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Pathology

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22 papers 0 to 25 followers Clinical cases and research about Human Patology
By Jose M. Barria Castro MD from Panama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185687/circulating-tumor-cells-and-circulating-tumor-dna-what-surgical-oncologists-need-to-know
#1
REVIEW
L Cabel, C Proudhon, P Mariani, D Tzanis, G Beinse, I Bieche, J-Y Pierga, F-C Bidard
As a result of recent progress in detection techniques, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTC) can now be accurately detected in the blood of most cancer patients. While these new biomarkers can provide a better understanding of key biological mechanisms underlying cancer growth and dissemination, they also open up a wide range of possible clinical applications in medical oncology, radiation oncology and surgical oncology. In this review, we summarize the results obtained with ctDNA and CTC together with their potential future clinical applications in the field of surgical oncology, with particular focus on the perioperative setting of various types of cancer...
January 29, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959630/necroptosis-mechanisms-and-relevance-to-disease
#2
Lorenzo Galluzzi, Oliver Kepp, Francis Ka-Ming Chan, Guido Kroemer
Necroptosis is a form of regulated cell death that critically depends on receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) and generally manifests with morphological features of necrosis. The molecular mechanisms that underlie distinct instances of necroptosis have just begun to emerge. Nonetheless, it has already been shown that necroptosis contributes to cellular demise in various pathophysiological conditions, including viral infection, acute kidney injury, and cardiac ischemia/reperfusion...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959637/immunopathogenesis-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-nasal-polyposis
#3
Robert P Schleimer
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a troublesome, chronic inflammatory disease that affects over 10% of the adult population, causing decreased quality of life, lost productivity, and lost time at work and leading to more than a million surgical interventions annually worldwide. The nose, paranasal sinuses, and associated lymphoid tissues play important roles in homeostasis and immunity, and CRS significantly impairs these normal functions. Pathogenic mechanisms of CRS have recently become the focus of intense investigations worldwide, and significant progress has been made...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135563/pathogenesis-and-pathology-of-mastocytosis
#4
Dean D Metcalfe, Yoseph A Mekori
Systemic mastocytosis is a clonal disorder of mast cells that may variably present with characteristic skin lesions, episodes of mast cell mediator release, and disturbances of hematopoiesis. No curative therapy presently exists. Conventional management has relied on agents that antagonize mediators released by mast cells, inhibit mediator secretion, or modulate mast cell proliferation. Recent advances in the molecular understanding of the pathophysiology of systemic mastocytosis have provided new therapeutic considerations, including new and novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135564/disorders-of-astrocytes-alexander-disease-as-a-model
#5
Markel Olabarria, James E Goldman
Astrocytes undergo important phenotypic changes in many neurological disorders, including strokes, trauma, inflammatory diseases, infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. We have been studying the astrocytes of Alexander disease (AxD), which is caused by heterozygous mutations in the GFAP gene, which is the gene that encodes the major astrocyte intermediate filament protein. AxD is a primary astrocyte disease because GFAP expression is specific to astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). The accumulation of extremely large amounts of GFAP causes many molecular changes in astrocytes, including proteasome inhibition, stress kinase activation, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation, loss of glutamate and potassium buffering capacity, loss of astrocyte coupling, and changes in cell morphology...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082121/changes-in-the-luminal-environment-of-the-colonic-epithelial-cells-and-physiopathological-consequences
#6
REVIEW
François Blachier, Martin Beaumont, Mireille Andriamihaja, Anne-Marie Davila, Annaig Lan, Marta Grauso, Lucie Armand, Robert Benamouzig, Daniel Tomé
Evidence, mostly from experimental models, has accumulated, indicating that modifications of bacterial metabolite concentrations in the large intestine luminal content, notably after changes in the dietary composition, may have important beneficial or deleterious consequences for the colonic epithelial cell metabolism and physiology in terms of mitochondrial energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species production, gene expression, DNA integrity, proliferation, and viability. Recent data suggest that for some bacterial metabolites, like hydrogen sulfide and butyrate, the extent of their oxidation in colonocytes affects their capacity to modulate gene expression in these cells...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177964/contemporary-gleason-grading-of-prostatic-carcinoma-an-update-with-discussion-on-practical-issues-to-implement-the-2014-international-society-of-urological-pathology-isup-consensus-conference-on-gleason-grading-of-prostatic-carcinoma
#7
Jonathan I Epstein, Mahul B Amin, Victor E Reuter, Peter A Humphrey
The primary proceedings of the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology Grading Conference were published promptly in 2015 and dealt with: (1) definition of various grading patterns of usual acinar carcinoma, (2) grading of intraductal carcinoma; and (3) support for the previously proposed new Grade Groups. The current manuscript in addition to highlighting practical issues to implement the 2014 recommendations, provides an updated perspective based on numerous studies published after the 2014 meeting...
April 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193452/pathogenesis-of-myeloproliferative-disorders
#8
Jyoti Nangalia, Jacob Grinfeld, Anthony R Green
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a set of chronic hematopoietic neoplasms with overlapping clinical and molecular features. Recent years have witnessed considerable advances in our understanding of their pathogenetic basis. Due to their protracted clinical course, the evolution to advanced hematological malignancies, and the accessibility of neoplastic tissue, the study of MPNs has provided a window into the earliest stages of tumorigenesis. With the discovery of mutations in CALR, the majority of MPN patients now bear an identifiable marker of clonal disease; however, the mechanism by which mutated CALR perturbs megakaryopoiesis is currently unresolved...
May 23, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193454/obesity-inflammation-and-cancer
#9
Tuo Deng, Christopher J Lyon, Stephen Bergin, Michael A Caligiuri, Willa A Hsueh
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including cancer, and is increasingly recognized as a growing cause of preventable cancer risk. Chronic inflammation, a well-known mediator of cancer, is a central characteristic of obesity, leading to many of its complications, and obesity-induced inflammation confers additional cancer risk beyond obesity itself. Multiple mechanisms facilitate this strong association between cancer and obesity. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ, secreting several hormones, including leptin and adiponectin, and chemokines that can regulate tumor behavior, inflammation, and the tumor microenvironment...
May 23, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452297/pathogenesis-of-kupffer-cells-in-cholestatic-liver-injury
#10
REVIEW
Keisaku Sato, Chad Hall, Shannon Glaser, Heather Francis, Fanyin Meng, Gianfranco Alpini
Kupffer cells are the resident macrophages in the liver. They are located in hepatic sinusoid, which allows them to remove foreign materials, pathogens, and apoptotic cells efficiently. Activated Kupffer cells secrete various mediators, including cytokines and chemokines, to initiate immune responses, inflammation, or recruitment of other liver cells. Bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery in rodents is often studied as an animal model of cholestatic liver disease, characterized by obstruction of bile flow. BDL mice show altered functional activities of Kupffer cells compared with sham-operated mice, including elevated cytokine secretion and impaired bacterial clearance...
September 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453441/intracranial-involvement-by-plasma-cell-neoplasms
#11
Adam C Wilberger, Richard A Prayson
OBJECTIVES: Intracranial plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs) arising from the skull, dura, or brain parenchyma are rare tumors and there is only a limited experience in the literature with these lesions. METHODS: We performed a retrospective clinicopathologic study of fourteen cases of intracranial PCN at our institution encountered over a 26-year-period. RESULTS: The fourteen patients ranged in age from 30-74 years (median 66 years) and included seven males...
August 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124950/thyroid-frozen-sections-in-patients-with-preoperative-fnas-%C3%A2-review-of-surgeons-preoperative-rationale-intraoperative-decisions-and-final-outcome
#12
John M Kennedy, Robert A Robinson
OBJECTIVES: We wished to discover (1) in what circumstances surgeons wished to request frozen sections (FSs) on thyroid nodules having a prior fine needle aspiration (FNA) and the preoperative plan in these cases; (2) what the surgeons did with the information provided by FS and (3) in what types of cases was value added with the FS. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of 121 consecutive patients receiving an intraoperative FS diagnosis on a thyroid nodule, all of which had been evaluated with a preoperative FNA...
May 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124952/radical-nephrectomy-for-renal-cell-carcinoma-%C3%A2-its-contemporary-role-related-to-histologic-type-tumor-size-and-nodal-status-a-retrospective-study
#13
Kamran M Mirza, Jerome B Taxy, Tatjana Antic
OBJECTIVES: Staging for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) depends on tumor size and the status of the regional lymph nodes. Although lymph node involvement by tumor yields the most accurate staging and prognostic information in patients with carcinomas of various genitourinary organs, the role of lymph node sampling (LNS) in patients with RCC to definitively establish nodal metastases remains unsettled. METHODS: In this retrospective study of 399 patients with RCC treated by total nephrectomy, 115 cases were subjected to lymph node dissection...
June 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141426/nanoparticle-transport-across-the-blood-brain-barrier
#14
REVIEW
Andreas M Grabrucker, Barbara Ruozi, Daniela Belletti, Francesca Pederzoli, Flavio Forni, Maria Angela Vandelli, Giovanni Tosi
While the role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is increasingly recognized in the (development of treatments targeting neurodegenerative disorders, to date, few strategies exist that enable drug delivery of non-BBB crossing molecules directly to their site of action, the brain. However, the recent advent of Nanomedicines may provide a potent tool to implement CNS targeted delivery of active compounds. Approaches for BBB crossing are deeply investigated in relation to the pathology: among the main important diseases of the CNS, this review focuses on the application of nanomedicines to neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington's Disease) and to other brain pathologies as epilepsy, infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis, lysosomal storage disorders, strokes...
January 2016: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141472/microrna-therapeutics-discovering-novel-targets-and-developing-specific-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Ajay Francis Christopher, Raman Preet Kaur, Gunpreet Kaur, Amandeep Kaur, Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression in diverse biological process. They act as intracellular mediators that are necessary for various biological processes. MicroRNAs targeting pathways of human disease provide a new and potential powerful candidate for therapeutic intervention against various pathological conditions. Even though, the information about miRNA biology has significantly enriched but we still do not completely understand the mechanism of miRNA gene regulation...
April 2016: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27140862/the-performance-of-telescoping-fat-pad-biopsies-for-detecting-systemic-amyloidosis-a-four-and-a-half-year-retrospective-analysis-and-brief-review-of-the-fine-needle-aspiration-literature
#16
Hugh Stoddard, Daniel Zedek, Christopher Sayed
Systemic amyloidosis has historically been diagnosed by organ biopsy and Congo red staining, with reported sensitivities that exceed 90%. The abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FNA), introduced in the 1970's, carries sensitivity estimates largely derived from studies with deficiencies. Patient follow-up is often unclear and proportionally low numbers of patients are verified as true negatives. Issues in other studies include only testing verified systemic amyloidosis cases. The telescoping fat pad biopsy (TFPB) is used as an alternative to FNA and is similarly carried out quickly with low morbidity...
August 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141237/rapunzel-syndrome-rare-tale-of-a-broken-tail
#17
Narvir S Chauhan, Satish Kumar, Rohit Bhoil
BACKGROUND: Rapunzel syndrome is a rare and unique form of trichobezoar, in which a cast of hairs is formed in the stomach with its 'tail' extending up to varying lengths into the small bowel. Almost all cases described in literature are of 'classic' and more common form of Rapunzel. Sometimes however, the tail of bezoar is broken into smaller fragments. There is not much literature available on this rarer subset of Rapunzel syndrome. CASE REPORT: In this report we present the ultrasound (USG) and CT findings of a case of Rapunzel syndrome in which the tail had broken into five separate fragments...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141302/mixed-squamous-cell-and-glandular-papilloma-of-the-lung-resembling-early-adenocarcinoma-a-case-report
#18
Jiro Abe, Shigemi Ito, Satomi Takahashi, Ikuro Sato, Ryota Tanaka, Taku Sato, Toshimasa Okazaki
INTRODUCTION: An extremely rare case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is reported. The correlation between the radiological and the pathological features as well as the clinical pitfall in making a diagnosis is discussed. PRESENTATION OF CASE: An asymptomatic 68-year-old female with a cigarette smoking habit presented with a small nodule in her peripheral lung. A wedge resection was performed though it failed on-site diagnosis which was instead obtained following pathological scrutiny...
May 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141304/pericardial-salmonella-with-cardiac-tamponade-and-ventricular-wall-rupture-a-case-report
#19
Gaurav Chand, Ruby Jhaj, Kumar Sanam, Prabhat Sinha, Patrick Alexander
INTRODUCTION: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is mostly restricted to gastroenteritis; however, we report a case of Salmonella pericarditis complicated by tamponade and spontaneous ventricular wall rupture. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old male presents to the Emergency Department with complaints of fevers, chills and body aches. A chest radiograph displayed an infiltrate and an electrocardiogram suggested acute pericarditis. An echocardiogram revealed a small pericardial effusion without tamponade...
May 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27115383/tp53-gene-and-cancer-resistance-in-elephants
#20
LETTER
Claudio Casola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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