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Neurología

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42 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24695995/the-history-of-examination-of-reflexes
#1
REVIEW
Christopher J Boes
In the late 1800s, Wilhelm Erb, Joseph Babinski, William Gowers, and others helped develop the neurologic examination as we know it today. Erb was one of the first to emphasize a detailed and systematic neurologic exam and was co-discoverer of the muscle stretch reflex, Gowers began studying the knee jerk shortly after it was described, and Babinski focused on finding reliable signs that could differentiate organic from hysterical paralysis. These physicians and others emphasized the bedside examination of reflexes, which have been an important part of the neurologic examination ever since...
December 2014: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820187/cerebral-venous-thrombosis
#2
REVIEW
Suzanne M Silvis, Diana Aguiar de Sousa, José M Ferro, Jonathan M Coutinho
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an important cause of stroke in young adults. Data from large international registries published in the past two decades have greatly improved our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and prognosis of CVT. The presentation of symptoms is highly variable in this disease, and can range from a patient seen at the clinic with a 1-month history of headache, to a comatose patient admitted to the emergency room. Consequently, the diagnosis of CVT is often delayed or overlooked...
August 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276234/intensive-blood-pressure-lowering-in-patients-with-acute-cerebral-hemorrhage
#3
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Adnan I Qureshi, Yuko Y Palesch, William G Barsan, Daniel F Hanley, Chung Y Hsu, Renee L Martin, Claudia S Moy, Robert Silbergleit, Thorsten Steiner, Jose I Suarez, Kazunori Toyoda, Yongjun Wang, Haruko Yamamoto, Byung-Woo Yoon
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to guide the choice of a target for the systolic blood-pressure level when treating acute hypertensive response in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: We randomly assigned eligible participants with intracerebral hemorrhage (volume, <60 cm(3)) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 5 or more (on a scale from 3 to 15, with lower scores indicating worse condition) to a systolic blood-pressure target of 110 to 139 mm Hg (intensive treatment) or a target of 140 to 179 mm Hg (standard treatment) in order to test the superiority of intensive reduction of systolic blood pressure to standard reduction; intravenous nicardipine to lower blood pressure was administered within 4...
September 15, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563928/adult-status-epilepticus-a-review-of-the-prehospital-and-emergency-department-management
#4
REVIEW
Michael Billington, Osama R Kandalaft, Imoigele P Aisiku
Seizures are a common presentation in the prehospital and emergency department setting and status epilepticus represents an emergency neurologic condition. The classification and various types of seizures are numerous. The objectives of this narrative literature review focuses on adult patients with a presentation of status epilepticus in the prehospital and emergency department setting. In summary, benzodiazepines remain the primary first line therapeutic agent in the management of status epilepticus, however, there are new agents that may be appropriate for the management of status epilepticus as second- and third-line pharmacological agents...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754355/managing-patients-with-transient-ischemic-attack
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan A Edlow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747453/serum-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-levels-and-prognosis-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Chongke Zhong, Jingyuan Yang, Tan Xu, Tian Xu, Yanbo Peng, Aili Wang, Jinchao Wang, Hao Peng, Qunwei Li, Zhong Ju, Deqin Geng, Yonghong Zhang, Jiang He
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between serum matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) levels and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We measured serum MMP-9 levels in 3,186 participants (2,008 men and 1,178 women) from the China Antihypertensive Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke (CATIS). Study outcome data on death, major disability (modified Rankin Scale score ≥3), and vascular disease were collected at 3 months after stroke onset. RESULTS: During 3 months of follow-up, 767 participants (24...
August 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589057/treatment-of-sydenham-s-chorea-a-review-of-the-current-evidence
#7
REVIEW
Shannon L Dean, Harvey S Singer
BACKGROUND: Sydenham's chorea (SC), the neurologic manifestation of rheumatic fever, remains the most prevalent form of chorea in children. Suggested treatments of chorea in SC include prophylactic penicillin, symptomatic (antipsychotic and anticonvulsant) medications, and immunomodulatory therapy (steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange). In this manuscript, we undertook a systematic review of the published literature to examine the data supporting these therapeutic recommendations...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723321/subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#8
REVIEW
Michael T Lawton, G Edward Vates
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 377, Issue 3, Page 257-266, July 2017.
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276062/ilae-classification-of-the-epilepsies-position-paper-of-the-ilae-commission-for-classification-and-terminology
#9
Ingrid E Scheffer, Samuel Berkovic, Giuseppe Capovilla, Mary B Connolly, Jacqueline French, Laura Guilhoto, Edouard Hirsch, Satish Jain, Gary W Mathern, Solomon L Moshé, Douglas R Nordli, Emilio Perucca, Torbjörn Tomson, Samuel Wiebe, Yue-Hua Zhang, Sameer M Zuberi
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Classification of the Epilepsies has been updated to reflect our gain in understanding of the epilepsies and their underlying mechanisms following the major scientific advances that have taken place since the last ratified classification in 1989. As a critical tool for the practicing clinician, epilepsy classification must be relevant and dynamic to changes in thinking, yet robust and translatable to all areas of the globe. Its primary purpose is for diagnosis of patients, but it is also critical for epilepsy research, development of antiepileptic therapies, and communication around the world...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714410/management-of-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-in-patients-with-acute-stroke
#10
Carlo Maida, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Domenico Di Raimondo, Antonio Pinto
BACKGROUND: Stroke represent one of the most devastating of all neurological diseases, affecting about 15 million people per year and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and currently the leading cause of adult disability in developed countries. Blood pressure and heart rate may undergo several modifications in patients with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in fact raised blood pressure levels may lead to cerebral edema, hematoma expansion or hemorrhagic transformation and in contrast low blood pressure can lead to increased cerebral infarction or perihematomal ischemia...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702747/management-of-supine-hypertension-complicating-neurogenic-orthostatic-hypotension
#11
Jacquie Baker, Kurt Kimpinski
Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) can be present in a number of disorders, including synucleinopathies, autoimmune disorders, and various genetic disorders. All are characterized by defective norepinephrine release from sympathetic terminals upon standing, resulting in impaired vasoconstriction. NOH is defined as a drop in systolic blood pressure ≥20 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥10 mmHg, or both, within 3 minutes of standing or head up-tilt at a minimum of 60°. However, approximately 50% of patients have associated supine hypertension, which greatly complicates treatment...
August 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609703/etiologic-classification-of-ischemic-stroke-where-do-we-stand
#12
REVIEW
Răzvan Alexandru Radu, Elena Oana Terecoasă, Ovidiu Alexandru Băjenaru, Cristina Tiu
Despite major technological advances in ischemic stroke diagnostic techniques, our current understanding of stroke mechanisms and etiology continues to remain unclear in a significant percent of patients. As a result, several etiological ischemic stroke classifications have emerged during the last two decades but their reliability and validity is far from perfect and further world-wide research is needed in order to achieve the so much needed "standard reference language". An ideal ischemic stroke classification should both comprise all underlying pathologies that could potentially concur to an index event and emphasize the most likely etiological and pathophysiological mechanism...
August 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669087/typical-vasovagal-syncope-as-a-defense-mechanism-for-the-heart-by-contrasting-sympathetic-overactivity
#13
REVIEW
Paolo Alboni, Marco Alboni
Many observations suggest that typical (emotional or orthostatic) vasovagal syncope (VVS) is not a disease, but rather a manifestation of a non-pathological trait. Some authors have hypothesized this type of syncope as a "defense mechanism" for the organism and a few theories have been postulated. Under the human violent conflicts theory, the VVS evolved during the Paleolithic era only in the human lineage. In this evolutionary period, a predominant cause of death was wounding by a sharp object. This theory could explain the occurrence of emotional VVS, but not of the orthostatic one...
August 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586886/prevention-of-migraine
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552366/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Michael A van Es, Orla Hardiman, Adriano Chio, Ammar Al-Chalabi, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Jan H Veldink, Leonard H van den Berg
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is characterised by the progressive loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. This neurodegenerative syndrome shares pathobiological features with frontotemporal dementia and, indeed, many patients show features of both diseases. Many different genes and pathophysiological processes contribute to the disease, and it will be necessary to understand this heterogeneity to find effective treatments. In this Seminar, we discuss clinical and diagnostic approaches as well as scientific advances in the research fields of genetics, disease modelling, biomarkers, and therapeutic strategies...
May 25, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601276/managing-patients-with-nontraumatic-severe-rapid-onset-headache
#16
REVIEW
Jonathan A Edlow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22278331/cerebrospinal-fluid-and-lumbar-puncture-a-practical-review
#17
REVIEW
Ben L C Wright, James T F Lai, Alexandra J Sinclair
Cerebrospinal fluid is vital for normal brain function. Changes to the composition, flow, or pressure can cause a variety of neurological symptoms and signs. Equally, disorders of nervous tissue may alter cerebrospinal fluid characteristics. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid can provide information on diagnosis, may be therapeutic in certain conditions, and allows a research opportunity into neurological disease. However, inappropriate sampling, inaccurate technique, and incomplete analysis can contribute to significant patient morbidity, and reduce the amount of accurate information obtained...
August 2012: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26304253/clinical-policy-use-of-intravenous-tissue-plasminogen-activator-for-the-management-of-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-the-emergency-department
#18
Michael D Brown, John H Burton, Devorah J Nazarian, Susan B Promes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510942/managing-migraine
#19
REVIEW
Benjamin W Friedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857121/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-century-of-progress
#20
REVIEW
John A Goodfellow, Hugh J Willison
In 1916, Guillain, Barré and Strohl reported on two cases of acute flaccid paralysis with high cerebrospinal fluid protein levels and normal cell counts - novel findings that identified the disease we now know as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). 100 years on, we have made great progress with the clinical and pathological characterization of GBS. Early clinicopathological and animal studies indicated that GBS was an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder, and that severe GBS could result in secondary axonal injury; the current treatments of plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin, which were developed in the 1980s, are based on this premise...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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