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Infectología

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23 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806994/human-parvoviruses
#1
REVIEW
Jianming Qiu, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Neal S Young
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716262/new-aspects-in-the-management-of-pneumonia
#2
REVIEW
Elena Prina, Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres
Despite improvements in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), morbidity and mortality are still high, especially in patients with more severe disease. Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of CAP. However, two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvant treatments, such as corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects. The use of corticosteroids in patients with severe CAP and a strong inflammatory reaction can reduce the time to clinical stability, the risk of treatment failure, and the risk of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567896/severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-timely-management-measures-in-the-first-24-hours
#3
REVIEW
Jason Phua, Nathan C Dean, Qi Guo, Win Sen Kuan, Hui Fang Lim, Tow Keang Lim
Mortality rates for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) range from 17 to 48 % in published studies.In this review, we searched PubMed for relevant papers published between 1981 and June 2016 and relevant files. We explored how early and aggressive management measures, implemented within 24 hours of recognition of severe CAP and carried out both in the emergency department and in the ICU, decrease mortality in severe CAP.These measures begin with the use of severity assessment tools and the application of care bundles via clinical decision support tools...
August 28, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664247/management-of-febrile-neutropaenia-esmo-clinical-practice-guidelines
#4
J Klastersky, J de Naurois, K Rolston, B Rapoport, G Maschmeyer, M Aapro, J Herrstedt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783923/emphysematous-pyelonephritis
#5
Yasumitsu Hirose, Hayato Kaida
A 51-year-old man presented with fever and general malaise of 2 weeks’ duration. He had had diabetes mellitus for the preceding 20 years, and at the time of presentation this condition was poorly controlled. On admission to the hospital, his white-cell count was 10,800 per cubic millimeter (normal..
October 27, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880878/neurocysticercosis-infection-and-disease-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Lucy B Gripper, Susan C Welburn
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system (CNS), a pleomorphic disease with a diverse array of clinical manifestations. The infection is pleomorphic and dependent on a complex range of interconnecting factors, including number and size of the cysticerci, their stage of development and localisation within the brain with resulting difficulties in accurate diagnosis and staging of the disease. This review examines the factors that contribute to the accurate assessment of NCC distribution and transmission that are critical to achieving robust disease burden calculations...
February 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886201/cryptococcal-meningitis-epidemiology-immunology-diagnosis-and-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Joseph N Jarvis, Anil A Panackal, Matthew C Fisher, Síle F Molloy, Angela Loyse, Thomas S Harrison
HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499981/tuberculous-pleural-effusion
#8
REVIEW
Kan Zhai, Yong Lu, Huan-Zhong Shi
Although it is curable, tuberculosis remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions on a global scale, especially in developing countries. Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. TPE usually presents as an acute illness with fever, cough and pleuritic chest pain. The pleural fluid is an exudate that usually has predominantly lymphocytes. The gold standard for the diagnosis of TPE remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli, Although adenosine deaminase and interferon-γ in pleural fluid have been documented to be useful tests for the diagnosis of TPE...
July 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139429/monalisa-a-grim-picture-of-listeriosis
#9
Matthijs C Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121755/corticosteroids-for-managing-tuberculous-meningitis
#10
REVIEW
Kameshwar Prasad, Mamta B Singh, Hannah Ryan
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis is a serious form of tuberculosis (TB) that affects the meninges that cover a person's brain and spinal cord. It is associated with high death rates and with disability in people who survive. Corticosteroids have been used as an adjunct to antituberculous drugs to treat people with tuberculous meningitis, but their role has been controversial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of corticosteroids as an adjunct to antituberculous treatment on death and severe disability in people with tuberculous meningitis...
April 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233512/tuberculosis-associated-with-hiv-infection
#11
Jeffrey A Tornheim, Kelly E Dooley
Tuberculosis (TB) has recently surpassed HIV as the primary infectious disease killer worldwide, but the two diseases continue to display lethal synergy. The burden of TB is disproportionately borne by people living with HIV, particularly where HIV and poverty coexist. The impact of these diseases on one another is bidirectional, with HIV increasing risk of TB infection and disease progression and TB slowing CD4 recovery and increasing progression to AIDS and death among the HIV infected. Both antiretroviral therapy (ART) and latent TB infection (LTBI) treatment mitigate the impact of coinfection, and ART is now recommended for HIV-infected patients independent of CD4 count...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302313/influenza
#12
REVIEW
Catharine Paules, Kanta Subbarao
Influenza is an acute respiratory illness, caused by influenza A, B, and C viruses, that occurs in local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics. Clinical illness follows a short incubation period and presentation ranges from asymptomatic to fulminant, depending on the characteristics of both the virus and the individual host. Influenza A viruses can also cause sporadic infections or spread worldwide in a pandemic when novel strains emerge in the human population from an animal host. New approaches to influenza prevention and treatment for management of both seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics are desirable...
March 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052967/official-american-thoracic-society-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-clinical-practice-guidelines-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-adults-and-children
#13
David M Lewinsohn, Michael K Leonard, Philip A LoBue, David L Cohn, Charles L Daley, Ed Desmond, Joseph Keane, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Ann M Loeffler, Gerald H Mazurek, Richard J O'Brien, Madhukar Pai, Luca Richeldi, Max Salfinger, Thomas M Shinnick, Timothy R Sterling, David M Warshauer, Gail L Woods
BACKGROUND: Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. METHODS: A task force supported by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America searched, selected, and synthesized relevant evidence...
January 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159161/atypical-pneumonia-updates-on-legionella-chlamydophila-and-mycoplasma-pneumonia
#14
REVIEW
Lokesh Sharma, Ashley Losier, Thomas Tolbert, Charles S Dela Cruz, Chad R Marion
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has multiple causes and is associated with illness that requires admission to the hospital and mortality. The causes of atypical CAP include Legionella species, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma. Atypical CAP remains a diagnostic challenge and, therefore, likely is undertreated. This article reviews the advancements in the evaluation and treatment of patients and discusses current conflicts and controversies of atypical CAP.
March 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159158/diagnosing-viral-and-atypical-pathogens-in-the-setting-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#15
REVIEW
Grant W Waterer
The 'atypical' pathogens causing pneumonia have long been problematic for physicians because we have had to rely on serologic tests to make a diagnosis. The introduction of polymerase chain reaction techniques revolutionized the diagnosis of respiratory infections and now a new wave of technologies promising faster, cheaper, and more comprehensive testing are becoming available. This review focuses principally on the diagnosis of Legionella, Mycoplasma, and influenza infections, but also covers recent publications on the cutting edge of diagnostic tools likely to transform the field of infectious diseases over the coming decade...
March 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159176/legionnaire-s-disease-cardiac-manifestations
#16
REVIEW
John L Brusch
Most cardiac infections with Legionella are secondary to bacteremias arising from a pulmonary focus. Other possible sites of origin are infected sternotomy wounds or equipment contaminated by Legionella spp. Legionella endocarditis is truly a "stealth" infection, with almost no hallmarks of bacterial endocarditis. The key step in making the diagnosis of Legionella endocarditis is for the physician to be aware of the clinical causes of culture-negative infective endocarditis and to include Legionella cardiac involvement in this differential...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159178/legionnaire-s-disease-a-clinical-diagnostic-approach
#17
REVIEW
Burke A Cunha, Cheston B Cunha
Legionnaire's disease is a nonzoonotic atypical pneumonia caused by Legionella sp that occurs sporadically or in outbreaks. Legionnaire's disease pneumonia is accompanied by several extrapulmonary clinical and laboratory findings. Rather than testing all pneumonias for Legionnaire's disease, the clinical challenge is to recognize the diagnostic significance of Legionnaire's disease's. The pretest probability of Legionnaire's disease is increased if several characteristic extrapulmonary findings are present...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908336/appropriate-antibiotic-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Michael G Allison, Emily L Heil, Bryan D Hayes
Prescribing antibiotics is an essential component of initial therapy in sepsis. Early antibiotics are an important component of therapy, but speed of administration should not overshadow the patient-specific characteristics that determine the optimal breadth of antimicrobial therapy. Cultures should be drawn before antibiotic therapy if it does not significantly delay administration. Combination antibiotic therapy against gram-negative infections is not routinely required, and combination therapy involving vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam is associated with an increase in acute kidney injury...
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927672/influenza
#19
REVIEW
Sam Ghebrehewet, Peter MacPherson, Antonia Ho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993382/syphilis
#20
REVIEW
Edward W Hook
Syphilis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum that is endemic in low-income countries and and occurs at lower rates in middle-income and high-income countries. The disease is of both individual and public health importance and, in addition to its direct morbidity, increases risk of HIV infection and can cause lifelong morbidity in children born to infected mothers. Without treatment the disease can progress over years through a series of clinical stages and lead to irreversible neurological or cardiovascular complications...
December 16, 2016: Lancet
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