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Neurología

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18 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438847/the-common-stroke
#1
Adrian Budhram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780653/clinical-mimics-an-emergency-medicine-focused-review-of-stroke-mimics
#2
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability and most commonly presents with focal neurologic deficit within a specific vascular distribution. Several other conditions may present in a similar manner. OBJECTIVES: This review provides emergency providers with an understanding of stroke mimics, use of thrombolytics in these mimics, and keys to differentiate true stroke from mimic. DISCUSSION: Stroke has significant morbidity and mortality, and the American Heart Association emphasizes rapid recognition and aggressive treatment for patients with possible stroke-like symptoms, including thrombolytics...
February 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389543/a-radiologist-s-guide-to-the-clinical-scales-used-in-the-2015-endovascular-stroke-trials-and-the-revised-american-heart-association-american-stroke-association-guidelines-for-endovascular-stroke-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Meir H Scheinfeld, Amichai J Erdfarb, Daniel A Krieger, Deepa Bhupali, Richard L Zampolin
In 2015, five trials demonstrated the efficacy of endovascular treatment for acute stroke, culminating in the revised American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) recommendations for stroke management. The different clinical scales used in these trials may be unfamiliar to emergency and on-call radiologists. The modified Rankin Scale was used to describe patient disability for prestroke assessment in three of the trials and for the 90-day follow up in all five trials. The Barthel index was used in one trial to score prestroke ability to perform activities of daily living...
October 2016: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183838/autoimmune-encephalitis-pathophysiology-and-imaging-review-of-an-overlooked-diagnosis
#4
REVIEW
B P Kelley, S C Patel, H L Marin, J J Corrigan, P D Mitsias, B Griffith
Autoimmune encephalitis is a relatively new category of immune-mediated disease involving the central nervous system that demonstrates a widely variable spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from the relatively mild or insidious onset of cognitive impairment to more complex forms of encephalopathy with refractory seizure. Due to its diverse clinical features, which can mimic a variety of other pathologic processes, autoimmune encephalitis presents a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Imaging findings in patients with these disorders can also be quite variable, but recognizing characteristic findings within limbic structures suggestive of autoimmune encephalitis can be a key step in alerting clinicians to the potential diagnosis and ensuring a prompt and appropriate clinical work-up...
February 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26931807/status-epilepticus
#5
REVIEW
Syndi Seinfeld, Howard P Goodkin, Shlomo Shinnar
Although the majority of seizures are brief and cause no long-term consequences, a subset is sufficiently prolonged that long-term consequences can result. These very prolonged seizures are termed "status epilepticus" (SE) and are considered a neurological emergency. The clinical presentation of SE can be diverse. SE can occur at any age but most commonly occurs in the very young and the very old. There are numerous studies on SE in animals in which the pathophysiology, medication responses, and pathology can be rigorously studied in a controlled fashion...
March 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26984607/acute-vestibular-syndrome-a-critical-review-and-diagnostic-algorithm-concerning-the-clinical-differentiation-of-peripheral-versus-central-aetiologies-in-the-emergency-department
#6
REVIEW
J Venhovens, J Meulstee, W I M Verhagen
Almost 20 % of cerebral ischaemic strokes occur in the posterior circulation. Estimates are that 20 % of these patients present with isolated vertigo. In approximately one-sixth to one-third of these patients, this symptom is wrongly diagnosed to be peripheral vestibular in origin. As a result, these missed stroke patients are withheld from therapeutic and secondary prophylactic treatment, which may result in unnecessary morbidity and mortality. We therefore propose a diagnostic algorithm concerning the clinical differentiation of acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) patients based on a critical review of the available literature...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203777/2017-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-s-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-healthcare-associated-ventriculitis-and-meningitis
#7
Allan R Tunkel, Rodrigo Hasbun, Adarsh Bhimraj, Karin Byers, Sheldon L Kaplan, W Michael Scheld, Diederik van de Beek, Thomas P Bleck, Hugh J L Garton, Joseph R Zunt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207600/advancements-in-the-critical-care-management-of-status-epilepticus
#8
Andrew Bauerschmidt, Andrew Martin, Jan Claassen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Status epilepticus has a high morbidity and mortality. There are little definitive data to guide management; however, new recent data continue to improve understanding of management options of status epilepticus. This review examines recent advancements regarding the critical care management of status epilepticus. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies support the initial treatment of status epilepticus with early and aggressive benzodiazepine dosing...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050656/the-recommendations-of-a-consensus-panel-for-the-screening-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-neurogenic-orthostatic-hypotension-and-associated-supine-hypertension
#9
REVIEW
Christopher H Gibbons, Peter Schmidt, Italo Biaggioni, Camille Frazier-Mills, Roy Freeman, Stuart Isaacson, Beverly Karabin, Louis Kuritzky, Mark Lew, Phillip Low, Ali Mehdirad, Satish R Raj, Steven Vernino, Horacio Kaufmann
Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is common in patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, pure autonomic failure, dementia with Lewy bodies, and peripheral neuropathies including amyloid or diabetic neuropathy. Due to the frequency of nOH in the aging population, clinicians need to be well informed about its diagnosis and management. To date, studies of nOH have used different outcome measures and various methods of diagnosis, thereby preventing the generation of evidence-based guidelines to direct clinicians towards 'best practices' when treating patients with nOH and associated supine hypertension...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114682/stroke-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-the-emergency-department
#10
Jason L Siegel, Michael A Pizzi, William David Freeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160877/management-of-adult-onset-seizures
#11
REVIEW
Amy Z Crepeau, Joseph I Sirven
Epilepsy is a common yet heterogeneous disease. As a result, management often requires complex decision making. The ultimate goal of seizure management is for the patient to have no seizures and no considerable adverse effects from the treatment. Antiepileptic drugs are the mainstay of therapy, with more than 20 medications currently approved in the United States. Antiepileptic drug selection requires an understanding of the patient's epilepsy, along with consideration of comorbidities and potential for adverse events...
February 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120042/recent-advances-in-epilepsy
#12
Mark Manford
This paper reviews advances in epilepsy in recent years with an emphasis on therapeutics and underlying mechanisms, including status epilepticus, drug and surgical treatments. Lessons from rarer epilepsies regarding the relationship between epilepsy type, mechanisms and choice of antiepileptic drugs (AED) are explored and data regarding AED use in pregnancy are reviewed. Concepts evolving towards a move from treating seizures to treating epilepsy are discussed, both in terms of the mechanisms of epileptogenesis, and in terms of epilepsy's broader comorbidity, especially depression...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029925/myasthenia-gravis
#13
REVIEW
Nils E Gilhus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076964/trigeminal-neuralgia-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
Stine Maarbjerg, Giulia Di Stefano, Lars Bendtsen, Giorgio Cruccu
Introduction Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by touch-evoked unilateral brief shock-like paroxysmal pain in one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve. In addition to the paroxysmal pain, some patients also have continuous pain. TN is divided into classical TN (CTN) and secondary TN (STN). Etiology and pathophysiology Demyelination of primary sensory trigeminal afferents in the root entry zone is the predominant pathophysiological mechanism. Most likely, demyelination paves the way for generation of ectopic impulses and ephaptic crosstalk...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114679/stroke-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-the-emergency-department
#15
Eugenia Rota, Nicola Morelli, Paolo Immovilli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27839652/diagnosis-and-clinical-features-of-common-optic-neuropathies
#16
REVIEW
Valérie Biousse, Nancy J Newman
Disorders of the optic nerves (optic neuropathies) are some of the most common causes of visual loss, and can present in isolation or with associated neurological or systemic symptoms and signs. Several optic neuropathies-especially inflammatory optic neuropathies-are associated with neurological disorders and thus are often diagnosed and treated by neurologists. The mechanisms underlying optic neuropathies are diverse and typically manifest with decreased visual acuity, altered colour vision, and abnormal visual field in the affected eye...
December 2016: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25065299/lambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome-diagnosis-pathogenesis-and-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Robert Hülsbrink, Said Hashemolhosseini
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) describes a rare human autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Clinically, LEMS patients suffer from characteristic muscle weakness that is caused by the presence of antibodies directed against their voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). These channels are localized in the presynaptic membrane of their motor nerve terminals. Binding of autoimmune antibodies to the VGCCs leads to reduced neuromuscular transmission. In approximately 50% of the patients, LEMS is reflected by a paraneoplastic manifestation and most commonly associated with a small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) whose cells also express VGCCs in their plasma membrane...
December 2014: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083888/vestibular-migraine-the-most-frequent-entity-of-episodic-vertigo
#18
REVIEW
Marianne Dieterich, Mark Obermann, Nese Celebisoy
Vestibular migraine (VM) is the most common cause of episodic vertigo in adults as well as in children. The diagnostic criteria of the consensus document of the International Bárány Society for Neuro-Otology and the International Headache Society (2012) combine the typical signs and symptoms of migraine with the vestibular symptoms lasting 5 min to 72 h and exclusion criteria. Although VM accounts for 7% of patients seen in dizziness clinics and 9% of patients seen in headache clinics it is still underdiagnosed...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
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