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Neurología

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27 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601276/managing-patients-with-nontraumatic-severe-rapid-onset-headache
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan A Edlow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22278331/cerebrospinal-fluid-and-lumbar-puncture-a-practical-review
#2
REVIEW
Ben L C Wright, James T F Lai, Alexandra J Sinclair
Cerebrospinal fluid is vital for normal brain function. Changes to the composition, flow, or pressure can cause a variety of neurological symptoms and signs. Equally, disorders of nervous tissue may alter cerebrospinal fluid characteristics. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid can provide information on diagnosis, may be therapeutic in certain conditions, and allows a research opportunity into neurological disease. However, inappropriate sampling, inaccurate technique, and incomplete analysis can contribute to significant patient morbidity, and reduce the amount of accurate information obtained...
August 2012: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26304253/clinical-policy-use-of-intravenous-tissue-plasminogen-activator-for-the-management-of-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-the-emergency-department
#3
Michael D Brown, John H Burton, Devorah J Nazarian, Susan B Promes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510942/managing-migraine
#4
REVIEW
Benjamin W Friedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857121/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-century-of-progress
#5
REVIEW
John A Goodfellow, Hugh J Willison
In 1916, Guillain, Barré and Strohl reported on two cases of acute flaccid paralysis with high cerebrospinal fluid protein levels and normal cell counts - novel findings that identified the disease we now know as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). 100 years on, we have made great progress with the clinical and pathological characterization of GBS. Early clinicopathological and animal studies indicated that GBS was an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder, and that severe GBS could result in secondary axonal injury; the current treatments of plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin, which were developed in the 1980s, are based on this premise...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11562847/-the-pyramidal-tract-new-pathways
#6
REVIEW
M L Cuadrado, J A Arias, M A Palomar, R Linares
OBJECTIVE: To review some anatomofunctional aspects of the pyramidal tract which are relevant in clinical practice, especially the newer concepts. DEVELOPMENT: a) Although the motor function is best known, the pyramidal tract also has sensory functions, modulating the transmission of impulses in the spinal cord. In fact, motor function is a recent acquisition on the evolutionary scale. b) Other descending pathways, such as the cortico reticulospinal path, participate in voluntary movements...
June 16, 2001: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21777827/the-monoamine-neurotransmitter-disorders-an-expanding-range-of-neurological-syndromes
#7
REVIEW
Manju A Kurian, Paul Gissen, Martin Smith, Simon Heales, Peter T Clayton
The monoamine neurotransmitter disorders consist of a rapidly expanding heterogeneous group of neurological syndromes characterised by primary and secondary defects in the biosynthesis degradation, or transport of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin. Disease onset can occur any time from infancy onwards. Clinical presentation depends on the pattern and severity of neurotransmitter abnormalities, and is predominated by neurological features (encephalopathy, epilepsy, and pyramidal and extrapyramidal motor disorders) that are primarily attributed to deficiency of cerebral dopamine, serotonin, or both...
August 2011: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22042191/the-pyramidal-syndrome-and-the-pyramidal-tract-a-brief-historical-note
#8
Fernando Rezende-Cunha, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza
The discovery of the pyramidal syndrome and tract is briefly reviewed with emphasis on a few key historical aspects. The pursuit of the relationship between the lateralized deficits resulting from contralateral head trauma begins in the fourth century BC with the Hippocratic School and continues until the present day.
October 2011: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25959865/damage-to-the-pyramidal-tracts-is-necessary-and-sufficient-for-the-production-of-the-pyramidal-syndrome-in-man
#9
Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza
The causal role played by damage to the pyramidal tracts in the production of spastic hemiplegia in man has been hotly debated over the past hundred years. Two broad streams of thought have emerged from this dispute. The first, which is grounded on the clinicopathological schools of Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) and Paul Flechsig (1847-1929), claimed that the four cardinal signs of hemiplegia, namely (i) paralysis, (ii) spasticity, (iii) hyperactive phasic muscle reflexes ("tendon jerks") and (iv) the sign of Babinski, are caused by injury or dysfunction of the pyramidal tracts...
July 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438847/the-common-stroke
#10
Adrian Budhram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780653/clinical-mimics-an-emergency-medicine-focused-review-of-stroke-mimics
#11
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability and most commonly presents with focal neurologic deficit within a specific vascular distribution. Several other conditions may present in a similar manner. OBJECTIVES: This review provides emergency providers with an understanding of stroke mimics, use of thrombolytics in these mimics, and keys to differentiate true stroke from mimic. DISCUSSION: Stroke has significant morbidity and mortality, and the American Heart Association emphasizes rapid recognition and aggressive treatment for patients with possible stroke-like symptoms, including thrombolytics...
February 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389543/a-radiologist-s-guide-to-the-clinical-scales-used-in-the-2015-endovascular-stroke-trials-and-the-revised-american-heart-association-american-stroke-association-guidelines-for-endovascular-stroke-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Meir H Scheinfeld, Amichai J Erdfarb, Daniel A Krieger, Deepa Bhupali, Richard L Zampolin
In 2015, five trials demonstrated the efficacy of endovascular treatment for acute stroke, culminating in the revised American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) recommendations for stroke management. The different clinical scales used in these trials may be unfamiliar to emergency and on-call radiologists. The modified Rankin Scale was used to describe patient disability for prestroke assessment in three of the trials and for the 90-day follow up in all five trials. The Barthel index was used in one trial to score prestroke ability to perform activities of daily living...
October 2016: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183838/autoimmune-encephalitis-pathophysiology-and-imaging-review-of-an-overlooked-diagnosis
#13
REVIEW
B P Kelley, S C Patel, H L Marin, J J Corrigan, P D Mitsias, B Griffith
Autoimmune encephalitis is a relatively new category of immune-mediated disease involving the central nervous system that demonstrates a widely variable spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from the relatively mild or insidious onset of cognitive impairment to more complex forms of encephalopathy with refractory seizure. Due to its diverse clinical features, which can mimic a variety of other pathologic processes, autoimmune encephalitis presents a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Imaging findings in patients with these disorders can also be quite variable, but recognizing characteristic findings within limbic structures suggestive of autoimmune encephalitis can be a key step in alerting clinicians to the potential diagnosis and ensuring a prompt and appropriate clinical work-up...
June 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26931807/status-epilepticus
#14
REVIEW
Syndi Seinfeld, Howard P Goodkin, Shlomo Shinnar
Although the majority of seizures are brief and cause no long-term consequences, a subset is sufficiently prolonged that long-term consequences can result. These very prolonged seizures are termed "status epilepticus" (SE) and are considered a neurological emergency. The clinical presentation of SE can be diverse. SE can occur at any age but most commonly occurs in the very young and the very old. There are numerous studies on SE in animals in which the pathophysiology, medication responses, and pathology can be rigorously studied in a controlled fashion...
March 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26984607/acute-vestibular-syndrome-a-critical-review-and-diagnostic-algorithm-concerning-the-clinical-differentiation-of-peripheral-versus-central-aetiologies-in-the-emergency-department
#15
REVIEW
J Venhovens, J Meulstee, W I M Verhagen
Almost 20 % of cerebral ischaemic strokes occur in the posterior circulation. Estimates are that 20 % of these patients present with isolated vertigo. In approximately one-sixth to one-third of these patients, this symptom is wrongly diagnosed to be peripheral vestibular in origin. As a result, these missed stroke patients are withheld from therapeutic and secondary prophylactic treatment, which may result in unnecessary morbidity and mortality. We therefore propose a diagnostic algorithm concerning the clinical differentiation of acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) patients based on a critical review of the available literature...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203777/2017-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-s-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-healthcare-associated-ventriculitis-and-meningitis
#16
Allan R Tunkel, Rodrigo Hasbun, Adarsh Bhimraj, Karin Byers, Sheldon L Kaplan, W Michael Scheld, Diederik van de Beek, Thomas P Bleck, Hugh J L Garton, Joseph R Zunt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207600/advancements-in-the-critical-care-management-of-status-epilepticus
#17
Andrew Bauerschmidt, Andrew Martin, Jan Claassen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Status epilepticus has a high morbidity and mortality. There are little definitive data to guide management; however, new recent data continue to improve understanding of management options of status epilepticus. This review examines recent advancements regarding the critical care management of status epilepticus. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies support the initial treatment of status epilepticus with early and aggressive benzodiazepine dosing...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050656/the-recommendations-of-a-consensus-panel-for-the-screening-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-neurogenic-orthostatic-hypotension-and-associated-supine-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Christopher H Gibbons, Peter Schmidt, Italo Biaggioni, Camille Frazier-Mills, Roy Freeman, Stuart Isaacson, Beverly Karabin, Louis Kuritzky, Mark Lew, Phillip Low, Ali Mehdirad, Satish R Raj, Steven Vernino, Horacio Kaufmann
Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is common in patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, pure autonomic failure, dementia with Lewy bodies, and peripheral neuropathies including amyloid or diabetic neuropathy. Due to the frequency of nOH in the aging population, clinicians need to be well informed about its diagnosis and management. To date, studies of nOH have used different outcome measures and various methods of diagnosis, thereby preventing the generation of evidence-based guidelines to direct clinicians towards 'best practices' when treating patients with nOH and associated supine hypertension...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114682/stroke-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-the-emergency-department
#19
Jason L Siegel, Michael A Pizzi, William David Freeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160877/management-of-adult-onset-seizures
#20
REVIEW
Amy Z Crepeau, Joseph I Sirven
Epilepsy is a common yet heterogeneous disease. As a result, management often requires complex decision making. The ultimate goal of seizure management is for the patient to have no seizures and no considerable adverse effects from the treatment. Antiepileptic drugs are the mainstay of therapy, with more than 20 medications currently approved in the United States. Antiepileptic drug selection requires an understanding of the patient's epilepsy, along with consideration of comorbidities and potential for adverse events...
February 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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