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Neurología

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33 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714410/management-of-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-in-patients-with-acute-stroke
#1
Carlo Maida, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Domenico Di Raimondo, Antonio Pinto
BACKGROUND: Stroke represent one of the most devastating of all neurological diseases, affecting about 15 million people per year and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and currently the leading cause of adult disability in developed countries. Blood pressure and heart rate may undergo several modifications in patients with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in fact raised blood pressure levels may lead to cerebral edema, hematoma expansion or hemorrhagic transformation and in contrast low blood pressure can lead to increased cerebral infarction or perihematomal ischemia...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702747/management-of-supine-hypertension-complicating-neurogenic-orthostatic-hypotension
#2
Jacquie Baker, Kurt Kimpinski
Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH) can be present in a number of disorders, including synucleinopathies, autoimmune disorders, and various genetic disorders. All are characterized by defective norepinephrine release from sympathetic terminals upon standing, resulting in impaired vasoconstriction. NOH is defined as a drop in systolic blood pressure ≥20 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥10 mmHg, or both, within 3 minutes of standing or head up-tilt at a minimum of 60°. However, approximately 50% of patients have associated supine hypertension, which greatly complicates treatment...
July 12, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609703/etiologic-classification-of-ischemic-stroke-where-do-we-stand
#3
REVIEW
Răzvan Alexandru Radu, Elena Oana Terecoasă, Ovidiu Alexandru Băjenaru, Cristina Tiu
Despite major technological advances in ischemic stroke diagnostic techniques, our current understanding of stroke mechanisms and etiology continues to remain unclear in a significant percent of patients. As a result, several etiological ischemic stroke classifications have emerged during the last two decades but their reliability and validity is far from perfect and further world-wide research is needed in order to achieve the so much needed "standard reference language". An ideal ischemic stroke classification should both comprise all underlying pathologies that could potentially concur to an index event and emphasize the most likely etiological and pathophysiological mechanism...
August 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669087/typical-vasovagal-syncope-as-a-defense-mechanism-for-the-heart-by-contrasting-sympathetic-overactivity
#4
REVIEW
Paolo Alboni, Marco Alboni
Many observations suggest that typical (emotional or orthostatic) vasovagal syncope (VVS) is not a disease, but rather a manifestation of a non-pathological trait. Some authors have hypothesized this type of syncope as a "defense mechanism" for the organism and a few theories have been postulated. Under the human violent conflicts theory, the VVS evolved during the Paleolithic era only in the human lineage. In this evolutionary period, a predominant cause of death was wounding by a sharp object. This theory could explain the occurrence of emotional VVS, but not of the orthostatic one...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586886/prevention-of-migraine
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552366/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Michael A van Es, Orla Hardiman, Adriano Chio, Ammar Al-Chalabi, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Jan H Veldink, Leonard H van den Berg
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is characterised by the progressive loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. This neurodegenerative syndrome shares pathobiological features with frontotemporal dementia and, indeed, many patients show features of both diseases. Many different genes and pathophysiological processes contribute to the disease, and it will be necessary to understand this heterogeneity to find effective treatments. In this Seminar, we discuss clinical and diagnostic approaches as well as scientific advances in the research fields of genetics, disease modelling, biomarkers, and therapeutic strategies...
May 25, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601276/managing-patients-with-nontraumatic-severe-rapid-onset-headache
#7
REVIEW
Jonathan A Edlow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22278331/cerebrospinal-fluid-and-lumbar-puncture-a-practical-review
#8
REVIEW
Ben L C Wright, James T F Lai, Alexandra J Sinclair
Cerebrospinal fluid is vital for normal brain function. Changes to the composition, flow, or pressure can cause a variety of neurological symptoms and signs. Equally, disorders of nervous tissue may alter cerebrospinal fluid characteristics. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid can provide information on diagnosis, may be therapeutic in certain conditions, and allows a research opportunity into neurological disease. However, inappropriate sampling, inaccurate technique, and incomplete analysis can contribute to significant patient morbidity, and reduce the amount of accurate information obtained...
August 2012: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26304253/clinical-policy-use-of-intravenous-tissue-plasminogen-activator-for-the-management-of-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-the-emergency-department
#9
Michael D Brown, John H Burton, Devorah J Nazarian, Susan B Promes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510942/managing-migraine
#10
REVIEW
Benjamin W Friedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857121/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-century-of-progress
#11
REVIEW
John A Goodfellow, Hugh J Willison
In 1916, Guillain, Barré and Strohl reported on two cases of acute flaccid paralysis with high cerebrospinal fluid protein levels and normal cell counts - novel findings that identified the disease we now know as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). 100 years on, we have made great progress with the clinical and pathological characterization of GBS. Early clinicopathological and animal studies indicated that GBS was an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder, and that severe GBS could result in secondary axonal injury; the current treatments of plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin, which were developed in the 1980s, are based on this premise...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11562847/-the-pyramidal-tract-new-pathways
#12
REVIEW
M L Cuadrado, J A Arias, M A Palomar, R Linares
OBJECTIVE: To review some anatomofunctional aspects of the pyramidal tract which are relevant in clinical practice, especially the newer concepts. DEVELOPMENT: a) Although the motor function is best known, the pyramidal tract also has sensory functions, modulating the transmission of impulses in the spinal cord. In fact, motor function is a recent acquisition on the evolutionary scale. b) Other descending pathways, such as the cortico reticulospinal path, participate in voluntary movements...
June 16, 2001: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21777827/the-monoamine-neurotransmitter-disorders-an-expanding-range-of-neurological-syndromes
#13
REVIEW
Manju A Kurian, Paul Gissen, Martin Smith, Simon Heales, Peter T Clayton
The monoamine neurotransmitter disorders consist of a rapidly expanding heterogeneous group of neurological syndromes characterised by primary and secondary defects in the biosynthesis degradation, or transport of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin. Disease onset can occur any time from infancy onwards. Clinical presentation depends on the pattern and severity of neurotransmitter abnormalities, and is predominated by neurological features (encephalopathy, epilepsy, and pyramidal and extrapyramidal motor disorders) that are primarily attributed to deficiency of cerebral dopamine, serotonin, or both...
August 2011: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22042191/the-pyramidal-syndrome-and-the-pyramidal-tract-a-brief-historical-note
#14
Fernando Rezende-Cunha, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza
The discovery of the pyramidal syndrome and tract is briefly reviewed with emphasis on a few key historical aspects. The pursuit of the relationship between the lateralized deficits resulting from contralateral head trauma begins in the fourth century BC with the Hippocratic School and continues until the present day.
October 2011: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25959865/damage-to-the-pyramidal-tracts-is-necessary-and-sufficient-for-the-production-of-the-pyramidal-syndrome-in-man
#15
Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza
The causal role played by damage to the pyramidal tracts in the production of spastic hemiplegia in man has been hotly debated over the past hundred years. Two broad streams of thought have emerged from this dispute. The first, which is grounded on the clinicopathological schools of Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) and Paul Flechsig (1847-1929), claimed that the four cardinal signs of hemiplegia, namely (i) paralysis, (ii) spasticity, (iii) hyperactive phasic muscle reflexes ("tendon jerks") and (iv) the sign of Babinski, are caused by injury or dysfunction of the pyramidal tracts...
July 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438847/the-common-stroke
#16
Adrian Budhram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780653/clinical-mimics-an-emergency-medicine-focused-review-of-stroke-mimics
#17
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability and most commonly presents with focal neurologic deficit within a specific vascular distribution. Several other conditions may present in a similar manner. OBJECTIVES: This review provides emergency providers with an understanding of stroke mimics, use of thrombolytics in these mimics, and keys to differentiate true stroke from mimic. DISCUSSION: Stroke has significant morbidity and mortality, and the American Heart Association emphasizes rapid recognition and aggressive treatment for patients with possible stroke-like symptoms, including thrombolytics...
February 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389543/a-radiologist-s-guide-to-the-clinical-scales-used-in-the-2015-endovascular-stroke-trials-and-the-revised-american-heart-association-american-stroke-association-guidelines-for-endovascular-stroke-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Meir H Scheinfeld, Amichai J Erdfarb, Daniel A Krieger, Deepa Bhupali, Richard L Zampolin
In 2015, five trials demonstrated the efficacy of endovascular treatment for acute stroke, culminating in the revised American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) recommendations for stroke management. The different clinical scales used in these trials may be unfamiliar to emergency and on-call radiologists. The modified Rankin Scale was used to describe patient disability for prestroke assessment in three of the trials and for the 90-day follow up in all five trials. The Barthel index was used in one trial to score prestroke ability to perform activities of daily living...
October 2016: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183838/autoimmune-encephalitis-pathophysiology-and-imaging-review-of-an-overlooked-diagnosis
#19
REVIEW
B P Kelley, S C Patel, H L Marin, J J Corrigan, P D Mitsias, B Griffith
Autoimmune encephalitis is a relatively new category of immune-mediated disease involving the central nervous system that demonstrates a widely variable spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from the relatively mild or insidious onset of cognitive impairment to more complex forms of encephalopathy with refractory seizure. Due to its diverse clinical features, which can mimic a variety of other pathologic processes, autoimmune encephalitis presents a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Imaging findings in patients with these disorders can also be quite variable, but recognizing characteristic findings within limbic structures suggestive of autoimmune encephalitis can be a key step in alerting clinicians to the potential diagnosis and ensuring a prompt and appropriate clinical work-up...
June 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26931807/status-epilepticus
#20
REVIEW
Syndi Seinfeld, Howard P Goodkin, Shlomo Shinnar
Although the majority of seizures are brief and cause no long-term consequences, a subset is sufficiently prolonged that long-term consequences can result. These very prolonged seizures are termed "status epilepticus" (SE) and are considered a neurological emergency. The clinical presentation of SE can be diverse. SE can occur at any age but most commonly occurs in the very young and the very old. There are numerous studies on SE in animals in which the pathophysiology, medication responses, and pathology can be rigorously studied in a controlled fashion...
March 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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