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Robert Hülsbrink, Said Hashemolhosseini
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) describes a rare human autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Clinically, LEMS patients suffer from characteristic muscle weakness that is caused by the presence of antibodies directed against their voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). These channels are localized in the presynaptic membrane of their motor nerve terminals. Binding of autoimmune antibodies to the VGCCs leads to reduced neuromuscular transmission. In approximately 50% of the patients, LEMS is reflected by a paraneoplastic manifestation and most commonly associated with a small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) whose cells also express VGCCs in their plasma membrane...
December 2014: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Marianne Dieterich, Mark Obermann, Nese Celebisoy
Vestibular migraine (VM) is the most common cause of episodic vertigo in adults as well as in children. The diagnostic criteria of the consensus document of the International Bárány Society for Neuro-Otology and the International Headache Society (2012) combine the typical signs and symptoms of migraine with the vestibular symptoms lasting 5 min to 72 h and exclusion criteria. Although VM accounts for 7% of patients seen in dizziness clinics and 9% of patients seen in headache clinics it is still underdiagnosed...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
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