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diabetes treatment

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Silvio E Inzucchi, Catherine M Viscoli, Lawrence H Young, Karen L Furie, Mark Gorman, Anne M Lovejoy, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Faramarz Ismail-Beigi, Mary T Korytkowski, Richard E Pratley, Gregory G Schwartz, Walter N Kernan
OBJECTIVE: The Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) trial recently found that pioglitazone reduced risk for stroke and myocardial infarction in patients with insulin resistance but without diabetes who had had a recent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). This report provides detailed results on the metabolic effects of pioglitazone and the trial's prespecified secondary aim of diabetes prevention. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 3,876 patients with recent ischemic stroke or TIA, no history of diabetes, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) <126 mg/dL, and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score >3...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
Abd A Tahrani, Anthony H Barnett, Clifford J Bailey
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic that poses a major challenge to health-care systems. Improving metabolic control to approach normal glycaemia (where practical) greatly benefits long-term prognoses and justifies early, effective, sustained and safety-conscious intervention. Improvements in the understanding of the complex pathogenesis of T2DM have underpinned the development of glucose-lowering therapies with complementary mechanisms of action, which have expanded treatment options and facilitated individualized management strategies...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
J Michael Gonzalez-Campoy
CKD = chronic kidney disease DM = diabetes mellitus eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate FDA = Food & Drug Administration.
August 2016: Endocrine Practice
Stanley S Schwartz, Paul S Jellinger, Mary E Herman
Current processes of care for diabetes mellitus (DM) were shaped during the era when insulin therapy was considered inexorable to the management of advanced stage type 2 (T2DM), though this no longer appears to be categorically true. There are also dashed hopes that insulin therapy can prevent or stall diabetes. While exogenous insulin remains a life-sparing tool for fully insulin-dependent DM, insulin therapy-induced hyperinsulinemia now appears to contribute to serious safety issues beyond hypoglycemia and weight gain...
August 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Ruisheng Song
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Diabetes Care
S Allas, T Delale, N Ngo, M Julien, P Sahakian, J Ritter, T Abribat, A J van der Lely
AIM: To explore the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in humans of the unacylated ghrelin analogue AZP-531, designed to improve glycaemic control and reduce weight. METHODS: Assessments, including glucose measurements, were performed in a three-part randomized study. In Part A, healthy subjects [n = 44, age 18-50 years, body mass index (BMI) 20-28 kg/m(2) ] received a single subcutaneous dose of 0.3, 3, 15, 30, 60 or 120 µg/kg AZP-531 or placebo...
September 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Nisa M Maruthur, Eva Tseng, Susan Hutfless, Lisa M Wilson, Catalina Suarez-Cuervo, Zackary Berger, Yue Chu, Emmanuel Iyoha, Jodi B Segal, Shari Bolen
BACKGROUND: Clinicians and patients need updated evidence on the comparative effectiveness and safety of diabetes medications to make informed treatment choices. PURPOSE: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness and safety of monotherapy (thiazolidinediones, metformin, sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 [SGLT-2] inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] receptor agonists) and selected metformin-based combinations in adults with type 2 diabetes...
June 7, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Anselm K Gitt, Peter Bramlage, Steffen Schneider, Diethelm Tschöpe
AIMS: Metformin is the first line drug for patients diagnosed with type-2 diabetes; however, the impact of different treatment escalation strategies after metformin failure has thus far not been investigated in a real world situation. The registry described herein goes some way to clarifying treatment outcomes in such patients. METHODS: DiaRegis is a multicentre registry including 3,810 patients with type-2 diabetes. For the present analysis we selected patients being treated with metformin monotherapy at baseline (n = 1,373), with the subsequent addition of incretin-based drugs (Met/Incr; n = 783), sulfonylureas (Met/SU; n = 255), or insulin (n = 220)...
2015: Cardiovascular Diabetology
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