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Yi Liu, Fu Shan Xue, Rui Ping Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Journal of Anesthesia
Robert W Schrier
Physiologic end points for fluid resuscitation in septic shock patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) have been undertaken in randomized studies using the Early Goal-Directed Therapy (EGDT) approach. These studies have demonstrated a beneficial effect on in-hospital mortality with EGDT. The Saline versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation (SAFE) randomized study in critically ill patients demonstrated no difference in survival when saline versus albumin solutions were used for resuscitation. However, a benefit of albumin has been demonstrated in a randomized study on renal function and survival in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial periotonitis...
April 2010: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Martin Matejovic, Can Ince, Lakhmir S Chawla, Roland Blantz, Bruce A Molitoris, Mitchell H Rosner, Mark D Okusa, John A Kellum, Claudio Ronco
Novel therapeutic interventions are required to prevent or treat AKI. To expedite progress in this regard, a consensus conference held by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative was convened in April of 2014 to develop recommendations for research priorities and future directions. Here, we highlight the concepts related to renal hemodynamics in AKI that are likely to reveal new treatment targets on investigation. Overall, we must better understand the interactions between systemic, total renal, and glomerular hemodynamics, including the role of tubuloglomerular feedback...
January 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Pinelopi P Kapitsinou, Volker H Haase
More effective therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI) are needed to improve the high morbidity and mortality associated with this frequently encountered clinical condition. Ischemic and/or hypoxic preconditioning attenuates susceptibility to ischemic injury, which results from both oxygen and nutrient deprivation and accounts for most cases of AKI. While multiple signaling pathways have been implicated in renoprotection, this review will focus on oxygen-regulated cellular and molecular responses that enhance the kidney's tolerance to ischemia and promote renal repair...
November 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Yu Ishimoto, Reiko Inagi
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical entity that is associated with high mortality and morbidity. It is a risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Presently, no effective treatment for AKI is available, and novel therapeutic approaches are desperately needed. Accumulating evidence highlights mitochondrial dysfunction as an important factor in the pathogenesis of AKI. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecules involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion/fission, mitophagy and their pathophysiological roles will lead to the development of drugs that target mitochondria for the treatment of various diseases, including AKI...
July 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Gianluca Villa, Zaccaria Ricci, Claudio Ronco
Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a cornerstone in the clinical management of patients with acute kidney injury. Results from different studies agree that early renal support therapy (aimed to support the residual kidney function during early phases of organ dysfunction) may reduce mortality with respect to late RRT (aimed to substitute the complete loss of function during the advanced kidney insufficiency). Although it seems plausible that a timely initiation of RRT may be associated with improved renal and nonrenal outcomes in these patients, there is scarce evidence in literature to exactly identify the most adequate onset timing for RRT...
October 2015: Critical Care Clinics
Marlies Ostermann, Ron Wald, Sean M Bagshaw
BACKGROUND: Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is commonly and increasingly utilized in critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI). The issue of when to start RRT in a critically ill patient with AKI has long troubled clinicians. SUMMARY: Currently, there is a paucity of high-quality evidence to guide clinician decision-making on the optimal time to start RRT. This lack of evidence has translated into wide variation in treatment patterns and practices...
2016: Contributions to Nephrology
Kent Doi, Hamid Rabb
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in critically ill patients and subsequently worsens outcomes. Although many drugs to prevent and treat AKI have shown benefits in preclinical models, no specific agent has been shown to benefit AKI in humans. Moreover, despite remarkable advances in dialysis techniques that enable management of AKI in hemodynamically unstable patients with shock, dialysis-requiring severe AKI is still associated with an unacceptably high mortality rate. Thus, focusing only on kidney damage and loss of renal function has not been sufficient to improve outcomes of patients with AKI...
March 2016: Kidney International
Chiao-Lin Chuang
The goal of fluid therapy in critical care medicine is to restore hemodynamic stability and vital organ perfusion while avoiding interstitial edema. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in critically ill patients. Decisions regarding fluid management in critically ill patients with AKI are difficult, as these patients often have accompanying oliguria as well as body fluid overload. Both hypovolemia and volume overload are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critical care patients; therefore, accurate assessment of the intravascular volume status as well as the response to fluid replacement remains one of the most challenging and important issues for clinicians in daily practice...
2016: Contributions to Nephrology
Jonatan Barrera-Chimal, Norma A Bobadilla, Frédéric Jaisser
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized patients. One of the leading causes of AKI is renal ischemia/reperfusion (IR). In spite of all the progress made in acquiring knowledge about the mechanisms involved in AKI, no pharmacologic approach has yet become successful in clinical trials. Recent evidence suggests that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism may be a useful strategy to prevent or treat AKI induced by IR. Here, we summarize the experimental work that supports MR antagonism as a potential approach to treat this disease...
2016: Nephron
Fahad Edrees, Tingting Li, Anitha Vijayan
Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time...
May 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Lenar Yessayan, Jerry Yee, Stan Frinak, Balazs Szamosfalvi
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is used to manage electrolyte and acid-base imbalances in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Although a standard solution and prescription is acceptable in most clinical circumstances, specific disorders may require a tailored approach such as adjusting fluid composition, regulating CRRT dose, and using separate intravenous infusions to mitigate and correct these disturbances. Errors in fluid prescription, compounding, or delivery can be rapidly fatal...
May 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Jesper Kers, Jaklien C Leemans, Andreas Linkermann
Necrosis is the predominant form of regulated cell death in acute kidney injury (AKI) and represents results in the formation of casts that appear in the urine sedimentation, referred to as muddy brown casts, which are part of the diagnosis of AKI. Pathologists referred to this typical feature as acute tubular necrosis. We are only beginning to understand the dynamics and the molecular pathways that underlie such typical necrotic morphology. In this review, we provide an overview of candidate pathways and summarize the emerging evidence for the relative contribution of these pathways of regulated necrosis, such as necroptosis, ferroptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition-mediated regulated necrosis, parthanatos, and pyroptosis...
May 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Rolando Claure-Del Granado, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Fluid overload is frequently found in acute kidney injury patients in critical care units. Recent studies have shown the relationship of fluid overload with adverse outcomes; hence, manage and optimization of fluid balance becomes a central component of the management of critically ill patients. DISCUSSION: In critically ill patients, in order to restore cardiac output, systemic blood pressure and renal perfusion an adequate fluid resuscitation is essential...
August 2, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Caixia Wang, Lin-Sheng Lv, Hui Huang, Jianqiang Guan, Zengchun Ye, Shaomin Li, Yanni Wang, Tanqi Lou, Xun Liu
The early initiation of renal replacement therapy has been recommended for patients with acute renal failure by some studies, but its effects on mortality and renal recovery are unknown. We conducted an updated meta-analysis to provide quantitative evaluations of the association between the early initiation of renal replacement therapy and mortality for patients with acute kidney injury. After applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 51 studies, including 10 randomized controlled trials, with a total of 8179 patients were analyzed...
January 2017: Nephrology
Mauro Neri, Gianluca Villa, Francesco Garzotto, Sean Bagshaw, Rinaldo Bellomo, Jorge Cerda, Fiorenza Ferrari, Silvia Guggia, Michael Joannidis, John Kellum, Jeong Chul Kim, Ravindra L Mehta, Zaccaria Ricci, Alberto Trevisani, Silvio Marafon, William R Clark, Jean-Louis Vincent, Claudio Ronco
This article reports the conclusions of a consensus expert conference on the basic principles and nomenclature of renal replacement therapy (RRT) currently utilized to manage acute kidney injury (AKI). This multidisciplinary consensus conference discusses common definitions, components, techniques, and operations of the machines and platforms used to deliver extracorporeal therapies, utilizing a "machine-centric" rather than a "patient-centric" approach. We provide a detailed description of the performance characteristics of membranes, filters, transmembrane transport of solutes and fluid, flows, and methods of measurement of delivered treatment, focusing on continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) which are utilized in the management of critically ill patients with AKI...
October 10, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Gianluca Villa, Mauro Neri, Rinaldo Bellomo, Jorge Cerda, A Raffaele De Gaudio, Silvia De Rosa, Francesco Garzotto, Patrick M Honore, John Kellum, Anna Lorenzin, Didier Payen, Zaccaria Ricci, Sara Samoni, Jean-Louis Vincent, Julia Wendon, Marta Zaccaria, Claudio Ronco
This article reports the conclusions of the second part of a consensus expert conference on the nomenclature of renal replacement therapy (RRT) techniques currently utilized to manage acute kidney injury and other organ dysfunction syndromes in critically ill patients. A multidisciplinary approach was taken to achieve harmonization of definitions, components, techniques, and operations of the extracorporeal therapies. The article describes the RRT techniques in detail with the relevant technology, procedures, and phases of treatment and key aspects of volume management/fluid balance in critically ill patients...
October 10, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Pedro H F Gois, Daniele Canale, Rildo A Volpini, Daniela Ferreira, Mariana M Veras, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, Niels O S Câmara, Maria H M Shimizu, Antonio C Seguro
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most severe complication of rhabdomyolysis. Allopurinol (Allo), a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, has been in the spotlight in the last decade due to new therapeutic applications related to its potent antioxidant effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allo in the prevention and treatment of rhabdomyolysis-associated AKI. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: saline control group; prophylactic Allo (300mg/L of drinking water, 7 days); glycerol (50%, 5ml/kg, IM); prophylactic Allo + glycerol; and therapeutic Allo (50mg/Kg, IV, 30min after glycerol injection) + glycerol...
December 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Christian M Beilstein, John R Prowle, Christopher J Kirwan
Purpose. Fluid therapy aimed at increasing urine output is a commonly employed strategy to prevent acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients with rhabdomyolysis. Automated fluid management has the potential to optimise urine output while avoiding fluid accumulation in rhabdomyolysis patients. Methods. In a single centre clinical service evaluation we compared a convenience sample of critically ill adults with rhabdomyolysis treated with automated fluid management using the RenalGuard® device to patients managed with manual fluid adjustment following our standard rhabdomyolysis protocol...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology
Sean M Bagshaw, Ron Wald
Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is increasingly utilized to support critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI). The question of whether and when to start RRT for a critically ill patient with AKI has long troubled clinicians. When severe complications of AKI develop, the need to commence RRT is unambiguous. In the absence of such complications but in the presence of severe AKI, the optimal time and thresholds for starting RRT are uncertain. The majority of existing data have largely been derived from observational studies...
May 2017: Kidney International
2017-06-27 16:22:33
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