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Infectious diseases

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228 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Elvis Amao Internal Medicine , Cardiology and infectious diseases
Kenneth N Olivier, David E Griffith, Gina Eagle, John P McGinnis Ii, Liza Micioni, Keith Liu, Charles L Daley, Kevin L Winthrop, Stephen Ruoss, Doreen J Addrizzo-Harris, Patrick A Flume, Daniel Dorgan, Matthias Salathe, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Renu Gupta, Richard J Wallace
Rationale Lengthy multi-drug, toxic, and low efficacy regimens limit management of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease. Objective This phase 2 study investigated efficacy and safety of liposomal amikacin for inhalation (LAI) in treatment-refractory PNTM (Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC] or Mycobacterium abscessus) disease. Methods During the double-blind phase, patients were randomly assigned to LAI (590 mg) or placebo once daily added to their multi-drug regimen for 84 days. Both groups could receive open-label LAI for 84 additional days...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Jean-Francois Timsit, Elie Azoulay, Carole Schwebel, Pierre Emmanuel Charles, Muriel Cornet, Bertrand Souweine, Kada Klouche, Samir Jaber, Jean-Louis Trouillet, Fabrice Bruneel, Laurent Argaud, Joel Cousson, Ferhat Meziani, Didier Gruson, Adeline Paris, Michael Darmon, Maité Garrouste-Orgeas, Jean-Christophe Navellou, Arnaud Foucrier, Bernard Allaouchiche, Vincent Das, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Stéphane Ruckly, Daniele Maubon, Vincent Jullien, Michel Wolff
Importance: Although frequently used in treating intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sepsis, empirical antifungal therapy, initiated for suspected fungal infection, has not been shown to improve outcome. Objective: To determine whether empirical micafungin reduces invasive fungal infection (IFI)-free survival at day 28. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study of 260 nonneutropenic, nontransplanted, critically ill patients with ICU-acquired sepsis, multiple Candida colonization, multiple organ failure, exposed to broad-spectrum antibacterial agents, and enrolled between July 2012 and February 2015 in 19 French ICUs...
October 5, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Takuya Sadahira, Koichiro Wada, Motoo Araki, Ayano Ishii, Atsushi Takamoto, Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Masami Watanabe, Toyohiko Watanabe, Yasutomo Nasu, Hiromi Kumon
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolone-non-susceptible Escherichia coli isolated from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis are a matter of increasing concern. Cefditoren pivoxil is an oral, β-lactamase-stable, extended-spectrum cephalosporin that is effective against fluoroquinolone-non-susceptible bacteria. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical and microbiological efficacies of cefditoren pivoxil against acute uncomplicated cystitis and to determine the optimal duration of cefditoren pivoxil treatment...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
L C J White, S Lanza, J Middleton, K Hewitt, L Freire-Moran, C Edge, M Nicholls, J Rajan-Iyer, J A Cassell
Commonly thought of as a disease of poverty and overcrowding in resource-poor settings globally, scabies is also an important public health issue in residential care facilities for the elderly (RCFE) in high-income countries such as the UK. We compared and contrasted current local Health Protection Team (HPT) guidelines for the management of scabies outbreaks in RCFE throughout England. We performed content analysis on 20 guidelines, and used this to create a quantitative report of their variation in key dimensions...
November 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Klára Piukovics, Gabriella Terhes, Tímea Gurbity-Pálfi, Ágnes Bereczki, Ferenc Rárosi, Judit Deák, Zita Borbényi, Edit Urbán
Because of the widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs, CMV infection is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancies worldwide. The aim of the study was to retrospectively analyse the epidemiology of CMV infection in haematological patients. Between 2008 and 2014, 1238 quantitative CMV DNA detections from plasma specimens were performed. These specimens were collected from 271 patients with haematological malignancy. Patients were grouped on the basis of underlying diseases (lymphoid and myeloid malignancies and other haematological diseases)...
October 11, 2016: Annals of Hematology
(no author information available yet)
Background Data from studies in nonhuman primates suggest that the triple monoclonal antibody cocktail ZMapp is a promising immune-based treatment for Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods Beginning in March 2015, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial of ZMapp plus the current standard of care as compared with the current standard of care alone in patients with EVD that was diagnosed in West Africa by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay. Eligible patients of any age were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the current standard of care or the current standard of care plus three intravenous infusions of ZMapp (50 mg per kilogram of body weight, administered every third day)...
October 13, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Thomas Harder, Cornelius Remschmidt, Sebastian Haller, Tim Eckmanns, Ole Wichmann
BACKGROUND: Given limited resources and time constraints, the use of existing systematic reviews (SR) for the development of evidence-based public health recommendations has become increasingly important. Recently, a five-step approach for identifying, analyzing, appraising and using existing SRs based on recent guidance by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) was proposed within the Project on a Framework for Rating Evidence in Public Health (PRECEPT). However, case studies are needed to test whether this approach is useful, what challenges arise and how problems can be solved...
October 11, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Aniruddha Agarwal, Sarakshi Mahajan, Moncef Khairallah, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Amod Gupta, Vishali Gupta
Intraocular tuberculosis presents a diagnostic challenge because of its protean clinical manifestations. Thus, it becomes imperative to distinguish chorioretinal inflammation due to tuberculosis from other infectious as well as non-infectious posterior uveitis since the clinical manifestations of these entities may be quite similar. With advancing technology, a number of novel imaging modalities are available today that enable in vivo near-histologic assessment of the chorioretinal tissue, greatly aiding the clinician in establishing a diagnosis and monitoring the therapeutic response of tubercular lesions...
October 11, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Mohammad Reza Hayeri, Pouya Ziai, Monda L Shehata, Oleg M Teytelboym, Brady K Huang
Infection of the musculoskeletal system can be associated with high mortality and morbidity if not promptly and accurately diagnosed. These infections are generally diagnosed and managed clinically; however, clinical and laboratory findings sometimes lack sensitivity and specificity, and a definite diagnosis may not be possible. In uncertain situations, imaging is frequently performed to confirm the diagnosis, evaluate the extent of the disease, and aid in treatment planning. In particular, cross-sectional imaging, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, provides detailed anatomic information in the evaluation of soft tissues due to their inherent high spatial and contrast resolution...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
B Lipový, H Řihová, M Hanslianová, I Suchánek, P Brychta
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an autoimmune disease which is usually caused by a reaction to drugs. It affects mainly the skin and mucous membranes. It is a rare condition with a high mortality rate. Fatal outcomes in patients with TEN are mostly due to infectious complications. As antimicrobial drugs may induce this syndrome, the management of this condition is very complicated. Tigecycline is still a relatively new antibiotic approved in Europe for use in complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated skin and soft tissue infections...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Paul Verweij, Sue Lyon
Report from the 26th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID 2016), 9-12 April Amsterdam, The Netherlands Invasive fungal infections are a major threat to the lives of the increasing number of immunocompromized patients, but neutropenic hemato-oncology patients are at especially high risk. Since effective antifungal treatment and prophylaxis are critical to improve survival in these patients, the emergence of antifungal drug resistance has become an increasing cause of concern...
October 3, 2016: Future Microbiology
Jorge Cervantes
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest infectious diseases that affected humankind. A quintessential social disease, TB remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases, with still a high mortality and burden of disease. Social representations of TB focus on aspects associated to feelings and manifestations awakened by the disease, sometimes reinforcing stigmas and prejudices about the way of perceiving TB. TB is a historic disease now reborn with a deeper social stigma. Despite the modest reduction in TB incidence worldwide, its incidence is still rising in certain crisis-affected populations like refugees, and in those bearing high prevalence of HIV, persisting poverty, especially in the developing world...
October 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Elena A Usacheva, Jian-P Jin, Lance R Peterson
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant healthcare concern worldwide, and C. difficile is recognised as the most frequent aetiological agent of infectious healthcare-associated diarrhoea in hospitalised adult patients. The clinical manifestation of CDI varies from self-limited diarrhoea to life-threatening colitis. Such a broad disease spectrum can be explained by the impact of host factors. Currently, a complex CDI aetiology is widely accepted, acknowledging the interaction between bacteria and the host...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Katrine M Johannesen, Uffe Bodtger
This is a systematic review of cases with Lemierre's syndrome (LS) in the past 5 years. LS is characterized by sepsis often evolving after a sore throat or tonsillitis and then complicated by various septic emboli and thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Symptoms include sepsis, pain, and/or swelling in the throat or neck, as well as respiratory symptoms. Laboratory findings show elevated infectious parameters and radiological findings show thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and emboli in the lungs or other organs...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
Maria K Abril, Adam S Barnett, Kara Wegermann, Eric Fountain, Andrew Strand, Benjamin M Heyman, Britton A Blough, Aparna C Swaminathan, Batu Sharma-Kuinkel, Felicia Ruffin, Barbara D Alexander, Chad M McCall, Sylvia F Costa, Murat O Arcasoy, David K Hong, Timothy A Blauwkamp, Michael Kertesz, Vance G Fowler, Bryan D Kraft
We report the case of a 60-year-old man with septic shock due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus that was diagnosed in 24 hours by a novel whole-genome next-generation sequencing assay. This technology shows great promise in identifying fastidious pathogens, and, if validated, it has profound implications for infectious disease diagnosis.
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Simon Blankley, Christine M Graham, Jacob Turner, Matthew P R Berry, Chloe I Bloom, Zhaohui Xu, Virginia Pascual, Jacques Banchereau, Damien Chaussabel, Ronan Breen, George Santis, Derek M Blankenship, Marc Lipman, Anne O'Garra
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a leading cause of infectious death worldwide. Gene-expression microarray studies profiling the blood transcriptional response of tuberculosis (TB) patients have been undertaken in order to better understand the host immune response as well as to identify potential biomarkers of disease. To date most of these studies have focused on pulmonary TB patients with gene-expression profiles of extra-pulmonary TB patients yet to be compared to those of patients with pulmonary TB or sarcoidosis...
2016: PloS One
Haidar M Abdul-Muhsin, Nicholas J Jakob, Ryan M McLemore, Sean B McAdams, Mitchell R Humphreys
INTRODUCTION: To examine the infectious outcomes after the insertion of the temporary prostatic urethral stent (TPUS) in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between November 2007 and September 2012, ninety TPUS were used in 33 patients with BPH at our institution. All patients had negative urine cultures prior to the first stent insertion. TPUS were sent for cultures at time of removal or exchange. Stents were removed at the time of definite surgical intervention, at 4-6 weeks, or when patients elected another course of treatment...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Urology
Łukasz Hołubiuk, Jacek Imiela
Helicobacter pylori infection has accompanied man for thousands of years. In some infected patients, a complex and dynamic pathogen-host reaction triggers pathogenic pathways resulting in development, inter alia, of atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (both gastric and duodenal), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Large-scale eradication therapy is associated with a rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, gut flora composition disturbances, and increased risk of development, inter alia, of paediatric infectious diarrhoeas, atopic diseases, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma...
2016: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Sunuraj Sivarajan, Siddharudha Shivalli, Debomallya Bhuyan, Michael Mawlong, Rittwick Barman
BACKGROUND: India is an integral component of "tsutsugamushi triangle" which depicts a part of the globe endemic to scrub typhus. Owing to frequent outbreaks witnessed in different parts of the country in the recent past, scrub typhus is described as a re-emerging infectious disease in India. The present study aimed to study the clinical and paraclinical profile, complications and predictors of outcome among 90 cases of scrub typhus diagnosed in a hospital of north-eastern India from Sept 2011 to Aug 2012...
October 5, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
2016-10-12 22:08:00
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