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Pathology

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42 papers 0 to 25 followers Clinical cases and research about Human Patology
By Jose M. Barria Castro MD from Panama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572636/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-for-molecular-subtyping-of-non-gadolinium-enhancing-who-grade-ii-iii-glioma-volumetric-segmentation-versus-two-dimensional-region-of-interest-analysis
#1
S C Thust, S Hassanein, S Bisdas, J H Rees, H Hyare, J A Maynard, S Brandner, C Tur, H R Jäger, T A Yousry, L Mancini
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements can predict genetic subtypes of non-gadolinium-enhancing gliomas, comparing whole tumour against single slice analysis. METHODS: Volumetric T2-derived masks of 44 gliomas were co-registered to ADC maps with ADC mean (ADCmean ) calculated. For the slice analysis, two observers placed regions of interest in the largest tumour cross-section. The ratio (ADCratio ) between ADCmean in the tumour and normal appearing white matter was calculated for both methods...
March 23, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261148/advances-in-brain-tumor-surgery-for-glioblastoma-in-adults
#2
REVIEW
Montserrat Lara-Velazquez, Rawan Al-Kharboosh, Stephanie Jeanneret, Carla Vazquez-Ramos, Deependra Mahato, Daryoush Tavanaiepour, Gazanfar Rahmathulla, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary intracranial neoplasia, and is characterized by its extremely poor prognosis. Despite maximum surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, the histological heterogeneity of GBM makes total eradication impossible, due to residual cancer cells invading the parenchyma, which is not otherwise seen in radiographic images. Even with gross total resection, the heterogeneity and the dormant nature of brain tumor initiating cells allow for therapeutic evasion, contributing to its recurrence and malignant progression, and severely impacting survival...
December 20, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551811/uscap-2018-abstracts-breast-pathology-121-337
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25674263/ki-67-mib-1-immunostaining-in-a-cohort-of-human-gliomas
#4
Anne J Skjulsvik, Jørgen N Mørk, Morten O Torp, Sverre H Torp
Histopathological malignancy grading of human gliomas is limited by subjective interpretation of the morphological criteria. Assessment of mitotic activity is a cornerstone of grading these tumours, but mitotic figures can be hard to identify in haematoxylin-eosin stained sections. Thus, determining proliferative activity by means of Ki-67/MIB-1 immunostaining has become a useful supplement. However, this method has drawbacks, so continuous testing and evaluation are required for optimization and standardization...
2014: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333309/intraperitoneal-granulomas-unexpectedly-found-during-a-cesarean-delivery-a-late-complication-of-dropped-gallstones
#5
David A Suarez-Zamora, Luis E Barrera-Herrera, Ricardo Caceres-Mileo, Mauricio A Palau-Lazaro
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis. Spillage of gallstones into the abdominal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy occurs in approximately one-third of cases. Although retained gallstones remain asymptomatic, few cases may develop complications. We report the case of a 29-year-old nulliparous woman presenting with several hard nodules in the omentum, raising the possibility of a metastatic disease. Histological examination demonstrated a bile-stained material and a foreign body-type granulomatous response without neoplastic tissue...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140757/new-insights-into-lymphoma-pathogenesis
#6
Kojo S J Elenitoba-Johnson, Megan S Lim
Lymphomas represent clonal proliferations of lymphocytes that are broadly classified based upon their maturity (peripheral or mature versus precursor) and lineage (B cell, T cell, and natural killer cell). Insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in lymphoma impact the classification of lymphoma and have significant implications for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. Serial scientific and technologic advances over the last 30 years in immunology, cytogenetics, molecular biology, gene expression profiling, mass spectrometry-based proteomics, and, more recently, next-generation sequencing have contributed to greatly enhance our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms in lymphoma...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905666/second-opinion-expert-pathology-review-in-bladder-cancer-implications-for-patient-care
#7
Jennifer Gordetsky, Robin Collingwood, Win Shun Lai, Maria Del Carmen Rodriquez Pena, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
OBJECTIVES: To review bladder specimens referred to our facility for secondary review to determine the frequency and degree of changes in pathological diagnoses, which could affect patient care. METHODS: A retrospective review of 246 bladder specimens sent to our pathology department for second opinion pathological review was performed. All consultation specimens were reviewed by a single genitourinary (GU)-subspecialized surgical pathologist. Any changes in the pathological grade, stage, or histological tumor type were noted as well as patient demographic data...
February 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877052/diagnostic-efficiency-in-digital-pathology-a-comparison-of-optical-versus-digital-assessment-in-510-surgical-pathology-cases
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Anne M Mills, Sarah E Gradecki, Bethany J Horton, Rebecca Blackwell, Christopher A Moskaluk, James W Mandell, Stacey E Mills, Helen P Cathro
Prior work has shown that digital images and microscopic slides can be interpreted with comparable diagnostic accuracy. Although accuracy has been well-validated, the interpretative time for digital images has scarcely been studied and concerns about efficiency remain a major barrier to adoption. We investigated the efficiency of digital pathology when compared with glass slide interpretation in the diagnosis of surgical pathology biopsy and resection specimens. Slides were pulled from 510 surgical pathology cases from 5 organ systems (gastrointestinal, gynecologic, liver, bladder, and brain)...
January 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877064/desmoplastic-pattern-at-the-tumor-front-defines-poor-prognosis-subtypes-of-colorectal-cancer
#9
MULTICENTER STUDY
Hideki Ueno, Yukihide Kanemitsu, Shigeki Sekine, Megumi Ishiguro, Eisaku Ito, Yojiro Hashiguchi, Fukuo Kondo, Hideyuki Shimazaki, Satsuki Mochizuki, Yoshiki Kajiwara, Eiji Shinto, Junji Yamamoto
Although recent findings of cancer biology research indicate that prognostic power arises from genes expressed by stromal cells rather than epithelial cells, desmoplastic reaction (DR) has not been completely examined as a prognostic marker for colorectal cancer. A pathologic review of 821 stage II and III patients who underwent R0 resection for colorectal cancer at 4 independent institutions was conducted. DR was classified as mature, intermediate, or immature based on the existence of hyalinized keloid-like collagen and myxoid stroma at the extramural desmoplastic front...
November 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751996/leiomyosarcoma-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma-arising-in-mature-cystic-teratoma-of-the-ovary
#10
Tip Pongsuvareeyakul, Kornkanok Sukpan, Somjet Chaicharoen, Surapan Khunamornpong
The occurrence of malignant transformation in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is rare, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most common histologic type. Sarcomatous transformation has been rarely described in the literature. We present a case of leiomyosarcoma with a minor component of squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary in a 65-year-old woman. The malignant tumor showed two distinct components of sarcomatous and invasive epithelial elements, which were confirmed by immunostaining...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890838/adenocarcinoma-ex-goblet-cell-carcinoid-of-appendix-two-case-reports
#11
Yu-Ting Wang, Yi-Ru Li, Tuan-Ying Ke
Adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoid is a rare tumor incidentally found in specimens of appendicitis. Most patients present with acute abdomen, similar to acute appendicitis. Here we present two cases, which were found incidentally after operation. We give a brief summary about clinical and biological behavior of this entity.
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898991/defining-papillary-carcinoma-of-the-thyroid-a-short-review-and-analysis
#12
Robin T Vollmer
Objectives: To review how changes in the pathologic definitions for papillary tumors of the thyroid during recent decades have affected outcomes for patients with these tumors. Methods: Forty-nine previous reports or studies involving collectively 53,606 patients were reviewed, and new analyses were performed on the data to include analyses of agreement, incidence, survival, and diagnostic categories. Results: The past emphasis on cytologic features to define papillary tumors has not resulted in ideal pairwise agreement between pathologists and has produced incidence and survival data suggesting overdetection and overdiagnosis...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608720/diagnostic-algorithm-of-common-mature-b-cell-lymphomas-by-immunohistochemistry
#13
REVIEW
Huan-You Wang, Youli Zu
CONTEXT: - Different types of mature B-cell lymphomas, including plasma cell neoplasms, exhibit distinct immunohistochemical profiles, which enable them to be correctly diagnosed. However, except for rare examples of lymphoma-specific immunohistochemistry, such as cyclin D1 in mantle cell lymphoma and annexin A1 in hairy cell leukemia, immunohistochemical profiles of mature B-cell lymphomas overlap and lack specificity. OBJECTIVES: - To systemically review immunohistochemical features associated with commonly encountered mature B-cell lymphomas based on the presence or absence of CD5 and CD10; to review the immunophenotypic profile of plasma cells derived from plasma cell myelomas and B-cell lymphomas; and to review a group of rare, aggressive B-cell lymphomas with antigen expression features of plasma cells...
September 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11789719/follicular-patterned-lesions-of-the-thyroid-the-bane-of-the-pathologist
#14
REVIEW
Zubair W Baloch, Virginia A Livolsi
This review focuses on follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid gland and their differential diagnosis. Included are a discussion of the features differentiating follicular adenoma from adenomatous or hyperplastic nodule and follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The cytologic and histologic characteristics are described, and criteria for diagnosing the major follicular lesions are reviewed.
January 2002: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893532/passport-to-pathology-transforming-the-medical-student-pathology-elective-from-a-passive-educational-experience-to-an-exciting-immersive-clinical-rotation
#15
EDITORIAL
Paras S Minhas, Imarhia E Enogieru, Richard N Mitchell, Douglas A Mata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685821/pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-in-haematological-malignancies-update-2017
#16
REVIEW
Tomas Jelinek, Jana Mihalyova, Michal Kascak, Juraj Duras, Roman Hajek
The introduction of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway inhibitors is an important landmark in solid oncology with unprecedented practice-changing activity in various types of solid tumours. Among haematological malignancies, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have been successful, so far, only in the treatment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, which typically exhibits an over-expression of PD-1 ligands (PD-L1, PD-L2) due to alterations in chromosome 9p24.1. Such positive outcomes led to the US Food and Drug Administration approval of nivolumab use in relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma in 2016 as the first haematological indication...
November 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582484/comparison-of-three-methods-for-measuring-workload-in-surgical-pathology-and-cytopathology
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Daniel Cloetingh, Rodney A Schmidt, Christina S Kong
Objectives: Pathologist workload in the United States has traditionally been measured by relative value units (RVUs), which is often criticized for providing an inaccurate estimate of actual work. This study compares three methods for measuring workload. Methods: Surgical pathology and cytopathology workload for 1 representative month at Stanford Health Care was assessed using three different methods: RVUs, Royal College of Pathologists (RCP) point system, and University of Washington-Seattle (UW) slide count method...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605400/proposed-terminology-for-anal-squamous-lesions-its-application-and-interobserver-agreement-among-pathologists-in-academic-and-community-hospitals
#18
Andres A Roma, Xiuli Liu, Deepa T Patil, Hao Xie, Daniela Allende
Objectives: To analyze interobserver reproducibility and compare practice patterns between academic and community settings of Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST). Methods: In total, 132 anal biopsy slides were revised as well as p16 immunostains. Results: LAST was used in 49% of cases (academic center, 68%; satellite hospitals [community practice setting], 32%). After pathology review and consensus interpretation, 23 (17%) case diagnoses were reclassified: eight (34...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608721/practical-applications-of-immunohistochemistry-in-the-diagnosis-of-genitourinary-tumors
#19
REVIEW
Xiuli Xiao, Rong Hu, Fang-Ming Deng, Steven S Shen, Ximing J Yang, Chin-Lee Wu
CONTEXT: - Pathologic diagnosis of tumors in the genitourinary system can be challenging based on morphology alone, particularly when diagnostic material is limited, such as in core biopsies. Immunohistochemical stain can be a useful tool to aid in the diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: - To provide an update on practical applications and interpretation of immunohistochemical stains in the diagnosis of tumors in prostate, kidney, bladder, and testis. We particularly focus on difficult differential diagnoses, providing our insights in frequently encountered challenging situations...
September 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391625/fetal-foot-length-at-delivery-as-a-tool-for-determining-gestation-length-in-non-macerated-stillbirths
#20
Elaine Geldenhuys, Jean Coldrey, Colleen Wright, Daan Nel, Drucilla J Roberts, Theonia K Boyd, Hein Odendaal
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether fetal foot length at autopsy could reliably indicate gestation duration at stillbirth and the effects of maceration on this method. METHODS: The present cross-sectional secondary analysis was part of the Safe Passage Study; all Safe Passage Study participants who experienced a stillbirth at Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, between August 1, 2007, and January 31, 2015, were eligible to participate. After providing written informed consent for autopsy, the duration of gestation calculated using early ultrasonography and fetal foot length were compared...
July 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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