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52 papers 25 to 100 followers
Joana Alves, Emine Alp, Despoina Koulenti, Zhongheng Zhang, Stephan Ehrmann, Stijn Blot, Matteo Bassetti, Andrew Conway-Morris, Rosa Reina, Enrique Teran, Candela Sole-Lleonart, Maria Ruiz-Rodríguez, Jordi Rello
2017 ESCMID practice guidelines reported safety concerns and weak evidence of benefit supporting use of aerosolized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients. Our primary goal was to assess current patterns of aerosolized antibiotic prescription in mechanically ventilated patients. A sequential global survey was performed prior to the release of the ESCMID guidelines, from the 1st of February to the 30th of April 2017, using an electronic platform. Responses were analyzed comparing geographical regions...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Peter G Pappas, Carol A Kauffman, David R Andes, Cornelius J Clancy, Kieren A Marr, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Annette C Reboli, Mindy G Schuster, Jose A Vazquez, Thomas J Walsh, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Jack D Sobel
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.
February 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2001: Annals of Emergency Medicine
N Alizadeh, M Y Memar, B Mehramuz, S S Abibiglou, F Hemmati, H Samadi Kafil
Infectious diseases are among the common leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Associated with the emergence of new infectious diseases, the increasing number of antimicrobial-resistant isolates presents a serious threat to public health and hospitalized patients. A microbial pathogen may elicit several host responses and use a variety of mechanisms to evade host defences. These methods and mechanisms include capsule, lipopolysaccharides or cell wall components, adhesions and toxins. Toxins inhibit phagocytosis, cause septic shock and host cell damages by binding to host surface receptors and invasion...
March 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Gavin Churchyard, Peter Kim, N Sarita Shah, Roxana Rustomjee, Neel Gandhi, Barun Mathema, David Dowdy, Anne Kasmar, Vicky Cardenas
Tuberculosis remains a global health problem with an enormous burden of disease, estimated at 10.4 million new cases in 2015. To stop the tuberculosis epidemic, it is critical that we interrupt tuberculosis transmission. Further, the interventions required to interrupt tuberculosis transmission must be targeted to high-risk groups and settings. A simple cascade for tuberculosis transmission has been proposed in which (1) a source case of tuberculosis (2) generates infectious particles (3) that survive in the air and (4) are inhaled by a susceptible individual (5) who may become infected and (6) then has the potential to develop tuberculosis...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Joe A Lemire, Lindsay Kalan, Alexandru Bradu, Raymond J Turner
Historically it has been accepted, and recent research has established, that silver (Ag) is an efficacious antimicrobial agent. A dwindling pipeline of new antibiotics, combined with an increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant infections, is bringing Ag to the fore as a therapeutic compound to treat infectious diseases. Currently, many formulations of Ag are being deployed for commercial and medical purposes, with various degrees of effectiveness at killing microbial cells. Here, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm capacity of our lead compound, silver oxynitrate [Ag(Ag3O4)2NO3 or Ag7NO11], against other metal compounds with documented antimicrobial activity, including Ag2SO4, AgNO3, silver sulfadiazine (AgSD), AgO, Ag2O, and CuSO4...
July 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
C Louise Thwaites, Nicholas J Beeching, Charles R Newton
Maternal and neonatal tetanus is still a substantial but preventable cause of mortality in many developing countries. Case fatality from these diseases remains high and treatment is limited by scarcity of resources and effective drug treatments. The Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative, launched by WHO and its partners, has made substantial progress in eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus. Sustained emphasis on improvement of vaccination coverage, birth hygiene, and surveillance, with specific approaches in high-risk areas, has meant that the incidence of the disease continues to fall...
January 24, 2015: Lancet
Jeremy Sobel
Botulism is a rare disease with 4 naturally occurring syndromes: foodborne botulism is caused by ingestion of foods contaminated with botulinum toxin, wound botulism is caused by Clostridium botulinum colonization of a wound and in situ toxin production, infant botulism is caused by intestinal colonization and toxin production, and adult intestinal toxemia botulism is an even rarer form of intestinal colonization and toxin production in adults. Inhalational botulism could result from aerosolization of botulinum toxin, and iatrogenic botulism can result from injection of toxin...
October 15, 2005: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Thomas Butler
Within 24 hours after antibiotic treatment of the spirochetal infections syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever (RF), patients experience shaking chills, a rise in temperature, and intensification of skin rashes known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) with symptoms resolving a few hours later. Case reports indicate that the JHR can also include uterine contractions in pregnancy, worsening liver and renal function, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, hypotension, meningitis, alterations in consciousness, seizures, and strokes...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Angela S Barbosa, Lourdes Isaac
The complement system plays an important role in the innate and acquired immune response against pathogens. A sophisticated network of activating and regulating proteins allows the distinction between intact and damaged host and non-host surfaces such as bacteria and other parasites. Non-host structures trigger the alternative pathway which may lead to their elimination by phagocytosis or cell lysis. In addition, complement proteins such as C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL), and ficolins act as pathogen pattern-recognition molecules...
September 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Mônica Larucci Vieira, Ana Lucia T O Nascimento
The pathogenic spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi, B. hermsii, B. recurrentis, Treponema denticola and Leptospira spp. are the etiologic agents of Lyme disease, relapsing fever, periodontitis and leptospirosis, respectively. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-systemic disorder and the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Tick-borne relapsing fever is persistent in endemic areas worldwide, representing a significant burden in some African regions. Periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder that often leads to tooth loss, is caused by several potential pathogens found in the oral cavity including T...
August 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Melissa J Caimano, Dan Drecktrah, Faith Kung, D Scott Samuels
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (along with closely related genospecies), is in the deeply branching spirochete phylum. The bacterium is maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle that involves transmission from a tick vector to a vertebrate host and acquisition from a vertebrate host to a tick vector. During its arthropod sojourn, B. burgdorferi faces a variety of stresses, including nutrient deprivation. Here, we review some of the spirochetal factors that promote persistence, maintenance and dissemination of B...
July 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Justin D Radolf, Ranjit K Deka, Arvind Anand, David Šmajs, Michael V Norgard, X Frank Yang
The past two decades have seen a worldwide resurgence in infections caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. The well-recognized capacity of the syphilis spirochete for early dissemination and immune evasion has earned it the designation 'the stealth pathogen'. Despite the many hurdles to studying syphilis pathogenesis, most notably the inability to culture and to genetically manipulate T. pallidum, in recent years, considerable progress has been made in elucidating the structural, physiological, and regulatory facets of T...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Ying Ching Tan, Arshdeep Kaur Gill, Kwang Sik Kim
INTRODUCTION: Central nervous system infection continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Our incomplete knowledge on the pathogenesis of how meningitis-causing pathogens cause CNS infection and emergence of antimicrobial resistance has contributed to the mortality and morbidity. An early empiric antibiotic treatment is critical for the management of patients with bacterial meningitis, but early recognition of bacterial meningitis continues to be a challenge...
February 2015: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Diego Cadavid, Paul G Auwaerter, Jeffrey Rumbaugh, Harald Gelderblom
BACKGROUND: Various central nervous system-penetrant antibiotics are bactericidal in vitro and in vivo against the causative agent of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), Borrelia burgdorferi. These antibiotics are routinely used clinically to treat LNB, but their relative efficacy is not clear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics for the treatment of LNB. SEARCH METHODS: On 25 October 2016 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase...
December 8, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
O J Dyar, B Huttner, J Schouten, C Pulcini
BACKGROUND: The use of the term 'antimicrobial stewardship' has grown exponentially in recent years, typically referring to programmes and interventions that aim to optimize antimicrobial use. Although antimicrobial stewardship originated within human healthcare, it is increasingly applied in broader contexts including animal health and One Health. As the use of the term 'antimicrobial stewardship' becomes more common, it is important to consider what antimicrobial stewardship is, as well as what it is not...
November 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Peter Mark Jourdan, Poppy H L Lamberton, Alan Fenwick, David G Addiss
More than a quarter of the world's population is at risk of infection with the soil-transmitted helminths Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Infected children and adults present with a range of medical and surgical conditions, and clinicians should consider the possibility of infection in individuals living in, or returning from, endemic regions. Although safe and effective drugs are donated free to endemic countries, only half of at-risk children received treatment in 2016...
September 4, 2017: Lancet
David S Perlin, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo
All serious fungal infections need appropriate antifungal therapy for successful patient outcome. Only a few classes of antifungal drugs are available, so the emergence of resistance to single drug classes and now multidrug resistance greatly hampers patient management. Azole resistance among Candida and Aspergillus species is one of the greatest challenges to clinical success, followed by echinocandin and multidrug resistance among some Candida species, especially Candida glabrata. The spread of agriculturally derived azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus and emerging threats such as multidrug resistant Candida auris are also alarming...
December 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Andrew H Limper, Antoine Adenis, Thuy Le, Thomas S Harrison
Fungi are major contributors to the opportunistic infections that affect patients with HIV/AIDS. Systemic infections are mainly with Pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumocystosis), Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis), Histoplasma capsulatum (histoplasmosis), and Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei (talaromycosis). The incidence of systemic fungal infections has decreased in people with HIV in high-income countries because of the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs and early testing for HIV. However, in many areas with high HIV prevalence, patients present to care with advanced HIV infection and with a low CD4 cell count or re-present with persistent low CD4 cell counts because of poor adherence, resistance to antiretroviral drugs, or both...
November 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Romuald Bellmann, Piotr Smuszkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Because of the high mortality of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), appropriate exposure to antifungals appears to be crucial for therapeutic efficacy and safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review summarises published pharmacokinetic data on systemically administered antifungals focusing on co-morbidities, target-site penetration, and combination antifungal therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: Amphotericin B is eliminated unchanged via urine and faeces...
December 2017: Infection
2017-08-15 13:58:31
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