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Infectología

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44 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077740/the-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-antibiotic-treatment-of-spirochetal-infections-a-review-of-recent-cases-and-our-understanding-of-pathogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Thomas Butler
Within 24 hours after antibiotic treatment of the spirochetal infections syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever (RF), patients experience shaking chills, a rise in temperature, and intensification of skin rashes known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) with symptoms resolving a few hours later. Case reports indicate that the JHR can also include uterine contractions in pregnancy, worsening liver and renal function, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, hypotension, meningitis, alterations in consciousness, seizures, and strokes...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939965/complement-immune-evasion-by-spirochetes
#2
Angela S Barbosa, Lourdes Isaac
The complement system plays an important role in the innate and acquired immune response against pathogens. A sophisticated network of activating and regulating proteins allows the distinction between intact and damaged host and non-host surfaces such as bacteria and other parasites. Non-host structures trigger the alternative pathway which may lead to their elimination by phagocytosis or cell lysis. In addition, complement proteins such as C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL), and ficolins act as pathogen pattern-recognition molecules...
September 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25914944/interaction-of-spirochetes-with-the-host-fibrinolytic-system-and-potential-roles-in-pathogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Mônica Larucci Vieira, Ana Lucia T O Nascimento
The pathogenic spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi, B. hermsii, B. recurrentis, Treponema denticola and Leptospira spp. are the etiologic agents of Lyme disease, relapsing fever, periodontitis and leptospirosis, respectively. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-systemic disorder and the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Tick-borne relapsing fever is persistent in endemic areas worldwide, representing a significant burden in some African regions. Periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder that often leads to tooth loss, is caused by several potential pathogens found in the oral cavity including T...
August 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147446/interaction-of-the-lyme-disease-spirochete-with-its-tick-vector
#4
REVIEW
Melissa J Caimano, Dan Drecktrah, Faith Kung, D Scott Samuels
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (along with closely related genospecies), is in the deeply branching spirochete phylum. The bacterium is maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle that involves transmission from a tick vector to a vertebrate host and acquisition from a vertebrate host to a tick vector. During its arthropod sojourn, B. burgdorferi faces a variety of stresses, including nutrient deprivation. Here, we review some of the spirochetal factors that promote persistence, maintenance and dissemination of B...
July 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721440/treponema-pallidum-the-syphilis-spirochete-making-a-living-as-a-stealth-pathogen
#5
REVIEW
Justin D Radolf, Ranjit K Deka, Arvind Anand, David Šmajs, Michael V Norgard, X Frank Yang
The past two decades have seen a worldwide resurgence in infections caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. The well-recognized capacity of the syphilis spirochete for early dissemination and immune evasion has earned it the designation 'the stealth pathogen'. Despite the many hurdles to studying syphilis pathogenesis, most notably the inability to culture and to genetically manipulate T. pallidum, in recent years, considerable progress has been made in elucidating the structural, physiological, and regulatory facets of T...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25328149/treatment-strategies-for-central-nervous-system-infections-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Ying Ching Tan, Arshdeep Kaur Gill, Kwang Sik Kim
INTRODUCTION: Central nervous system infection continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Our incomplete knowledge on the pathogenesis of how meningitis-causing pathogens cause CNS infection and emergence of antimicrobial resistance has contributed to the mortality and morbidity. An early empiric antibiotic treatment is critical for the management of patients with bacterial meningitis, but early recognition of bacterial meningitis continues to be a challenge...
February 2015: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931077/antibiotics-for-the-neurological-complications-of-lyme-disease
#7
REVIEW
Diego Cadavid, Paul G Auwaerter, Jeffrey Rumbaugh, Harald Gelderblom
BACKGROUND: Various central nervous system-penetrant antibiotics are bactericidal in vitro and in vivo against the causative agent of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), Borrelia burgdorferi. These antibiotics are routinely used clinically to treat LNB, but their relative efficacy is not clear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics for the treatment of LNB. SEARCH METHODS: On 25 October 2016 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase...
December 8, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882725/what-is-antimicrobial-stewardship
#8
REVIEW
O J Dyar, B Huttner, J Schouten, C Pulcini
BACKGROUND: The use of the term 'antimicrobial stewardship' has grown exponentially in recent years, typically referring to programmes and interventions that aim to optimize antimicrobial use. Although antimicrobial stewardship originated within human healthcare, it is increasingly applied in broader contexts including animal health and One Health. As the use of the term 'antimicrobial stewardship' becomes more common, it is important to consider what antimicrobial stewardship is, as well as what it is not...
November 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882382/soil-transmitted-helminth-infections
#9
REVIEW
Peter Mark Jourdan, Poppy H L Lamberton, Alan Fenwick, David G Addiss
More than a quarter of the world's population is at risk of infection with the soil-transmitted helminths Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Infected children and adults present with a range of medical and surgical conditions, and clinicians should consider the possibility of infection in individuals living in, or returning from, endemic regions. Although safe and effective drugs are donated free to endemic countries, only half of at-risk children received treatment in 2016...
September 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774698/the-global-problem-of-antifungal-resistance-prevalence-mechanisms-and-management
#10
REVIEW
David S Perlin, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo
All serious fungal infections need appropriate antifungal therapy for successful patient outcome. Only a few classes of antifungal drugs are available, so the emergence of resistance to single drug classes and now multidrug resistance greatly hampers patient management. Azole resistance among Candida and Aspergillus species is one of the greatest challenges to clinical success, followed by echinocandin and multidrug resistance among some Candida species, especially Candida glabrata. The spread of agriculturally derived azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus and emerging threats such as multidrug resistant Candida auris are also alarming...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774701/fungal-infections-in-hiv-aids
#11
REVIEW
Andrew H Limper, Antoine Adenis, Thuy Le, Thomas S Harrison
Fungi are major contributors to the opportunistic infections that affect patients with HIV/AIDS. Systemic infections are mainly with Pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumocystosis), Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis), Histoplasma capsulatum (histoplasmosis), and Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei (talaromycosis). The incidence of systemic fungal infections has decreased in people with HIV in high-income countries because of the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs and early testing for HIV. However, in many areas with high HIV prevalence, patients present to care with advanced HIV infection and with a low CD4 cell count or re-present with persistent low CD4 cell counts because of poor adherence, resistance to antiretroviral drugs, or both...
November 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702763/pharmacokinetics-of-antifungal-drugs-practical-implications-for-optimized-treatment-of-patients
#12
REVIEW
Romuald Bellmann, Piotr Smuszkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Because of the high mortality of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), appropriate exposure to antifungals appears to be crucial for therapeutic efficacy and safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review summarises published pharmacokinetic data on systemically administered antifungals focusing on co-morbidities, target-site penetration, and combination antifungal therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: Amphotericin B is eliminated unchanged via urine and faeces...
July 12, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598792/croi-2017-complications-and-comorbidities-of-hiv-disease-and-its-treatment
#13
Judith S Currier, Diane V Havlir
Complications of HIV disease remained a major focus at the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), and included studies focused on noncommunicable chronic diseases (eg, cardiovascular disease, obesity, bone disease, and malignancies) and opportunistic infections (Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cryptococcosis). Progress in identifying predictors of specific complications as well as interventions for the prevention and treatment of these comorbidities are summarized below.
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592405/current-and-emerging-topical-antibacterials-and-antiseptics-agents-action-and-resistance-patterns
#14
REVIEW
Deborah A Williamson, Glen P Carter, Benjamin P Howden
Bacterial skin infections represent some of the most common infectious diseases globally. Prevention and treatment of skin infections can involve application of a topical antimicrobial, which may be an antibiotic (such as mupirocin or fusidic acid) or an antiseptic (such as chlorhexidine or alcohol). However, there is limited evidence to support the widespread prophylactic or therapeutic use of topical agents. Challenges involved in the use of topical antimicrobials include increasing rates of bacterial resistance, local hypersensitivity reactions (particularly to older agents, such as bacitracin), and concerns about the indiscriminate use of antiseptics potentially coselecting for antibiotic resistance...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177860/approach-to-fever-in-the-returning-traveler
#15
REVIEW
Guy E Thwaites, Nicholas P J Day
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583589/critical-care-for-dengue-in-adult-patients-an-overview-of-current-knowledge-and-future-challenges
#16
Junxiong Pang, Yee-Sin Leo, David C Lye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to update and summarize the current knowledge about clinical features, management, and risk factors of adult dengue patients requiring intensive care with consequently higher risk of mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasingly, there are more adult dengue patients who require intensive care. This may be due to a shift in epidemiology of dengue infection from mainly a pediatric disease toward adult disease. In addition, multiorgan dysfunction was observed to be a key risk factor for ICU admission and mortality...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23861361/case-definitions-diagnostic-algorithms-and-priorities-in-encephalitis-consensus-statement-of-the-international-encephalitis-consortium
#17
A Venkatesan, A R Tunkel, K C Bloch, A S Lauring, J Sejvar, A Bitnun, J-P Stahl, A Mailles, M Drebot, C E Rupprecht, J Yoder, J R Cope, M R Wilson, R J Whitley, J Sullivan, J Granerod, C Jones, K Eastwood, K N Ward, D N Durrheim, M V Solbrig, L Guo-Dong, C A Glaser
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis continues to result in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Advances in diagnosis and management have been limited, in part, by a lack of consensus on case definitions, standardized diagnostic approaches, and priorities for research. METHODS: In March 2012, the International Encephalitis Consortium, a committee begun in 2010 with members worldwide, held a meeting in Atlanta to discuss recent advances in encephalitis and to set priorities for future study...
October 2013: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347557/hiv-prevention-and-treatment-the-evolving-role-of-the-emergency-department
#18
REVIEW
Kristi Stanley, Meredith Lora, Stephen Merjavy, Jennifer Chang, Sanjay Arora, Michael Menchine, Kathleen R Jacobson
Historically, the role of the emergency physician in HIV care has been constrained to treating sick patients with opportunistic infections and postexposure prophylaxis for occupational exposures. However, advances in HIV care have led to medications that have substantially fewer issues with toxicity and resistance, opening up an exciting new opportunity for emergency physicians to participate in treating the HIV virus itself. With this new role, it is crucial that emergency physicians be familiar with the advances in testing and medications for HIV prevention and treatment...
March 25, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921241/zika-virus
#19
REVIEW
Marina Basarab, Conor Bowman, Emma J Aarons, Ian Cropley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27029595/zika-virus
#20
REVIEW
Didier Musso, Duane J Gubler
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
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