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M Steger, M Schneemann, M Fox
BACKGROUND: Hiccups are familiar to everyone, but remain poorly understood. Acute hiccups can often be terminated by physical manoeuvres. In contrast, persistent and intractable hiccups that continue for days or months are rare, but can be distressing and difficult to treat. AIM: To review the management of hiccups, including a systematic review of reported efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments. METHODS: Available articles were identified using three electronic databases in addition to hand searching of published articles...
November 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Pieter Janssen, M Scott Harris, Mike Jones, Tatsuhiro Masaoka, Ricard Farré, Hans Törnblom, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Magnus Simrén, Jan Tack
OBJECTIVES: The relationship between symptom improvement (SI) and acceleration of gastric emptying (GE) for different drugs used in the treatment of idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis is uncertain. In this paper we examined the study-specific correlations between SI and GE, and we performed a meta-regression analysis of the association across multiple studies. METHODS: The MEDLINE database (1,946 to present) was searched, and only controlled trials or trials with an established effective comparator that compared both SI and GE were included...
September 2013: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Pushpjeet Kanwar, Kris V Kowdley
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are highly prevalent in the Western population. Their pathogenesis is closely linked to insulin resistance, which serves as a therapeutic target for the management of these conditions. This review article reviews the research supporting the influence of MetS on NASH and includes studies supporting their similar epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment.
May 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
Umur S Hatipoglu, Loutfi S Aboussouan
Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)--characterized by shortness of breath, increased sputum production, increased purulence, or a combination of these signs--are costly and can have major impacts on the patient's health. Corticosteroids, antibiotics, and bronchodilators are the cornerstones of prevention and therapy, with mucolytics, oxygen supplementation, and ventilatory support also advisable for some patients. Treatment should be evidence-based and tailored to the patient's history and present needs...
April 2016: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Frederik N Buijs, Luis León-Mercado, Mara Guzmán-Ruiz, Natali N Guerrero-Vargas, Francisco Romo-Nava, Ruud M Buijs
Circadian rhythms are generated by the autonomous circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and clock genes that are present in all tissues. The SCN times these peripheral clocks, as well as behavioral and physiological processes. Recent studies show that frequent violations of conditions set by our biological clock, such as shift work, jet lag, sleep deprivation, or simply eating at the wrong time of the day, may have deleterious effects on health. This infringement, also known as circadian desynchronization, is associated with chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and psychiatric disorders...
May 2016: Physiology
Fanny W Ko, Ka Pang Chan, David S Hui, John R Goddard, Janet G Shaw, David W Reid, Ian A Yang
The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations...
October 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
S T Gohy, C Hupin, C Pilette, M Z Ladjemi
The respiratory epithelium plays a critical role for the maintenance of airway integrity and defense against inhaled particles. Physical barrier provided by apical junctions and mucociliary clearance clears inhaled pathogens, allergens or toxics, to prevent continuous stimulation of adaptive immune responses. The "chemical barrier", consisting of several anti-microbial factors such as lysozyme and lactoferrin, constitutes another protective mechanism of the mucosae against external aggressions before adaptive immune response starts...
April 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
A G Clooney, C N Bernstein, W D Leslie, K Vagianos, M Sargent, E J Laserna-Mendieta, M J Claesson, L E Targownik
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), though the mechanism is unclear. PPI induced alterations to the gut microbiome may facilitate the emergence of CDI, though the effects of PPIs on gut microbiota are not well characterised. [Correction added on 10 March 2016, after first online publication: microflora has been changed to microbiota throughout the article.] AIM: To compare the faecal microbiomes of long-term PPI users to those with no history of PPI use...
May 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Hernando Gomez, John A Kellum
The concentration of hydrogen ions is regulated in biologic solutions. There are currently 3 recognized approaches to assess changes in acid base status. First is the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, also called the physiologic approach, which uses the relationship between HCO3(-) and Pco2; the second is the standard base excess approach based on the Van Slyke equation. The third approach is the quantitative or Stewart approach, which uses the strong ion difference and the total weak acids. This article explores the origins of the current concepts framing the existing methods to analyze acid base balance...
October 2015: Critical Care Clinics
Jocelyn James, Iris W Liou
Chronic liver disease results from a wide range of conditions, for which individual management is beyond the scope of this article. General education, counseling, and harm reduction practices are important to the primary care of these patients, as are monitoring for cirrhosis and management of its complications. For patients with advanced liver disease, comprehensive care includes considering referral for liver transplantation, educating and empowering patients to prioritize goals of care, and optimizing symptom relief...
September 2015: Medical Clinics of North America
Anthony Lopez, Patrice Cacoub, Iain C Macdougall, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease...
February 27, 2016: Lancet
Paul Drawz, Mahboob Rahman
This issue provides a clinical overview of chronic kidney disease, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and patient information. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including ACP Smart Medicine and MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic from these primary sources in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of science writers and physician writers...
June 2, 2015: Annals of Internal Medicine
F R Bruniera, F M Ferreira, L R M Saviolli, M R Bacci, D Feder, M da Luz Gonçalves Pedreira, M A Sorgini Peterlini, L A Azzalis, V B Campos Junqueira, F L A Fonseca
OBJECTIVE: Vancomycin (VCM) is a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus orientalis. Widely used in hospitals, it is indicated to fight severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, especially with the advent of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), penicillin-resistant pneumococci among others. Furthermore, it is indicated for the treatment of patients allergic to penicillins and cephalosporins. Dose recommendations, dilution rates and types of infusion are controversial and also result in toxic effects...
February 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Mary Ansley Buffington, Kenneth Abreo
Hyponatremia is the most frequently occurring electrolyte abnormality and can lead to life-threatening complications. This disorder may be present on admission to the intensive care setting or develop during hospitalization as a result of treatment or multiple comorbidities. Patients with acute hyponatremia or symptomatic chronic hyponatremia will likely require treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU). Immediate treatment with hypertonic saline is needed to reduce the risk of permanent neurologic injury...
May 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Anthony Yiu-Ho Woo, Ying Song, Rui-Ping Xiao, Weizhong Zhu
The body is constantly faced with a dynamic requirement for blood flow. The heart is able to respond to these changing needs by adjusting cardiac output based on cues emitted by circulating catecholamine levels. Cardiac β-adrenoceptors transduce the signal produced by catecholamine stimulation via Gs proteins to their downstream effectors to increase heart contractility. During heart failure, cardiac output is insufficient to meet the needs of the body; catecholamine levels are high and β-adrenoceptors become hyperstimulated...
December 2015: British Journal of Pharmacology
Phuong-Mai T Pham, Phuong-Anh T Pham, Son V Pham, Phuong-Truc T Pham, Phuong-Thu T Pham, Phuong-Chi T Pham
BACKGROUND: Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a complication generally associated with overly rapid correction of hyponatremia. Traditionally, nephrologists have been trained to focus solely on limiting the correction rate. However, there is accumulating evidence to suggest that the prevention of ODS is beyond achieving slow correction rates. METHODS: We (1) reviewed the literature for glial intracellular protective alterations during hyperosmolar stress, a state presumed equivalent to the rapid correction of hyponatremia, and (2) analyzed all available hyponatremia-associated ODS cases from PubMed for possible contributing factors including correction rates and concurrent metabolic disturbances involving hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, and/or hypoglycemia...
June 2015: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Anna M Seekatz, Vincent B Young
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading health care-associated illness. Both human and animal models have demonstrated the importance of the gut microbiota's capability of providing colonization resistance against C. difficile. Risk factors for disease development include antibiotic use, which disrupts the gut microbiota, leading to the loss of colonization resistance and subsequent CDI. Identification of the specific microbes capable of restoring this function remains elusive. Future studies directed at how microbial communities influence the metabolic environment may help elucidate the role of the microbiota in disease development...
October 2014: Journal of Clinical Investigation
R Kishen, Patrick M Honoré, R Jacobs, O Joannes-Boyau, E De Waele, J De Regt, V Van Gorp, W Boer, Hd Spapen
Acid-base disorders are common in the critically ill. Most of these disorders do not cause harm and are self-limiting after appropriate resuscitation and management. Unfortunately, clinicians tend to think about an acid-base disturbance as a "disease" and spend long hours effectively treating numbers rather than the patient. Moreover, a sizable number of intensive-care physicians experience difficulties in interpreting the significance of or understanding the etiology of certain forms of acid-base disequilibria...
2014: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Inge Roggen, Gerlant van Berlaer, Frans Gordts, Denis Pierard, Ives Hubloue
INTRODUCTION: Centor criteria (fever >38.5°C, swollen, tender anterior cervical lymph nodes, tonsillar exudate and absence of cough) are an algorithm to assess the probability of group A β haemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) as the origin of sore throat, developed for adults. We wanted to evaluate the correlation between Centor criteria and presence of GABHS in children with sore throat admitted to our paediatric emergency department (PED). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
2013: BMJ Open
2016-04-28 13:44:23
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