collection
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Pathology

shared collection
27 papers 0 to 25 followers Clinical cases and research about Human Patology
By Jose M. Barria Castro MD from Panama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685821/pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-in-haematological-malignancies-update-2017
#1
REVIEW
Tomas Jelinek, Jana Mihalyova, Michal Kascak, Juraj Duras, Roman Hajek
The introduction of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway inhibitors is an important landmark in solid oncology with unprecedented practice-changing activity in various types of solid tumours. Among haematological malignancies, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have been successful, so far, only in the treatment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, which typically exhibits an over-expression of PD-1 ligands (PD-L1, PD-L2) due to alterations in chromosome 9p24.1. Such positive outcomes led to the US Food and Drug Administration approval of nivolumab use in relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma in 2016 as the first haematological indication...
July 6, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582484/comparison-of-three-methods-for-measuring-workload-in-surgical-pathology-and-cytopathology
#2
Daniel Cloetingh, Rodney A Schmidt, Christina S Kong
Objectives: Pathologist workload in the United States has traditionally been measured by relative value units (RVUs), which is often criticized for providing an inaccurate estimate of actual work. This study compares three methods for measuring workload. Methods: Surgical pathology and cytopathology workload for 1 representative month at Stanford Health Care was assessed using three different methods: RVUs, Royal College of Pathologists (RCP) point system, and University of Washington-Seattle (UW) slide count method...
June 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605400/proposed-terminology-for-anal-squamous-lesions-its-application-and-interobserver-agreement-among-pathologists-in-academic-and-community-hospitals
#3
Andres A Roma, Xiuli Liu, Deepa T Patil, Hao Xie, Daniela Allende
Objectives: To analyze interobserver reproducibility and compare practice patterns between academic and community settings of Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST). Methods: In total, 132 anal biopsy slides were revised as well as p16 immunostains. Results: LAST was used in 49% of cases (academic center, 68%; satellite hospitals [community practice setting], 32%). After pathology review and consensus interpretation, 23 (17%) case diagnoses were reclassified: eight (34...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608721/practical-applications-of-immunohistochemistry-in-the-diagnosis-of-genitourinary-tumors
#4
Xiuli Xiao, Rong Hu, Fang-Ming Deng, Steven S Shen, Ximing J Yang, Chin-Lee Wu
CONTEXT: - Pathologic diagnosis of tumors in the genitourinary system can be challenging based on morphology alone, particularly when diagnostic material is limited, such as in core biopsies. Immunohistochemical stain can be a useful tool to aid in the diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: - To provide an update on practical applications and interpretation of immunohistochemical stains in the diagnosis of tumors in prostate, kidney, bladder, and testis. We particularly focus on difficult differential diagnoses, providing our insights in frequently encountered challenging situations...
September 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391625/fetal-foot-length-at-delivery-as-a-tool-for-determining-gestation-length-in-non-macerated-stillbirths
#5
Elaine Geldenhuys, Jean Coldrey, Colleen Wright, Daan Nel, Drucilla J Roberts, Theonia K Boyd, Hein Odendaal
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether fetal foot length at autopsy could reliably indicate gestation duration at stillbirth and the effects of maceration on this method. METHODS: The present cross-sectional secondary analysis was part of the Safe Passage Study; all Safe Passage Study participants who experienced a stillbirth at Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, between August 1, 2007, and January 31, 2015, were eligible to participate. After providing written informed consent for autopsy, the duration of gestation calculated using early ultrasonography and fetal foot length were compared...
July 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185687/circulating-tumor-cells-and-circulating-tumor-dna-what-surgical-oncologists-need-to-know
#6
REVIEW
L Cabel, C Proudhon, P Mariani, D Tzanis, G Beinse, I Bieche, J-Y Pierga, F-C Bidard
As a result of recent progress in detection techniques, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTC) can now be accurately detected in the blood of most cancer patients. While these new biomarkers can provide a better understanding of key biological mechanisms underlying cancer growth and dissemination, they also open up a wide range of possible clinical applications in medical oncology, radiation oncology and surgical oncology. In this review, we summarize the results obtained with ctDNA and CTC together with their potential future clinical applications in the field of surgical oncology, with particular focus on the perioperative setting of various types of cancer...
May 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959630/necroptosis-mechanisms-and-relevance-to-disease
#7
REVIEW
Lorenzo Galluzzi, Oliver Kepp, Francis Ka-Ming Chan, Guido Kroemer
Necroptosis is a form of regulated cell death that critically depends on receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) and generally manifests with morphological features of necrosis. The molecular mechanisms that underlie distinct instances of necroptosis have just begun to emerge. Nonetheless, it has already been shown that necroptosis contributes to cellular demise in various pathophysiological conditions, including viral infection, acute kidney injury, and cardiac ischemia/reperfusion...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959637/immunopathogenesis-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-nasal-polyposis
#8
REVIEW
Robert P Schleimer
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a troublesome, chronic inflammatory disease that affects over 10% of the adult population, causing decreased quality of life, lost productivity, and lost time at work and leading to more than a million surgical interventions annually worldwide. The nose, paranasal sinuses, and associated lymphoid tissues play important roles in homeostasis and immunity, and CRS significantly impairs these normal functions. Pathogenic mechanisms of CRS have recently become the focus of intense investigations worldwide, and significant progress has been made...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135563/pathogenesis-and-pathology-of-mastocytosis
#9
REVIEW
Dean D Metcalfe, Yoseph A Mekori
Systemic mastocytosis is a clonal disorder of mast cells that may variably present with characteristic skin lesions, episodes of mast cell mediator release, and disturbances of hematopoiesis. No curative therapy presently exists. Conventional management has relied on agents that antagonize mediators released by mast cells, inhibit mediator secretion, or modulate mast cell proliferation. Recent advances in the molecular understanding of the pathophysiology of systemic mastocytosis have provided new therapeutic considerations, including new and novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135564/disorders-of-astrocytes-alexander-disease-as-a-model
#10
REVIEW
Markel Olabarria, James E Goldman
Astrocytes undergo important phenotypic changes in many neurological disorders, including strokes, trauma, inflammatory diseases, infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. We have been studying the astrocytes of Alexander disease (AxD), which is caused by heterozygous mutations in the GFAP gene, which is the gene that encodes the major astrocyte intermediate filament protein. AxD is a primary astrocyte disease because GFAP expression is specific to astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). The accumulation of extremely large amounts of GFAP causes many molecular changes in astrocytes, including proteasome inhibition, stress kinase activation, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation, loss of glutamate and potassium buffering capacity, loss of astrocyte coupling, and changes in cell morphology...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082121/changes-in-the-luminal-environment-of-the-colonic-epithelial-cells-and-physiopathological-consequences
#11
REVIEW
François Blachier, Martin Beaumont, Mireille Andriamihaja, Anne-Marie Davila, Annaïg Lan, Marta Grauso, Lucie Armand, Robert Benamouzig, Daniel Tomé
Evidence, mostly from experimental models, has accumulated, indicating that modifications of bacterial metabolite concentrations in the large intestine luminal content, notably after changes in the dietary composition, may have important beneficial or deleterious consequences for the colonic epithelial cell metabolism and physiology in terms of mitochondrial energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species production, gene expression, DNA integrity, proliferation, and viability. Recent data suggest that for some bacterial metabolites, like hydrogen sulfide and butyrate, the extent of their oxidation in colonocytes affects their capacity to modulate gene expression in these cells...
March 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177964/contemporary-gleason-grading-of-prostatic-carcinoma-an-update-with-discussion-on-practical-issues-to-implement-the-2014-international-society-of-urological-pathology-isup-consensus-conference-on-gleason-grading-of-prostatic-carcinoma
#12
Jonathan I Epstein, Mahul B Amin, Victor E Reuter, Peter A Humphrey
The primary proceedings of the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology Grading Conference were published promptly in 2015 and dealt with: (1) definition of various grading patterns of usual acinar carcinoma, (2) grading of intraductal carcinoma; and (3) support for the previously proposed new Grade Groups. The current manuscript in addition to highlighting practical issues to implement the 2014 recommendations, provides an updated perspective based on numerous studies published after the 2014 meeting...
April 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193452/pathogenesis-of-myeloproliferative-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Jyoti Nangalia, Jacob Grinfeld, Anthony R Green
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a set of chronic hematopoietic neoplasms with overlapping clinical and molecular features. Recent years have witnessed considerable advances in our understanding of their pathogenetic basis. Due to their protracted clinical course, the evolution to advanced hematological malignancies, and the accessibility of neoplastic tissue, the study of MPNs has provided a window into the earliest stages of tumorigenesis. With the discovery of mutations in CALR, the majority of MPN patients now bear an identifiable marker of clonal disease; however, the mechanism by which mutated CALR perturbs megakaryopoiesis is currently unresolved...
May 23, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193454/obesity-inflammation-and-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Tuo Deng, Christopher J Lyon, Stephen Bergin, Michael A Caligiuri, Willa A Hsueh
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including cancer, and is increasingly recognized as a growing cause of preventable cancer risk. Chronic inflammation, a well-known mediator of cancer, is a central characteristic of obesity, leading to many of its complications, and obesity-induced inflammation confers additional cancer risk beyond obesity itself. Multiple mechanisms facilitate this strong association between cancer and obesity. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ, secreting several hormones, including leptin and adiponectin, and chemokines that can regulate tumor behavior, inflammation, and the tumor microenvironment...
May 23, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452297/pathogenesis-of-kupffer-cells-in-cholestatic-liver-injury
#15
REVIEW
Keisaku Sato, Chad Hall, Shannon Glaser, Heather Francis, Fanyin Meng, Gianfranco Alpini
Kupffer cells are the resident macrophages in the liver. They are located in hepatic sinusoid, which allows them to remove foreign materials, pathogens, and apoptotic cells efficiently. Activated Kupffer cells secrete various mediators, including cytokines and chemokines, to initiate immune responses, inflammation, or recruitment of other liver cells. Bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery in rodents is often studied as an animal model of cholestatic liver disease, characterized by obstruction of bile flow. BDL mice show altered functional activities of Kupffer cells compared with sham-operated mice, including elevated cytokine secretion and impaired bacterial clearance...
September 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453441/intracranial-involvement-by-plasma-cell-neoplasms
#16
Adam C Wilberger, Richard A Prayson
OBJECTIVES: Intracranial plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs) arising from the skull, dura, or brain parenchyma are rare tumors and there is only a limited experience in the literature with these lesions. METHODS: We performed a retrospective clinicopathologic study of fourteen cases of intracranial PCN at our institution encountered over a 26-year-period. RESULTS: The fourteen patients ranged in age from 30-74 years (median 66 years) and included seven males...
August 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124950/thyroid-frozen-sections-in-patients-with-preoperative-fnas-%C3%A2-review-of-surgeons-preoperative-rationale-intraoperative-decisions-and-final-outcome
#17
John M Kennedy, Robert A Robinson
OBJECTIVES: We wished to discover (1) in what circumstances surgeons wished to request frozen sections (FSs) on thyroid nodules having a prior fine needle aspiration (FNA) and the preoperative plan in these cases; (2) what the surgeons did with the information provided by FS and (3) in what types of cases was value added with the FS. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of 121 consecutive patients receiving an intraoperative FS diagnosis on a thyroid nodule, all of which had been evaluated with a preoperative FNA...
May 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124952/radical-nephrectomy-for-renal-cell-carcinoma-%C3%A2-its-contemporary-role-related-to-histologic-type-tumor-size-and-nodal-status-a-retrospective-study
#18
Kamran M Mirza, Jerome B Taxy, Tatjana Antic
OBJECTIVES: Staging for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) depends on tumor size and the status of the regional lymph nodes. Although lymph node involvement by tumor yields the most accurate staging and prognostic information in patients with carcinomas of various genitourinary organs, the role of lymph node sampling (LNS) in patients with RCC to definitively establish nodal metastases remains unsettled. METHODS: In this retrospective study of 399 patients with RCC treated by total nephrectomy, 115 cases were subjected to lymph node dissection...
June 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141426/nanoparticle-transport-across-the-blood-brain-barrier
#19
REVIEW
Andreas M Grabrucker, Barbara Ruozi, Daniela Belletti, Francesca Pederzoli, Flavio Forni, Maria Angela Vandelli, Giovanni Tosi
While the role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is increasingly recognized in the (development of treatments targeting neurodegenerative disorders, to date, few strategies exist that enable drug delivery of non-BBB crossing molecules directly to their site of action, the brain. However, the recent advent of Nanomedicines may provide a potent tool to implement CNS targeted delivery of active compounds. Approaches for BBB crossing are deeply investigated in relation to the pathology: among the main important diseases of the CNS, this review focuses on the application of nanomedicines to neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington's Disease) and to other brain pathologies as epilepsy, infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis, lysosomal storage disorders, strokes...
January 2016: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141472/microrna-therapeutics-discovering-novel-targets-and-developing-specific-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Ajay Francis Christopher, Raman Preet Kaur, Gunpreet Kaur, Amandeep Kaur, Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression in diverse biological process. They act as intracellular mediators that are necessary for various biological processes. MicroRNAs targeting pathways of human disease provide a new and potential powerful candidate for therapeutic intervention against various pathological conditions. Even though, the information about miRNA biology has significantly enriched but we still do not completely understand the mechanism of miRNA gene regulation...
April 2016: Perspectives in Clinical Research
label_collection
label_collection
6921
1
2
2016-05-06 01:04:49
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"