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David W Dodick
Migraine is a chronic paroxysmal neurological disorder characterised by multiphase attacks of head pain and a myriad of neurological symptoms. The underlying genetic and biological underpinnings and neural networks involved are coming sharply into focus. This progress in the fundamental understanding of migraine has led to novel, mechanism-based and disease-specific therapeutics. In this Seminar, the clinical features and neurobiology of migraine are reviewed, evidence to support available treatment options is provided, and emerging drug, device, and biological therapies are discussed...
March 31, 2018: Lancet
Marla Rivera-Oliver, Manuel Díaz-Ríos
Caffeine is the most consumed pychostimulant in the world, and it is known to affect basic and fundamental human processes such as sleep, arousal, cognition and learning and memory. It works as a nonselective blocker of adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) and has been related to the regulation of heart rate, the contraction/relaxation of cardiac and smooth muscles, and the neural signaling in the central nervous system (CNS). Since the late 1990s, studies using adenosine receptor antagonists, such as Caffeine, to block the A1 and A2a adenosine receptor subtypes have shown to reduce the physical, cellular and molecular damages caused by a spinal cord injury (SCI) or a stroke (cerebral infarction) and by other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases...
April 17, 2014: Life Sciences
Michael J Angel, G Bryan Young
Kinnier Wilson coined the term metabolic encephalopathy to describe a clinical state of global cerebral dysfunction induced by systemic stress that can vary in clinical presentation from mild executive dysfunction to deep coma with decerebrate posturing; the causes are numerous. Some mechanisms by which cerebral dysfunction occurs in metabolic encephalopathies include focal or global cerebral edema, alterations in transmitter function, the accumulation of uncleared toxic metabolites, postcapillary venule vasogenic edema, and energy failure...
November 2011: Neurologic Clinics
Atul A Kalanuria, Romergryko G Geocadin, Hans A Püttgen
Cerebral herniation occurs due to lateral or vertical shifts in brain tissue as a complication of an intra- or extra-axial nervous system pathology. Midline shift of midline brain structures has been independently associated with poor outcome in a variety of neurologic injuries. Herniation may present as a subacute phenomenon constituting mild and progressive alteration of consciousness or as a hyperacute scenario wherein there is rapid decompensation of intracranial compliance. If left uncontrolled, cerebral herniation will lead to destruction of arousal mechanisms and result in a comatose state...
April 2013: Seminars in Neurology
Gretchen M Brophy, Theresa Human, Lori Shutter
The appropriate use of medications during Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) is essential to optimize patient care. Important considerations when choosing the appropriate agent include the patient's organ function and medication allergies, potential adverse drug effects, drug interactions, and critical illness and aging pathophysiologic changes. Critical medications used during ENLS include hyperosmolar therapy, anticonvulsants, antithrombotics, anticoagulant reversal and hemostatic agents, anti-shivering agents, neuromuscular blockers, antihypertensive agents, sedatives, vasopressors and inotropes, and antimicrobials...
December 2015: Neurocritical Care
T Loddenkemper, M Vendrame, M Zarowski, M Gregas, A V Alexopoulos, E Wyllie, S V Kothare
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship of sleep/wake and day/night pattern to various seizure subtypes and epilepsy localizations. METHODS: Charts of 380 consecutive pediatric patients with epilepsy undergoing video-EEG (V-EEG) over 2 years were reviewed for seizure semiology, EEG localization, occurrence during the day (6 am-6 pm) or night, during wakefulness and sleep, 3-hour time blocks throughout 24 hours, and various epilepsy localizations, and etiology. RESULTS: A total of 1,008 seizures were analyzed in 225 children (mean age 8...
January 11, 2011: Neurology
Timothy J Eviston, Glen R Croxson, Peter G E Kennedy, Tessa Hadlock, Arun V Krishnan
Bell's palsy is a common cranial neuropathy causing acute unilateral lower motor neuron facial paralysis. Immune, infective and ischaemic mechanisms are all potential contributors to the development of Bell's palsy, but the precise cause remains unclear. Advancements in the understanding of intra-axonal signal molecules and the molecular mechanisms underpinning Wallerian degeneration may further delineate its pathogenesis along with in vitro studies of virus-axon interactions. Recently published guidelines for the acute treatment of Bell's palsy advocate for steroid monotherapy, although controversy exists over whether combined corticosteroids and antivirals may possibly have a beneficial role in select cases of severe Bell's palsy...
December 2015: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Andrew Charles
The understanding of migraine pathophysiology is advancing rapidly. Improved characterisation and diagnosis of its clinical features have led to the view of migraine as a complex, variable disorder of nervous system function rather than simply a vascular headache. Recent studies have provided important new insights into its genetic causes, anatomical and physiological features, and pharmacological mechanisms. The identification of new migraine-associated genes, the visualisation of brain regions that are activated at the earliest stages of a migraine attack, a greater appreciation of the potential role of the cervical nerves, and the recognition of the crucial role for neuropeptides are among the advances that have led to novel targets for migraine therapy...
February 2018: Lancet Neurology
Sima I Patel, Angela K Birnbaum, James C Cloyd, Ilo E Leppik
Intravenous and intramuscular antiseizure drugs (ASDs) are essential in the treatment of clinical seizure emergencies as well as in replacement therapy when oral administration is not possible. The parenteral formulations provide rapid delivery and complete (intravenous) or nearly complete (intramuscular) bioavailability. Controlled administration of the ASD is feasible with intravenous but not intramuscular formulations. This article reviews the literature and discusses the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use of currently available intravenous and intramuscular ASD formulations as well as the development of new formulations and agents...
December 2015: CNS Drugs
Eugen Trinka, Julia Höfler, Markus Leitinger, Francesco Brigo
Status epilepticus (SE) represents the most severe form of epilepsy. It is one of the most common neurologic emergencies, with an incidence of up to 61 per 100,000 per year and an estimated mortality of 20 %. Clinically, tonic-clonic convulsive SE is divided into four subsequent stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. Pharmacotherapy of status epilepticus, especially of its later stages, represents an "evidence-free zone," due to a lack of high-quality, controlled trials to inform clinical decisions...
September 2015: Drugs
Tracy Glauser, Shlomo Shinnar, David Gloss, Brian Alldredge, Ravindra Arya, Jacquelyn Bainbridge, Mary Bare, Thomas Bleck, W Edwin Dodson, Lisa Garrity, Andy Jagoda, Daniel Lowenstein, John Pellock, James Riviello, Edward Sloan, David M Treiman
CONTEXT: The optimal pharmacologic treatment for early convulsive status epilepticus is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze efficacy, tolerability and safety data for anticonvulsant treatment of children and adults with convulsive status epilepticus and use this analysis to develop an evidence-based treatment algorithm. DATA SOURCES: Structured literature review using MEDLINE, Embase, Current Contents, and Cochrane library supplemented with article reference lists...
January 2016: Epilepsy Currents
Christian Samsonsen, Geir Bråthen, Arne Reimers, Grethe Helde, Eylert Brodtkorb
Caffeine acts as a central nervous stimulant by blocking A1 and A2A adenosine receptors. Its effect on seizures is complex. Animal studies and case reports indicate that acute caffeine exposure may induce seizures, whereas chronic exposure might have an opposite effect. Patients acutely hospitalized for seizures (n = 174) were asked for their consumption of caffeinated beverages 24 h prior to admission as well as their habitual caffeine intake. Twenty-four-hour caffeine consumption was also recorded in a later telephone interview on a seizure-free day (n = 154)...
August 2013: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Christian Samsonsen, Trond Sand, Geir Bråthen, Grethe Helde, Eylert Brodtkorb
PURPOSE: The relationship between sleep and seizures is intricate. The aim of this study was to assess whether sleep loss is an independent seizure precipitant in a clinical setting. METHODS: In this prospective, observational cross-over study, 179 consecutive hospital admissions for epileptic seizures were included. A semi-structured interview regarding several seizure precipitants was performed. The sleep pattern prior to the seizure, as well as alcohol, caffeine and drug use, were recorded...
November 2016: Epilepsy Research
Renato P Munhoz, Mariana Moscovich, Patrícia Dare Araujo, Hélio A G Teive
Movement disorders (MD) encompass acute and chronic diseases characterized by involuntary movements and/or loss of control or efficiency in voluntary movements. In this review, we covered situations in which the main manifestations are MDs that pose significant risks for acute morbidity and mortality. The authors examine literature data on the most relevant MD emergencies, including those related to Parkinson's disease, acute drug reactions (acute dystonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonergic syndrome and malignant hyperthermia), acute exacerbation of chronic MD (status dystonicus), hemiballism and stiff-person syndrome, highlighting clinical presentation, demographics, diagnosis and management...
June 2012: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Bradley J Robottom, Lisa M Shulman, William J Weiner
Movement disorders uncommonly require emergent intervention; however, there are acute/subacute clinical settings in which the neurologist is consulted for recommendations about the diagnosis and management of a movement disorder. In these circumstances the neurologist must be comfortable with the diagnostic evaluation and be prepared to properly manage the patient. This article focuses on diagnosis and management of acute-onset movement disorders occurring secondary to prescription drug use, illicit drug abuse, and drug withdrawal syndromes...
February 2012: Neurologic Clinics
Renato P Munhoz, Laura M Scorr, Stewart A Factor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although movement disorders are traditionally viewed as chronic diseases that are followed electively, a growing number of these patients present with acute, severe syndromes or complications of their underlying neurological problem. Identifying and managing movement disorders emergencies is challenging, even for the specialist. This review summarizes evidence outlining the clinical presentation of acute, life-threatening movement disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: We review the most significant aspects in the most common movement disorders emergencies, including acute complications related to Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism, serotonergic, and neuroleptic malignant syndromes, chorea, ballismus, dystonia, myoclonus, and tics...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Bradley J Robottom, Stewart A Factor, William J Weiner
Although movement disorders do not usually present as neurologic emergencies, there are times when the abrupt onset of an unusual movement abnormality results in emergency department or intensive care unit consultations. Part 1 of this review discussed hypokinetic movement disorders emergencies. Part 2 provides a diagnostic approach to the recognition and treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorders emergencies by identifying phenomenology and reviewing common etiologies.
June 2011: Archives of Neurology
Bradley J Robottom, William J Weiner, Stewart A Factor
Movement disorders usually do not require emergent intervention; nevertheless, there are acute/subacute clinical settings in which the neurologist is consulted. It is in these circumstances that the neurologist must be prepared to accurately diagnose and properly treat the patient. We have reviewed the literature regarding movement disorder emergencies and divided them into hypokinetic (part 1) and hyperkinetic (part 2) presentations. In part 1, drug-induced syndromes including neuroleptic malignant syndrome, parkinsonism hyperpyrexia syndrome, and serotonin syndrome will be discussed...
May 2011: Archives of Neurology
Steven J Frucht
Movement disorder emergencies are defined as clinical scenarios where a movement disorder develops over hours to days, and in which morbidity and even mortality can result from failure to appropriately diagnose and manage the patient. The last decade has seen increasing recognition of various movement disorder emergencies, including acute parkinsonism, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, respiratory compromise in multiple system atrophy, dystonic storm, oculogyric crisis, and hemiballism, among others. This article will review the major movement disorder emergencies encountered in the hospital and office, emphasizing practical management and treatment...
January 2014: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
N Malek, M R Baker
BACKGROUND: Physicians can come across patients who are exposed to certain prescription drugs or toxins that can result in adverse effects and complications which have high rates of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To summarise the key clinical features and management of the common movement disorder toxidromes relevant to physicians (with an interest in neurology). METHODS: We searched PUBMED from 1946 to 2016 for papers relating to movement toxidromes and their treatment...
June 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
2017-11-30 09:50:14
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