage renal disease...
July 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274107/pathophysiology-and-management-of-alcoholic-liver-disease-update-2016
#19
REVIEW
Felix Stickel, Christian Datz, Jochen Hampe, Ramon Bataller
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of cirrhosis, liver cancer, and acute and chronic liver failure and as such causes significant morbidity and mortality. While alcohol consumption is slightly decreasing in several European countries, it is rising in others and remains high in many countries around the world. The pathophysiology of ALD is still incompletely understood but relates largely to the direct toxic effects of alcohol and its main intermediate, acetaldehyde. Recently, novel putative mechanisms have been identified in systematic scans covering the entire human genome and raise new hypotheses on previously unknown pathways...
March 15, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286222/2017-acc-aha-hrs-guideline-for-the-evaluation-and-management-of-patients-with-syncope-executive-summary-a-report-of-the-american-college-of-cardiology-american-heart-association-task-force-on-clinical-practice-guidelines-and-the-heart-rhythm-society
#20
Win-Kuang Shen, Robert S Sheldon, David G Benditt, Mitchell I Cohen, Daniel E Forman, Zachary D Goldberger, Blair P Grubb, Mohamed H Hamdan, Andrew D Krahn, Mark S Link, Brian Olshansky, Satish R Raj, Roopinder Kaur Sandhu, Dan Sorajja, Benjamin C Sun, Clyde W Yancy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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