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By Jose M. Barria Castro MD from Panama
Tomas Jelinek, Jana Mihalyova, Michal Kascak, Juraj Duras, Roman Hajek
The introduction of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway inhibitors is an important landmark in solid oncology with unprecedented practice-changing activity in various types of solid tumours. Among haematological malignancies, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have been successful, so far, only in the treatment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, which typically exhibits an over-expression of PD-1 ligands (PD-L1, PD-L2) due to alterations in chromosome 9p24.1. Such positive outcomes led to the US Food and Drug Administration approval of nivolumab use in relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma in 2016 as the first haematological indication...
November 2017: Immunology
Jyoti Nangalia, Jacob Grinfeld, Anthony R Green
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a set of chronic hematopoietic neoplasms with overlapping clinical and molecular features. Recent years have witnessed considerable advances in our understanding of their pathogenetic basis. Due to their protracted clinical course, the evolution to advanced hematological malignancies, and the accessibility of neoplastic tissue, the study of MPNs has provided a window into the earliest stages of tumorigenesis. With the discovery of mutations in CALR, the majority of MPN patients now bear an identifiable marker of clonal disease; however, the mechanism by which mutated CALR perturbs megakaryopoiesis is currently unresolved...
May 23, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
Tuo Deng, Christopher J Lyon, Stephen Bergin, Michael A Caligiuri, Willa A Hsueh
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including cancer, and is increasingly recognized as a growing cause of preventable cancer risk. Chronic inflammation, a well-known mediator of cancer, is a central characteristic of obesity, leading to many of its complications, and obesity-induced inflammation confers additional cancer risk beyond obesity itself. Multiple mechanisms facilitate this strong association between cancer and obesity. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ, secreting several hormones, including leptin and adiponectin, and chemokines that can regulate tumor behavior, inflammation, and the tumor microenvironment...
May 23, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
Keisaku Sato, Chad Hall, Shannon Glaser, Heather Francis, Fanyin Meng, Gianfranco Alpini
Kupffer cells are the resident macrophages in the liver. They are located in hepatic sinusoid, which allows them to remove foreign materials, pathogens, and apoptotic cells efficiently. Activated Kupffer cells secrete various mediators, including cytokines and chemokines, to initiate immune responses, inflammation, or recruitment of other liver cells. Bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery in rodents is often studied as an animal model of cholestatic liver disease, characterized by obstruction of bile flow. BDL mice show altered functional activities of Kupffer cells compared with sham-operated mice, including elevated cytokine secretion and impaired bacterial clearance...
September 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Adam C Wilberger, Richard A Prayson
OBJECTIVES: Intracranial plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs) arising from the skull, dura, or brain parenchyma are rare tumors and there is only a limited experience in the literature with these lesions. METHODS: We performed a retrospective clinicopathologic study of fourteen cases of intracranial PCN at our institution encountered over a 26-year-period. RESULTS: The fourteen patients ranged in age from 30-74 years (median 66 years) and included seven males...
August 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
John M Kennedy, Robert A Robinson
OBJECTIVES: We wished to discover (1) in what circumstances surgeons wished to request frozen sections (FSs) on thyroid nodules having a prior fine needle aspiration (FNA) and the preoperative plan in these cases; (2) what the surgeons did with the information provided by FS and (3) in what types of cases was value added with the FS. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of 121 consecutive patients receiving an intraoperative FS diagnosis on a thyroid nodule, all of which had been evaluated with a preoperative FNA...
May 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Kamran M Mirza, Jerome B Taxy, Tatjana Antic
OBJECTIVES: Staging for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) depends on tumor size and the status of the regional lymph nodes. Although lymph node involvement by tumor yields the most accurate staging and prognostic information in patients with carcinomas of various genitourinary organs, the role of lymph node sampling (LNS) in patients with RCC to definitively establish nodal metastases remains unsettled. METHODS: In this retrospective study of 399 patients with RCC treated by total nephrectomy, 115 cases were subjected to lymph node dissection...
June 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Andreas M Grabrucker, Barbara Ruozi, Daniela Belletti, Francesca Pederzoli, Flavio Forni, Maria Angela Vandelli, Giovanni Tosi
While the role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is increasingly recognized in the (development of treatments targeting neurodegenerative disorders, to date, few strategies exist that enable drug delivery of non-BBB crossing molecules directly to their site of action, the brain. However, the recent advent of Nanomedicines may provide a potent tool to implement CNS targeted delivery of active compounds. Approaches for BBB crossing are deeply investigated in relation to the pathology: among the main important diseases of the CNS, this review focuses on the application of nanomedicines to neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington's Disease) and to other brain pathologies as epilepsy, infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis, lysosomal storage disorders, strokes...
January 2016: Tissue Barriers
Ajay Francis Christopher, Raman Preet Kaur, Gunpreet Kaur, Amandeep Kaur, Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression in diverse biological process. They act as intracellular mediators that are necessary for various biological processes. MicroRNAs targeting pathways of human disease provide a new and potential powerful candidate for therapeutic intervention against various pathological conditions. Even though, the information about miRNA biology has significantly enriched but we still do not completely understand the mechanism of miRNA gene regulation...
April 2016: Perspectives in Clinical Research
Hugh Stoddard, Daniel Zedek, Christopher Sayed
Systemic amyloidosis has historically been diagnosed by organ biopsy and Congo red staining, with reported sensitivities that exceed 90%. The abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FNA), introduced in the 1970's, carries sensitivity estimates largely derived from studies with deficiencies. Patient follow-up is often unclear and proportionally low numbers of patients are verified as true negatives. Issues in other studies include only testing verified systemic amyloidosis cases. The telescoping fat pad biopsy (TFPB) is used as an alternative to FNA and is similarly carried out quickly with low morbidity...
August 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Narvir S Chauhan, Satish Kumar, Rohit Bhoil
BACKGROUND: Rapunzel syndrome is a rare and unique form of trichobezoar, in which a cast of hairs is formed in the stomach with its 'tail' extending up to varying lengths into the small bowel. Almost all cases described in literature are of 'classic' and more common form of Rapunzel. Sometimes however, the tail of bezoar is broken into smaller fragments. There is not much literature available on this rarer subset of Rapunzel syndrome. CASE REPORT: In this report we present the ultrasound (USG) and CT findings of a case of Rapunzel syndrome in which the tail had broken into five separate fragments...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
Jiro Abe, Shigemi Ito, Satomi Takahashi, Ikuro Sato, Ryota Tanaka, Taku Sato, Toshimasa Okazaki
INTRODUCTION: An extremely rare case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is reported. The correlation between the radiological and the pathological features as well as the clinical pitfall in making a diagnosis is discussed. PRESENTATION OF CASE: An asymptomatic 68-year-old female with a cigarette smoking habit presented with a small nodule in her peripheral lung. A wedge resection was performed though it failed on-site diagnosis which was instead obtained following pathological scrutiny...
May 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Gaurav Chand, Ruby Jhaj, Kumar Sanam, Prabhat Sinha, Patrick Alexander
INTRODUCTION: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is mostly restricted to gastroenteritis; however, we report a case of Salmonella pericarditis complicated by tamponade and spontaneous ventricular wall rupture. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old male presents to the Emergency Department with complaints of fevers, chills and body aches. A chest radiograph displayed an infiltrate and an electrocardiogram suggested acute pericarditis. An echocardiogram revealed a small pericardial effusion without tamponade...
May 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Spencer Paulson, Charmi Patel, Hitendra Patel
We report a rare association of hepatocellular carcinoma with familial adenomatous polyposis in a young patient and its clinical significance. A 28-year-old female with a past medical history of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and subsequent colonic adenocarcinoma underwent total colectomy. She later presented with intermittent right upper quadrant pain and nausea of four months' duration. MRI of the abdomen revealed multiple liver lesions, the largest 8.5 cm in diameter, with radiologic features suggestive of hepatocellular carcinoma...
2016: Case Reports in Pathology
John P Waters, Jordan S Pober, John R Bradley
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) was originally described as a circulating factor that can induce haemorrhagic necrosis of tumours. It is now clear that TNF has many different functions in cancer biology. In addition to causing the death of cancer cells, TNF can activate cancer cell survival and proliferation pathways, trigger inflammatory cell infiltration of tumours and promote angiogenesis and tumour cell migration and invasion. These effects can be explained by the diverse cellular responses TNF can initiate through distinct signal transduction pathways, opening the way for more selective targeting of TNF signalling in cancer therapy...
July 2013: Journal of Pathology
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