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Salvador Lopez-Giacoman, Magdalena Madero
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) typically evolves over many years, with a long latent period when the disease is clinically silent and therefore diagnosis, evaluation and treatment is based mainly on biomarkers that assess kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) remains the ideal marker of kidney function. Unfortunately measuring GFR is time consuming and therefore GFR is usually estimated from equations that take into account endogenous filtration markers like serum creatinine (SCr) and cystatin C (CysC)...
February 6, 2015: World Journal of Nephrology
Marlies Ostermann, Kathleen Liu
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in the perioperative and intensive care setting. Although AKI is usually multifactorial, haemodynamic instability, sepsis and drug toxicity are commonly implicated. Independent of the exact aetiology, several different pathophysiologic processes occur simultaneously and in sequence, including endothelial dysfunction, alteration of the microcirculation, tubular injury, venous congestion and intrarenal inflammation. A multitude of different immune cells from within the kidney and the systemic circulation play a role in the development, maintenance and recovery phase of AKI...
September 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Su Hooi Teo, Zoltán Huba Endre
Acute kidney injury is common in critically ill patients and portends a significant impact on mortality, progressive chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease and mortality. Though most physicians alter therapy depending on changes in serum creatinine, this often represents delayed intervention. Various AKI biomarkers have been discovered and validated to improve timely detection, differentiation and stratification into risk groups for progressive renal decline, need for renal replacement therapy or death...
September 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Hong Xu, Juan J Carrero
This review provides an overview of insulin resistance (IR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). IR is a pathological state in which target tissues fail to respond normally to insulin. IR is understood as a consequence of CKD and its prevalence rises particularly in advanced CKD stages. Mechanisms leading to IR are complex and multifactorial, involving post-receptor signaling defects, unhealthy lifestyles, metabolic acidosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, vitamin D deficiency, anemia, and uremic toxicity, as shown by human and experimental studies over the last 30 years...
December 2017: Nephrology
Sheeba Habeeb Ba Aqeel, Alejandro Sanchez, Daniel Batlle
Early recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) is critical to prevent its associated complications as well as its progression to long term adverse outcomes like chronic kidney disease. A growing body of evidence from both laboratory and clinical studies suggests that inflammation is a key factor contributing to the progression of AKI regardless of the initiating event. Biomarkers of inflammation are therefore of interest in the evaluation of AKI pathogenesis and prognosis. There is evidence that the renin angiotensin aldosterone system is activated in AKI, which leads to an increase in angiotensin II (Ang II) formation within the kidney...
December 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
Paola Romagnani, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Richard Glassock, Adeera Levin, Kitty J Jager, Marcello Tonelli, Ziad Massy, Christoph Wanner, Hans-Joachim Anders
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by persistent urine abnormalities, structural abnormalities or impaired excretory renal function suggestive of a loss of functional nephrons. The majority of patients with CKD are at risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease and death. For those who progress to end-stage renal disease, the limited accessibility to renal replacement therapy is a problem in many parts of the world. Risk factors for the development and progression of CKD include low nephron number at birth, nephron loss due to increasing age and acute or chronic kidney injuries caused by toxic exposures or diseases (for example, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus)...
November 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Denis Fouque
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 377, Issue 18, Page 1765-1776, November 2017.
November 2, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Pascale Khairallah, Tamara Isakova, John Asplin, Lee Hamm, Mirela Dobre, Mahboob Rahman, Kumar Sharma, Mary Leonard, Edgar Miller, Bernard Jaar, Carolyn Brecklin, Wei Yang, Xue Wang, Harold Feldman, Myles Wolf, Julia J Scialla
BACKGROUND: The kidneys maintain acid-base homeostasis through excretion of acid as either ammonium or as titratable acids that primarily use phosphate as a buffer. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), ammoniagenesis is impaired, promoting metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis stimulates phosphaturic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) in vitro, possibly to increase urine titratable acid buffers, but this has not been confirmed in humans. We hypothesized that higher acid load and acidosis would associate with altered phosphorus homeostasis, including higher urinary phosphorus excretion and serum PTH and FGF-23...
October 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Marcello Tonelli, S Ananth Karumanchi, Ravi Thadhani
Patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease are at 5- to 10-fold higher risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) than age-matched controls. Clinically, CVD in this population manifests as coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, stroke, or congestive heart failure. Beyond the traditional risk factors (eg, diabetes mellitus and hypertension), uremia-specific factors that arise from accumulating toxins also contribute to the pathogenesis of CVD. In this review, we summarize the literature on the epidemiology of both traditional and uremia-related CVD and focus on postulated mechanisms of the latter...
February 2, 2016: Circulation
João Pedro Ferreira, Tahar Chouihed, Pierre Naseyrollas, Bruno Levy, Marie F Seronde, Pascal Bilbault, François Braun, Gérald Roul, David Kénizou, Noura Zannad, Nicolas Girerd, Patrick Rossignol
Worsening renal function (i.e. any increase in creatinine or decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate) is common in patients admitted for acute heart failure in the emergency department. Although worsening renal function (WRF) has been associated with the occurrence of dismal outcomes, this only appears to be the case when associated with clinical deterioration. However, if the clinical status of the patient is improving, a certain increase in serum creatinine may be acceptable. This WRF, which is not associated with clinical deterioration or adverse outcomes (e...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
David Severs, Ewout J Hoorn, Maarten B Rookmaaker
Fluid management has been a vital part of routine clinical care for more than 180 years. The increasing number of available fluids has generated controversy about the optimal choice of resuscitation fluid. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the different fluids available, their composition, the relevant physiology as well as the published evidence on clinical outcomes to guide their use. Commonly used infusion fluids include semisynthetic colloids and crystalloids; the latter comprises both normal saline (NaCl 0...
February 2015: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Hannsjörg W Seyberth
At least three renal tubular segments are involved in the pathophysiology of salt-losing tubulopathies (SLTs). Whether the pathogenesis starts either in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL) or in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), it is the function of the downstream-localized aldosterone sensitive distal tubule (ASDT) to contribute to the adaptation process. In isolated TAL defects (loop disorders) ASDT adaptation is supported by upregulation of DCT, whereas in DCT disorders the ASDT is complemented by upregulation of TAL function...
March 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Judith Blaine, Michel Chonchol, Moshe Levi
Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration...
July 7, 2015: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Mohamad Alhosaini, David J Leehey
Disorders of magnesium homeostasis are very common in dialysis patients but have received scant attention. In this review, we address measurement of plasma magnesium, magnesium balance and the factors that affect magnesium flux during dialysis, the prevalence of hypo- and hypermagnesemia in dialysis patients, and the potential clinical significance of hypo- and hypermagnesemia in dialysis patients. Many factors can affect plasma magnesium concentration, including diet, nutritional status (including plasma albumin level), medications (such as proton pump inhibitors), and dialysis prescription...
September 2015: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Joseph Tam
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous lipid ligands that bind to cannabinoid receptors that also mediate the effects of marijuana. The eCB system is comprised of eCBs, anandamide, and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, their cannabinoid-1 and cannabinoid-2 receptors (CB1 and CB2, respectively), and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and degradation. It is present in both the central nervous system and peripheral organs including the kidney. The current review focuses on the role of the eCB system in normal kidney function and various diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, that directly contributes to the development of renal pathologies...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman, Courtney M Lee
BACKGROUND: End stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing in the U.S., and these patients demonstrate greater all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization rates when compared to those with normal renal function. These patients may experience significant complications associated with loss of renal function and dialysis. OBJECTIVE: This review evaluates complications of ESRD including cardiopulmonary, neurologic, infectious disease, vascular, and access site complications, as well as medication use in this population...
December 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Chih-Jen Cheng, Elizabeth Kuo, Chou-Long Huang
Extracellular potassium makes up only about 2% of the total body's potassium store. The majority of the body potassium is distributed in the intracellular space, of which about 80% is in skeletal muscle. Movement of potassium in and out of skeletal muscle thus plays a pivotal role in extracellular potassium homeostasis. The exchange of potassium between the extracellular space and skeletal muscle is mediated by specific membrane transporters. These include potassium uptake by Na(+), K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase and release by inward-rectifier K(+) channels...
May 2013: Seminars in Nephrology
John R Montford, Stuart Linas
Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening electrolyte disorder appreciated with greater frequency in patients with renal disease, heart failure, and with use of certain medications such as renin angiotensin aldosterone inhibitors. The traditional views that hyperkalemia can be reliably diagnosed by electrocardiogram and that particular levels of hyperkalemia confer cardiotoxic risk have been challenged by several reports of patients with atypic presentations. Epidemiologic data demonstrate strong associations of morbidity and mortality in patients with hyperkalemia but these associations appear disconnected in certain patient populations and in differing clinical presentations...
November 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Lukas Martin, Christoph Thiemermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Shock
Hazel H Szeto
AKI is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and it predisposes to the development and progression of CKD. Novel strategies that minimize AKI and halt the progression of CKD are urgently needed. Normal kidney function involves numerous different cell types, such as tubular epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and podocytes, working in concert. This delicate balance involves many energy-intensive processes. Fatty acids are the preferred energy substrates for the kidney, and defects in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction are universally involved in diverse causes of AKI and CKD...
October 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
2017-08-18 03:44:41
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