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Infectious diseases

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314 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Elvis Amao Internal Medicine , Cardiology and infectious diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979047/statin-therapy-and-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-reduction-in-hiv-infected-individuals-after-acute-coronary-syndrome-results-from-the-pacs-hiv-lipids-substudy
#1
Franck Boccara, Joe Miantezila Basilua, Murielle Mary-Krause, Sylvie Lang, Emmanuel Teiger, Philippe Gabriel Steg, Christian Funck-Brentano, Pierre-Marie Girard, Dominique Costagliola, Ariel Cohen, Marguerite Guiguet
: Knowledge about lipid interventions in secondary prevention in HIV-infected individuals is limited; studies are sparse. METHODS: A prospective observational multicenter study enrolled 282 patients on statin 1 month after first acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (95 HIV-infected individuals, 187 HIV-uninfected). Data on fasting lipids (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], non-HDL-C, triglycerides, TC/HDL-C ratio) were collected over 3 years...
January 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225289/-treatment-of-hcv-genotype-2%C3%A2-infection
#2
Petr Husa, Petr Husa
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. AIMS: Retrospectively evaluate the results of therapy of patients with genotype 2 HCV treated during last 15 years at the Department of Infectious Diseases University Hospital Brno and Faculty of Medicine Masaryk University Brno, Czech Republic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 15 patients (9 men, 6 women, mean age 54.73 ± 13.83 years, median 54 years) with chronic genotype 2 infection were treated at in our department during last 15 years...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215487/executive-summary-of-management-of-prosthetic-joint-infections-clinical-practice-guidelines-by-the-spanish-society-of-infectious-diseases-and-clinical-microbiology-seimc
#3
Javier Ariza, Javier Cobo, Josu Baraia-Etxaburu, Natividad de Benito, Guillermo Bori, Javier Cabo, Pablo Corona, Jaime Esteban, Juan Pablo Horcajada, Jaime Lora-Tamayo, Oscar Murillo, Julián Palomino, Jorge Parra, Carlos Pigrau, José Luis Del Pozo, Melchor Riera, Dolores Rodríguez, Mar Sánchez-Somolinos, Alex Soriano, M Dolores Del Toro, Basilio de la Torre
The incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is expected to increase in the coming years. PJI has serious consequences for patients, and high costs for the health system. The complexity of these infections makes it necessary to organize the vast quantity of information published in the last several years. The indications for the choice of a given surgical strategy and the corresponding antimicrobial therapy are specifically reviewed. The authors selected clinically relevant questions and then reviewed the available literature in order to give recommendations according to a pre-determined level of scientific evidence...
February 16, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544488/hepatitis-c-virus-ns3-4a-protease-inhibitors
#4
REVIEW
John A McCauley, Michael T Rudd
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health issue around the world and HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitors have been the focus of intensive research for the past 20 years. From the first identification of substrate-derived peptide inhibitors to the complex, macrocyclic compounds, including paritaprevir and grazoprevir, that are currently available, the field has used structure-based design to confront the issues of potency, resistance and pharmacokinetics. Numerous breakthrough structures from a multitude of companies have led to compounds that are now key components of combination therapies with cure rates of >90%...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570126/chronic-hepatitis-b-immune-pathogenesis-and-emerging-immunotherapeutics
#5
REVIEW
Kyong-Mi Chang, Mengfei Liu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) evades, subverts, activates and regulates host immune components, thereby impacting its natural history and disease pathogenesis. Recent advances in our understanding of immune interactions in chronic viral infection and tumor therapy are applicable to chronic hepatitis B (CHB). With recent successes of tumor immunotherapy, there is a renewed interest in exploring immunotherapeutics in achieving sustained and functional cure of chronic hepatitis B. In this review, we discuss aspects of host innate and adaptive immune regulatory and pathogenic responses relevant for HBV infection...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570127/antiviral-therapies-on-the-horizon-for-influenza
#6
REVIEW
Lieve Naesens, Annelies Stevaert, Evelien Vanderlinden
Adequate response to severe influenza infections or pandemic outbreaks requires two complementary strategies: preventive vaccination and antiviral therapy. The existing influenza drugs, M2 blockers and neuraminidase inhibitors, show modest clinical efficacy and established or potential resistance. In the past three years, several new agents have entered the clinical pipeline and already yielded some promising data from Phase 2 trials. For two main categories, that is, the broadly neutralizing anti-hemagglutinin antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors of the viral polymerase complex, crystallography was instrumental to guide drug development...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639371/antiviral-strategies-to-eliminate-hepatitis-b-virus-covalently-closed-circular-dna-cccdna
#7
REVIEW
Peter Revill, Stephen Locarnini
It has been over 50 years since the discovery of hepatitis B virus (HBV), yet 240 million people worldwide live with chronic HBV, resulting in up to 800000 deaths per year. A cure is yet to be achieved, due largely to a viral nuclear reservoir of transcriptionally active covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). While current antiviral therapies are effective at reducing viral replication, they have no impact on the existing cccDNA reservoir. Identifying mechanisms to either eliminate (complete cure) or inactivate (functional cure) HBV cccDNA are a major focus of HBV research worldwide...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922851/future-prospects-for-new-vaccines-against-sexually-transmitted-infections
#8
Sami L Gottlieb, Christine Johnston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update on the need, development status, and important next steps for advancing development of vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including herpes simplex virus (HSV), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea), Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia), and Treponema pallidum (syphilis). RECENT FINDINGS: Global estimates suggest that more than a million STIs are acquired every day, and many new and emerging challenges to STI control highlight the critical need for development of new STI vaccines...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984245/bacterial-pneumonia-as-an-influenza-complication
#9
Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Frank van Someren Gréve, Marcus J Schultz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pathogenesis and impact of coinfection, in particular bacterial coinfection, in influenza are incompletely understood. This review summarizes results from studies on bacterial coinfection in the recent pandemic influenza outbreak. RECENT FINDINGS: Systemic immune mechanisms play a key role in the development of coinfection based on the complexity of the interaction of the host and the viral and bacterial pathogens. Several studies were performed to determine the point prevalence of bacterial coinfection in influenza...
December 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030371/antibiotic-dosing-for-multidrug-resistant-pathogen-pneumonia
#10
Mohd H Abdul-Aziz, Jeffrey Lipman, Jason A Roberts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nosocomial pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens is increasing in the ICU, and these infections are negatively associated with patient outcomes. Optimization of antibiotic dosing has been suggested as a key intervention to improve clinical outcomes in patients with nosocomial pneumonia. This review describes the recent pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data relevant to antibiotic dosing for nosocomial pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: Optimal antibiotic treatment is challenging in critically ill patients with nosocomial pneumonia; most dosing guidelines do not consider the altered physiology and illness severity associated with severe lung infections...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067677/the-microbiome-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#11
Yudong Yin, Peter Hountras, Richard G Wunderink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Discovery of a normal lung microbiome requires reassessment of our concepts of HAP/VAP pathogenesis and has important implications for clinical diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Changes in the microbiome of dental plaque are associated with increased risk of HAP/VAP. A transition to a lung microbiome enriched with gut flora is found in ARDS with an increased inflammatory response in patients with this change in microbial flora. A characteristic microbiome pattern of higher amounts of bacterial DNA, lower community diversity, and greater relative abundance of a single species characterize pneumonia and occasionally identify bacteria not found in culture...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079629/duration-of-pneumonia-therapy-and-the-role-of-biomarkers
#12
Katerina Kaziani, Adamantia Sotiriou, George Dimopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide phenomenon that is threatening public health. Lower respiratory infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity that contribute to antibiotic consumption and thus the emergence of multidrug-resistant microbial strains. The goal of shortening antibiotic regimens' duration in common bacterial infections has been prioritized by antimicrobial stewardship programs as an action against this problem. RECENT FINDINGS: Data coming from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews support the shortening of antimicrobial regimens in community-acquired, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079631/the-role-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#13
Matteo Bassetti, Alessia Carnelutti, Elda Righi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major public health issue worldwide over the last years. MRSA is frequently implicated in the development of skin and soft tissue infections, leading to significant increases in morbidity, mortality and overall healthcare costs. RECENT FINDINGS: In order to face the threat of MRSA, major changes in clinical management of skin and soft tissue infections are required. The identification of populations at risk for the acquisition of infections due to MRSA, together with the improvement of the diagnostic techniques, is paramount...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118218/obesity-and-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-how-to-optimize-antimicrobial-usage-for-prevention-and-treatment
#14
Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are prevalent in the obese population, with rising trend expected. Although numerous antibiotics are available for the prevention and treatment of SSTIs, their characterization in obese patients is not a regulatory mandate. Consequently, information that carries importance for optimizing the dosing regimen in the obese population may not be readily available. This review focuses on the most recent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data on this topic with attention to cefazolin for surgical prophylaxis as well as antibiotics that are active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
January 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118219/viral-meningitis-current-issues-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#15
Fiona McGill, Michael J Griffiths, Tom Solomon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to give an overview of viral meningitis and then focus in on some of the areas of uncertainty in diagnostics, treatment and outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Bacterial meningitis has been declining in incidence over recent years. Over a similar time period molecular diagnostics have increasingly been used. Because of both of these developments viral meningitis is becoming relatively more important. However, there are still many unanswered questions...
January 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118220/respiratory-pathogen-panels-in-the-hospital-good-or-unnecessary
#16
Kelly A Cawcutt, Paul D Fey, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to review the epidemiology of respiratory viral infections and the strengths and limitations of multiplex respiratory pathogen panels that are currently available along with their respective features and differences. RECENT FINDINGS: We give particular emphasis to the pathogens included on each test and evaluate their performance in the hospital setting. SUMMARY: We conclude with a discussion on the evidence for the clinical utility of respiratory pathogen multiplex panels in hospitalized patients, including the potential for coinfection with viral and bacterial pathogens...
January 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118221/prevention-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#17
Gianluigi Li Bassi, Tarek Senussi, Eli Aguilera Xiol
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an iatrogenic disease. Here we appraise recent advancements in the development and testing of strategies to prevent VAP. We also provide recommendations on the most promising interventions that should be applied. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last year, preventive bundles have consistently let to a reduction of VAP. A few trials on endotracheal tubes (ETTs) with novel cuffs failed to translate positive bench findings into clinical settings...
January 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134678/what-is-new-in-the-management-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-2016
#18
Garyphallia Poulakou, Efthymia Giannitsioti, Sotirios Tsiodras
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are the most frequent infectious cause of referrals to emergency departments and hospital admissions in developed world, contributing to significant morbidity and healthcare expenditures. We sought to review recent literature covering epidemiology and management of SSTIs. RECENT FINDINGS: Incidence trends of SSTIs were increasing worldwide with Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci predominating and methicillin-resistant S...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134679/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-intracellular-bacteria
#19
Hans Helmut Niller, Roland Masa, Annamária Venkei, Sándor Mészáros, Janos Minarovits
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We wished to overview recent data on a subset of epigenetic changes elicited by intracellular bacteria in human cells. Reprogramming the gene expression pattern of various host cells may facilitate bacterial growth, survival, and spread. RECENT FINDINGS: DNA-(cytosine C5)-methyltransferases of Mycoplasma hyorhinis targeting cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis methyltransferase targeting non-CpG sites methylated the host cell DNA and altered the pattern of gene expression...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177961/new-concepts-in-understanding-latent-tuberculosis
#20
Claire E Dodd, Larry S Schlesinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis, is a prominent global health threat because of the enormous reservoir of subclinical latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Current diagnostic approaches are limited in their ability to predict reactivation risk and LTBI is recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment. The present review summarizes recent advances in our ability to detect, treat and model LTBI as well as our understanding of bacterial physiology during latency...
February 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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