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42 papers 0 to 25 followers Making sure little Derek makes it.
By David Hedman Anesthesia
Steven Hamley
BACKGROUND: A cornerstone of conventional dietary advice is the recommendation to replace saturated fatty acids (SFA) with mostly n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Many clinical trials aimed to test this advice and have had their results pooled in several meta-analyses. However, earlier meta-analyses did not sufficiently account for major confounding variables that were present in some of those trials. Therefore, the aim of the study was to account for the major confounding variables in the diet heart trials, and emphasise the results from those trials that most accurately test the effect of replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA...
May 19, 2017: Nutrition Journal
Sabine Plancoulaine, Camille Stagnara, Sophie Flori, Flora Bat-Pitault, Jian-Sheng Lin, Hugues Patural, Patricia Franco
BACKGROUND: Few studies on the relations between sleep quantity and/or quality and cognition have been conducted among preschoolers from healthy general population. We aimed at identifying, among 36 months old children, early factors associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) estimated through the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale Intelligence-III test and its indicators: Full-Scale-, Verbal- and Performance-IQs and their subscale scores. METHODS: We included 194 children from the French birth cohort AuBE with both available Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale Intelligence-III scores at three years and sleep data...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
Satoshi Kanazawa
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies conclude childhood intelligence has no direct effect on adult obesity net of education, but evolutionary psychological theories suggest otherwise. DESIGN AND METHODS: A population (n = 17,419) of British babies has been followed since birth in 1958 in a prospectively longitudinal study. Childhood general intelligence is measured at 7, 11, and 16, and adult BMI and obesity are measured at 51. RESULTS: Childhood general intelligence has a direct effect on adult BMI, obesity, and weight gain, net of education, earnings, mother's BMI, father's BMI, childhood social class, and sex...
March 2013: Obesity
Lisa G Smithers, Rebecca K Golley, Murthy N Mittinty, Laima Brazionis, Kate Northstone, Pauline Emmett, John W Lynch
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether trajectories of dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months of age are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) in childhood and adolescence. METHODS: Participants were children enrolled in a prospective UK birth cohort (n = 7,652) who had IQ measured at age 8 and/or 15 years. Dietary patterns were previously extracted from questionnaires when children were aged 6, 15 and 24 months using principal component analysis. Dietary trajectories were generated by combining scores on similar dietary patterns across each age, using multilevel mixed models...
2013: PloS One
Linda Smith, Michael Gasser
The embodiment hypothesis is the idea that intelligence emerges in the interaction of an agent with an environment and as a result of sensorimotor activity. We offer six lessons for developing embodied intelligent agents suggested by research in developmental psychology. We argue that starting as a baby grounded in a physical, social, and linguistic world is crucial to the development of the flexible and inventive intelligence that characterizes humankind.
January 2005: Artificial Life
Michael S Kramer, Frances Aboud, Elena Mironova, Irina Vanilovich, Robert W Platt, Lidia Matush, Sergei Igumnov, Eric Fombonne, Natalia Bogdanovich, Thierry Ducruet, Jean-Paul Collet, Beverley Chalmers, Ellen Hodnett, Sergei Davidovsky, Oleg Skugarevsky, Oleg Trofimovich, Ludmila Kozlova, Stanley Shapiro
CONTEXT: The evidence that breastfeeding improves cognitive development is based almost entirely on observational studies and is thus prone to confounding by subtle behavioral differences in the breastfeeding mother's behavior or her interaction with the infant. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding improves children's cognitive ability at age 6.5 years. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized trial, with enrollment from June 17, 1996, to December 31, 1997, and follow-up from December 21, 2002, to April 27, 2005...
May 2008: Archives of General Psychiatry
Jake M Najman, Mohammad R Hayatbakhsh, Michelle A Heron, William Bor, Michael J O'Callaghan, Gail M Williams
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether changes in family poverty between pregnancy, early childhood, and adolescence predict child cognitive development at 14 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a population-based prospective birth cohort study of 7223 mothers who gave birth to a live singleton baby, observed to 14 years of age. Family income was measured on 4 occasions from pregnancy to the 14-year follow-up. Child cognitive development was measured at the 14-year follow-up using the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices and Wide Range Achievement Test...
February 2009: Journal of Pediatrics
John W Roberts, Lance A Wallace, David E Camann, Philip Dickey, Steven G Gilbert, Robert G Lewis, Tim K Takaro
The health risks to babies from pollutants in house dust may be 100 times greater than for adults. The young ingest more dust and are up to ten times more vulnerable to such exposures. House dust is the main exposure source for infants to allergens, lead, and PBDEs, as well as a major source of exposure to pesticides, PAHs, Gram-negative bacteria, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, phthalates, phenols, and other EDCs, mutagens, and carcinogens. Median or upper percentile concentrations in house dust of lead and several pesticides and PAHs may exceed health-based standards in North America...
2009: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Maria Iacovou, Almudena Sevilla
BACKGROUND: Many popular childcare books recommend feeding babies to a schedule, but no large-scale study has ever examined the effects of schedule-feeding. Here, we examine the relationship between feeding infants to a schedule and two sets of outcomes: mothers' wellbeing, and children's longer-term cognitive and academic development. METHODS: We used a sample of 10,419 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a cohort study of children born in the 1990 s in Bristol, UK...
February 2013: European Journal of Public Health
Lisa G Smithers, Rebecca K Golley, Murthy N Mittinty, Laima Brazionis, Kate Northstone, Pauline Emmett, John W Lynch
Diet supplies the nutrients needed for the development of neural tissues that occurs over the first 2 years of life. Our aim was to examine associations between dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 8 years. Participants were enrolled in an observational birth cohort (ALSPAC study, n = 7,097). Dietary data was collected by questionnaire and patterns were extracted at each time using principal component analysis. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at 8 years...
July 2012: European Journal of Epidemiology
John S Hutton
The issue of electronic media use by young children is increasingly important in pediatrics, a major risk factor for numerous chronic conditions. Despite guidelines in place since 1999, screen time is on the rise, aided by new formats removing practically all barriers of use. Key drivers are technological allure, confusion about developmental readiness, and perception of educational value, fueled by potent marketing. This article describes the development of Baby Unplugged, a series of children's board books celebrating "old-school," screen-free childhood...
January 2013: Clinical Pediatrics
Jeffrey B Vancouver, Justin D Purl
Self-efficacy, which is one's belief in one's capacity, has been found to both positively and negatively influence effort and performance. The reasons for these different effects have been a major topic of debate among social-cognitive and perceptual control theorists. In particular, the findings of various self-efficacy effects has been motivated by a perceptual control theory view of self-regulation that social-cognitive theorists' question. To provide more clarity to the theoretical arguments, a computational model of the multiple processes presumed to create the positive, negative, and null effects for self-efficacy is presented...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
Luca Ronfani, Liza Vecchi Brumatti, Marika Mariuz, Veronica Tognin, Maura Bin, Valentina Ferluga, Alessandra Knowles, Marcella Montico, Fabio Barbone
BACKGROUND: The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES), home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months. METHODS: The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ) were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership...
2015: PloS One
Ola Andersson, Barbro Lindquist, Magnus Lindgren, Karin Stjernqvist, Magnus Domellöf, Lena Hellström-Westas
IMPORTANCE: Prevention of iron deficiency in infancy may promote neurodevelopment. Delayed umbilical cord clamping (CC) prevents iron deficiency at 4 to 6 months of age, but long-term effects after 12 months of age have not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of delayed CC compared with early CC on neurodevelopment at 4 years of age. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Follow-up of a randomized clinical trial conducted from April 16, 2008, through May 21, 2010, at a Swedish county hospital...
July 2015: JAMA Pediatrics
Jonathan T Delafield-Butt, Colwyn Trevarthen
Narrative, the creation of imaginative projects and experiences displayed in expressions of movement and voice, is how human cooperative understanding grows. Human understanding places the character and qualities of objects and events of interest within stories that portray intentions, feelings, and ambitions, and how one cares about them. Understanding the development of narrative is therefore essential for understanding the development of human intelligence, but its early origins are obscure. We identify the origins of narrative in the innate sensorimotor intelligence of a hypermobile human body and trace the ontogenesis of narrative form from its earliest expression in movement...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Brandon C Roy, Michael C Frank, Philip DeCamp, Matthew Miller, Deb Roy
Children learn words through an accumulation of interactions grounded in context. Although many factors in the learning environment have been shown to contribute to word learning in individual studies, no empirical synthesis connects across factors. We introduce a new ultradense corpus of audio and video recordings of a single child's life that allows us to measure the child's experience of each word in his vocabulary. This corpus provides the first direct comparison, to our knowledge, between different predictors of the child's production of individual words...
October 13, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ruth Feldman
Elucidating the mechanisms by which infant birth conditions shape development across lengthy periods is critical for understanding typical and pathological development and for targeted early interventions. This study examined how newborns' regulatory capacities impact 10-year outcomes via the bidirectional influences of child emotion regulation (ER) and reciprocal parenting across early development. Guided by dynamic systems theory, 125 infants were tested at seven time points: birth, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and 5 and 10 years...
November 2015: Development and Psychopathology
Nuray Bayar Muluk, Birgül Bayoğlu, Banu Anlar
We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo)...
January 2016: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
Maureen M Black, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Sylvia Fernandez Rao
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs...
November 2015: Advances in Nutrition
Kimberly L H Carpenter, Wei Li, Hongjiang Wei, Bing Wu, Xue Xiao, Chunlei Liu, Gordon Worley, Helen Link Egger
Iron is an essential micronutrient for healthy brain function and development. Because of the importance of iron in the brain, iron deficiency results in widespread and lasting effects on behavior and cognition. We measured iron in the basal ganglia of young children using a novel MRI method, quantitative susceptibility mapping, and examined the association of brain iron with age and cognitive performance. Participants were a community sample of 39 young children recruited from pediatric primary care who were participating in a 5-year longitudinal study of child brain development and anxiety disorders...
May 15, 2016: NeuroImage
2016-11-30 00:48:16
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