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neurology and eldery care

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109 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428907/palliative-care-in-huntington-disease-personal-reflections-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
Christopher G Tarolli, Amy M Chesire, Kevin M Biglan
BACKGROUND: Huntington disease is a fatal, autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder manifest by the triad of a movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and dementia. At present, no curative or disease modifying therapies exist for the condition and current treatments are symptomatic. Palliative care is an approach to care that focuses on symptom relief, patient and caregiver support, and end of life care. There is increasing evidence of the benefit of palliative care throughout the course of neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455389/the-neurology-of-ageing-what-is-normal
#2
REVIEW
Jonathan M Schott
Ageing is associated with changes in the nervous system with consequent alterations in some neurological examination findings: understanding what is 'normal' at different ages is essential when evaluating patients. In seminal papers published in 1931, Dr MacDonald Critchley summarised his observations and the prevailing evidence on the effects of ageing on, among others, sensation, reflexes, ocular function, olfaction, movement and cognition. In this review, these observations are re-evaluated in light of contemporary evidence...
June 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17850194/deep-brain-stimulation-indications-and-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Erlick A C Pereira, Alexander L Green, Dipankar Nandi, Tipu Z Aziz
Deep brain stimulation is a minimally invasive targeted neurosurgical intervention that enables structures deep in the brain to be stimulated electrically by an implanted pacemaker. It has become the treatment of choice for Parkinson's disease, refractory to, or complicated by, drug therapy. Its efficacy has been demonstrated robustly by randomized, controlled clinical trials, with multiple novel brain targets having been discovered in the last 20 years. Multifarious clinical indications for deep brain stimulation now exist, including dystonia and tremor in movement disorders; depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette's syndrome in psychiatry; epilepsy, cluster headache and chronic pain, including pain from stroke, amputation, trigeminal neuralgia and multiple sclerosis...
September 2007: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186662/blepharospasm-40-years-later
#4
REVIEW
Giovanni Defazio, Mark Hallett, Hyder A Jinnah, Antonella Conte, Alfredo Berardelli
Forty years ago, C.D. Marsden proposed that blepharospasm should be considered a form of adult-onset focal dystonia. In the present paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the findings regarding blepharospasm reported in the past 40 years. Although prolonged spasms of the orbicularis oculi muscles remain the clinical hallmark of blepharospasm, patients with blepharospasm may be characterized by various types of involuntary activation of periocular muscles. In addition to motor features, blepharospasm patients may also have nonmotor manifestations, including psychiatric, mild cognitive, and sensory disturbances...
April 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195350/overcoming-the-divide-between-ataxias-and-spastic-paraplegias-shared-phenotypes-genes-and-pathways
#5
REVIEW
Matthis Synofzik, Rebecca Schüle
Autosomal-dominant spinocerebellar ataxias, autosomal-recessive spinocerebellar ataxias, and hereditary spastic paraplegias have traditionally been designated in separate clinicogenetic disease classifications. This classification system still largely frames clinical thinking and genetic workup in clinical practice. Yet, with the advent of next-generation sequencing, phenotypically unbiased studies have revealed the limitations of this classification system. Various genes (eg, SPG7, SYNE1, PNPLA6) traditionally rooted in either the ataxia or hereditary spastic paraplegia classification system have now been shown to cause ataxia on the one end of the disease continuum and hereditary spastic paraplegia on the other...
March 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190436/neurologic-complications-of-cardiac-and-vascular-surgery
#6
REVIEW
K N Sheth, E Nourollahzadeh
This chapter will provide an overview of the major neurologic complications of common cardiac and vascular surgeries, such as coronary artery bypass grafting and carotid endarterectomy. Neurologic complications after cardiac and vascular surgeries can cause significant morbidity and mortality, which can negate the beneficial effects of the intervention. Some of the complications to be discussed include ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, seizures, delirium, cognitive dysfunction, cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome, cranial nerve injuries, and peripheral neuropathies...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190446/prognosis-of-neurologic-complications-in-critical-illness
#7
REVIEW
M Van Der Jagt, E J O Kompanje
Neurologic complications of critical illness require extensive clinical and neurophysiologic evaluation to establish a reliable prognosis. Many sequelae of intensive care unit (ICU) treatment, such as delirium and ICU-acquired weakness, although highly associated with adverse outcomes, are less suitable for prognostication, but should rather prompt clinicians to seek previously unnoticed persisting underlying illnesses. Prognostication can be confounded by drug administration particularly because its clearance is abnormal in critical illness...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178408/epidemiology-risk-factors-and-clinical-features-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Sang Joon An, Tae Jung Kim, Byung-Woo Yoon
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the second most common subtype of stroke and a critical disease usually leading to severe disability or death. ICH is more common in Asians, advanced age, male sex, and low- and middle-income countries. The case fatality rate of ICH is high (40% at 1 month and 54% at 1 year), and only 12% to 39% of survivors can achieve long-term functional independence. Risk factors of ICH are hypertension, current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, hypocholesterolemia, and drugs. Old age, male sex, Asian ethnicity, chronic kidney disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) increase the risk of ICH...
January 2017: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087304/sleep-and-neurodegeneration-a-critical-appraisal
#9
REVIEW
Jagan A Pillai, James B Leverenz
Sleep abnormalities are clearly recognized as a distinct clinical symptom of concern in neurodegenerative disorders. Appropriate management of sleep-related symptoms has a positive impact on quality of life in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. This review provides an overview of mechanisms that are currently being considered that tie sleep with neurodegeneration. It appraises the literature regarding specific sleep changes seen in common neurodegenerative diseases, with a focus on Alzheimer disease and synucleinopathies (ie, Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy), that have been better studied...
June 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116753/essential-pitfalls-in-essential-tremor
#10
REVIEW
Alberto J Espay, Anthony E Lang, Roberto Erro, Aristide Merola, Alfonso Fasano, Alfredo Berardelli, Kailash P Bhatia
Although essential tremor has been considered the most common movement disorder, it has largely remained a diagnosis of exclusion: many tremor and nontremor features must be absent for the clinical diagnosis to stand. The clinical features of "essential tremor" overlap with or may be part of other tremor disorders and, not surprisingly, this prevalent familial disorder has remained without a gene identified, without a consistent natural history, and without an acceptable pathology or pathophysiologic underpinning...
March 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168537/hyperkinetic-movement-disorder-emergencies
#11
REVIEW
Giovanni Cossu, Carlo Colosimo
A movement disorder emergency has been defined by Fahn and Frucht as "any neurological disorder evolving acutely or subacutely, in which the clinical presentation is dominated by a primary movement disorder, and in which failure to accurately diagnose and manage the patient may result in significant morbidity or even mortality." In this review, we discuss the most common situations in which hyperkinetic movement disorders, including chorea, ballism, dystonia, myoclonus, tics, as well as psychogenic disorders, can present as emergencies...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186669/restless-legs-syndrome-and-periodic-leg-movements-in-patients-with-movement-disorders-specific-considerations
#12
REVIEW
Birgit Högl, Ambra Stefani
Restless legs syndrome is a frequent neurological disorder with potentially serious and highly distressing treatment complications. The role and potential implications of periodic leg movements during sleep range from being a genetic risk marker for restless legs syndrome to being a cardiovascular risk factor. The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome in patients with daytime movement disorders is challenging and restless legs syndrome needs to be differentiated from other sleep-related movement disorders. This article provides an update on the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome as an independent disorder and the role of periodic leg movements and reviews the association of restless legs syndrome with Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders...
February 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003344/differentiating-lower-motor-neuron-syndromes
#13
REVIEW
Nidhi Garg, Susanna B Park, Steve Vucic, Con Yiannikas, Judy Spies, James Howells, William Huynh, José M Matamala, Arun V Krishnan, John D Pollard, David R Cornblath, Mary M Reilly, Matthew C Kiernan
Lower motor neuron (LMN) syndromes typically present with muscle wasting and weakness and may arise from pathology affecting the distal motor nerve up to the level of the anterior horn cell. A variety of hereditary causes are recognised, including spinal muscular atrophy, distal hereditary motor neuropathy and LMN variants of familial motor neuron disease. Recent genetic advances have resulted in the identification of a variety of disease-causing mutations. Immune-mediated disorders, including multifocal motor neuropathy and variants of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, account for a proportion of LMN presentations and are important to recognise, as effective treatments are available...
June 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076964/trigeminal-neuralgia-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
Stine Maarbjerg, Giulia Di Stefano, Lars Bendtsen, Giorgio Cruccu
Introduction Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by touch-evoked unilateral brief shock-like paroxysmal pain in one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve. In addition to the paroxysmal pain, some patients also have continuous pain. TN is divided into classical TN (CTN) and secondary TN (STN). Etiology and pathophysiology Demyelination of primary sensory trigeminal afferents in the root entry zone is the predominant pathophysiological mechanism. Most likely, demyelination paves the way for generation of ectopic impulses and ephaptic crosstalk...
June 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065687/restless-legs-syndrome-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-research-roadmap
#15
REVIEW
Daniel J Gottlieb, Virend K Somers, Naresh M Punjabi, John W Winkelman
In this paper, we first critically appraise the epidemiologic literature examining the association of restless legs syndrome (RLS) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and then consider whether lessons learned from the study of cardiovascular consequences of other sleep disorders might inform a research agenda to examine the potential mechanisms of cardiovascular morbidity of RLS. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are both mixed as to whether there is a meaningful association of RLS and CVD. On the other hand, numerous cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies have shown a strong association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with CVD risk...
March 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17645916/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-and-serotonin-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Koichi Nisijima, Katsutoshi Shioda, Tatsunori Iwamura
This chapter is focused on drug-induced hyperthermia with special regard to use of antipsychotics and antidepressants for the treatment of schizophrenia and major depression, respectively. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) develops during the use of neuroleptics, whereas serotonin syndrome is caused mainly by serotoninergic antidepressants. Although both syndromes show various symptoms, hyperthermia is the main clinical manifestation. In this review we describe the historical background, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of these two syndromes based on our observations on the experimental and clinical data...
2007: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144147/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-an-easily-overlooked-neurologic-emergency
#17
REVIEW
Ramadhan Oruch, Ian F Pryme, Bernt A Engelsen, Anders Lund
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is an unpredictable iatrogenic neurologic emergency condition, mainly arising as an idiosyncratic reaction to antipsychotic agent use. It is characterized by distinctive clinical features including a change in mental status, generalized rigidity, hyperpyrexia, and dysautonomia. It can be lethal if not diagnosed and treated properly. Mortality and morbidity attributed to this syndrome have recently declined markedly due to greater awareness, earlier diagnosis, and intensive care intervention...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20433130/prevention-recognition-and-management-of-serotonin-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Adrienne Z Ables, Raju Nagubilli
Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by excessive serotonergic activity in the nervous system. It is characterized by mental status changes, autonomic instability, and neuromuscular hyperactivity. Most reported cases of serotonin syndrome are in patients using multiple serotonergic drugs or who have had considerable exposure to a single serotonin-augmenting drug. Diagnosis is made using the Hunter Serotonin Toxicity Criteria, which require the presence of one of the following classical features or groups of features: spontaneous clonus; inducible clonus with agitation or diaphoresis; ocular clonus with agitation or diaphoresis; tremor and hyperreflexia; or hypertonia, temperature above 100...
May 1, 2010: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20306454/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-and-its-controversies
#19
REVIEW
Branimir Margetić, Branka Aukst-Margetić
PURPOSE: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare and life threatening condition usually defined as a complication of treatment with antipsychotics characterized by severe rigidity, tremor, fever, altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and elevated serum creatine phosphokinase and white blood cell count. The literature on this topic is rather extensive, but many aspects related to the syndrome are thought to be controversial. The aim of this paper, written with the clinician in mind, is to summarize some of the most prominent controversies that may have importance in usual clinical practice...
May 2010: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22563571/serotonin-syndrome-vs-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-a-contrast-of-causes-diagnoses-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Paul J Perry, Courtney A Wilborn
BACKGROUND: Serotonin syndrome (SS) and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) are uncommon but potentially life-threatening adverse reactions associated with psychotropic medications. Polypharmacy and the similar presentation of SS and NMS make diagnosis of the 2 syndromes problematic. METHODS: A MEDLINE search was performed for the period 1960 to 2011 for case reports, review articles, and studies pertaining to SS and NMS. RESULTS: The majority of available literature on SS and NMS consists of case reports, case-control studies, and retrospective reviews...
May 2012: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
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