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Infectious diseases

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346 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Elvis Amao Internal Medicine , Cardiology and infectious diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306558/monitoring-of-the-physical-exam-in-sepsis
#1
Radu Postelnicu, Laura Evans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monitoring of mental status and peripheral circulatory changes can be accomplished noninvasively in patients in the ICU. Emphasis on physical examination in conditions such as sepsis have gained increased attention as these evaluations can often serve as a surrogate marker for short-term treatment efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Sepsis associated encephalopathy and mental status changes correlate with worse prognosis in patients. Evaluation of peripheral circulation has been shown to be a convenient, easily accessible, and accurate marker for prognosis in patients with septic shock...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317570/oral-viral-infections-diagnosis-and-management
#2
REVIEW
Earl Clarkson, Fatima Mashkoor, Saif Abdulateef
This article focuses on common viral infections in the oral cavity with associated systemic manifestations. Discussed are the clinical features, histopathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of viral infections in oral cavity. This will be a useful aid for general practitioners and other dental personnel wanting to expand their pathologic knowledge. This article discusses herpes simplex, varicella zoster, mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus, enteroviruses, rubeola, rubella, mumps, and human papillomavirus...
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318191/a-fatal-clostridium-perfringens-infection-with-hemolysis-after-chemotherapy-in-an-adolescent
#3
Musa G Kukul, Kısmet Ciki, Eda Karadag-Oncel, Ali B Cengiz, Baris Kuskonmaz, Betul Tavil, Selman Kesici
Gas gangrene, clostridial myonecrosis, is one of the most serious infectious diseases, characterized by rapidly progressive destruction of deep soft tissues and production of gas within the tissues. We presented a case of fatal spontaneous gas gangrene due to Clostridium perfringens in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during remission induction chemotherapy phase.
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298472/clinical-manifestations-treatment-and-diagnosis-of-tropheryma-whipplei-infections
#4
REVIEW
Ruben A V Dolmans, C H Edwin Boel, Miangela M Lacle, Johannes G Kusters
Whipple's disease is a rare infectious disease that can be fatal if left untreated. The disease is caused by infection with Tropheryma whipplei, a bacterium that may be more common than was initially assumed. Most patients present with nonspecific symptoms, and as routine cultivation of the bacterium is not feasible, it is difficult to diagnose this infection. On the other hand, due to the generic symptoms, infection with this bacterium is actually quite often in the differential diagnosis. The gold standard for diagnosis used to be periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining of duodenal biopsy specimens, but PAS staining has a poor specificity and sensitivity...
April 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114931/procalcitonin-guided-diagnosis-and-antibiotic-stewardship-revisited
#5
REVIEW
Ramon Sager, Alexander Kutz, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
Several controlled clinical studies have evaluated the potential of the infection biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) to improve the diagnostic work-up of patients with bacterial infections and its influence on decisions regarding antibiotic therapy. Most research has focused on lower respiratory tract infections and critically ill sepsis patients. A clinical utility for PCT has also been found for patients with urinary tract infections, postoperative infections, meningitis, and patients with acute heart failure with possible superinfection (i...
January 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276227/-usefulness-of-biomarkers-to-predict-bacteraemia-in-patients-with-infection-in-the-emergency-department
#6
REVIEW
A Julián-Jiménez, F J Candel, J González-Del Castillo
Between all patients attended in the Emergency Department (ED), 14.3% have an infectious disease diagnosis. Blood cultures (BC) are obtained in 14.6% of patients and have a profitability of 20%, whereas 1% are considered as contaminated and 1-3% of positive cultures correspond to discharge patients ("hidden bacteraemia"). The highest number of confirmed bacteraemias comes from the samples of patients with urinary tract infections, followed by community-acquired pneumonia. The suspicion and detection of bacteraemia have an important diagnostic and prognostic significance and could modify some important making-decisions (admission, BC request, administration of appropriate and early antimicrobial, etc)...
March 8, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276228/-strategies-to-optimize-the-use-of-antibiotics-in-hospitals
#7
REVIEW
J Gómez, C Bonillo, L H Navarro, A Hernández, E García Vázquez
The inadequate use of antibiotics is a clinical reality we are faced with day by day. The great peculiarity of this group of drugs is the influence they have not only on the patients and at the time of their use, but also of future infections and the general population, by favoring alterations in the resistance patterns of the bacterial microflora that colonize people. It is our obligation as experts in infectious diseases to work on improving the use of antimicrobials.
March 9, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281925/infectious-prions-and-proteinopathies
#8
Rona M Barron
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused by an infectious agent that is thought to consist of only misfolded and aggregated prion protein (PrP). Unlike conventional micro-organisms, the agent spreads and propagates by binding to and converting normal host PrP into the abnormal conformer, increasing the infectious titre. Synthetic prions, composed of refolded fibrillar forms of recombinant PrP (rec-PrP) have been generated to address whether PrP aggregates alone are indeed infectious prions...
January 2, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283417/coexisting-infectious-diseases-on-admission-as-a-risk-factor-for-mechanical-ventilation-in-patients-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#9
Shinichiro Kobori, Tatsuhiko Kubo, Makoto Otani, Keiji Muramatsu, Yoshihisa Fujino, Hiroaki Adachi, Hiromasa Horiguchi, Kiyohide Fushimi, Shinya Matsuda
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate patient characteristics on admission to hospital that increase the risk of subsequent mechanical ventilation (MV) use for patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). METHODS: We extracted data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) database for 4132 GBS patients admitted to hospital. Clinical characteristics of GBS patients with and without MV were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of requirement for MV with coexisting infectious diseases, after adjustment for potential confounding variables, age, sex, hospital type, and ambulance transportation...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283821/significance-of-admission-hypoalbuminemia-in-acute-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#10
Andrea Morotti, Sandro Marini, Umme K Lena, Katherine Crawford, Kristin Schwab, Christina Kourkoulis, Alison M Ayres, M Edip Gurol, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg, Christopher D Anderson, Jonathan Rosand, Joshua N Goldstein
Low levels of serum albumin may increase the risk of infections and mortality in critically ill patients. We tested the hypothesis that admission hypoalbuminemia predicted infectious complications and poor outcome in subjects with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We analyzed a single center cohort of ICH patients collected between 1994 and 2015. Pneumonia, urinary tract infection and sepsis were retrospectively identified, according to validated criteria. Serum albumin was measured on admission and hypoalbuminemia was defined as total albumin ≤3...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284852/current-methodologies-on-genotyping-for-nosocomial-pathogen-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#11
REVIEW
Jian Miao, Lequn Chen, Jingwen Wang, Wenxin Wang, Dingqiang Chen, Lin Li, Bing Li, Yang Deng, Zhenbo Xu
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common pathogen in hospitals and the community. As the rapid spread and wide distribution of antimicrobial resistance (such as MRSA), treatment for infectious diseases caused by microorganisms has become a vital threat. Thus, early identification and genotyping are essential for further therapeutic treatment and the control of rapid expansion of MRSA. In combination with applications and data feedbacks, this review focused on the currently available molecular-based assays on their utility and performance for rapid typing of MRSA, especially on effective molecular-based methods...
March 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287416/novel-pharmacological-activity-of-artesunate-and-artemisinin-their-potential-as-anti-tubercular-agents
#12
Won Hyung Choi
Tuberculosis is a major infectious disease that globally causes the highest human mortality. From this aspect, this study was carried out to evaluate novel pharmacological activities/effects of artesunate and artemisinin causing anti-tubercular activity/effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The anti-Mtb activities/effects of artesunate and artemisinin were evaluated using different anti-Mtb indicator assays, such as the resazurin microtiter assay, the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system assay, and the Ogawa slant medium assay, as well as in vivo tests...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291632/necessity-of-carbapenem-use-when-prescribed-per-infectious-diseases-specialists
#13
Kellie J Goodlet, Michael D Nailor
Preauthorization strategies, including restricting broad-spectrum antimicrobials such as carbapenems to infectious diseases physicians (ID) are commonly employed by stewardship programs. The appropriateness, or "necessity" of empiric carbapenem therapy by ID, defined as an isolated organism sensitive to the carbapenem and resistant to cefepime, was evaluated over a 6month span and included 84 patients. Additionally, 30 patients followed by ID who were not prescribed a carbapenem until final susceptibilities were included as a definitive therapy group...
February 27, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263146/chordae-tendineae-rupture-in-the-united-states-trends-of-outcomes-costs-and-surgical-interventions
#14
Elena V Dolmatova, Kasra Moazzami, James Maher, Marc Klapholz, Justin Sambol, Alfonso H Waller
OBJECTIVES: To describe national trends in the incidence and outcomes of patients with chordae tendineae rupture (CTR). METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with CTR between 2000 and 2012 were identified in National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) registry. CTR was defined using validated International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification diagnosis (ICD9-CM) codes. Results: A total of 37,287 (14,833 mitral valve repair, 7780 mitral valve replacement) CTR cases were identified...
February 27, 2017: Heart Surgery Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263711/asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-embolic-events-in-infective-endocarditis-associated-factors-and-clinical-impact
#15
Thaíssa S Monteiro, Marcelo G Correia, Wilma F Golebiovski, Giovanna Ianini F Barbosa, Clara Weksler, Cristiane C Lamas
BACKGROUND: Embolic complications of infective endocarditis (IE) are common. The impact of asymptomatic embolism is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of emboli due to IE and to identify events associated with embolism. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of an endocarditis database, prospectively implemented, with a post hoc study driven by analysis of data on embolic events. Data was obtained from the International Collaboration Endocarditis (ICE) case report forms and additional information on embolic events and imaging reports were obtained from the medical records...
March 2, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261201/circulating-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-of-infectious-disease
#16
REVIEW
Carolina N Correia, Nicolas C Nalpas, Kirsten E McLoughlin, John A Browne, Stephen V Gordon, David E MacHugh, Ronan G Shaughnessy
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that regulate a wide range of biological processes by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. Thousands of these molecules have been discovered to date, and multiple miRNAs have been shown to coordinately fine-tune cellular processes key to organismal development, homeostasis, neurobiology, immunobiology, and control of infection. The fundamental regulatory role of miRNAs in a variety of biological processes suggests that differential expression of these transcripts may be exploited as a novel source of molecular biomarkers for many different disease pathologies or abnormalities...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261111/prostaglandin-e2-as-a-modulator-of-viral-infections
#17
REVIEW
Willem J Sander, Hester G O'Neill, Carolina H Pohl
Viral infections are a major cause of infectious diseases worldwide. Inflammation and the immune system are the major host defenses against these viral infection. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an eicosanoid generated by cyclooxygenases, has been shown to modulate inflammation and the immune system by regulating the expression/concentration of cytokines. The effect of PGE2 on viral infection and replication is cell type- and virus-family-dependent. The host immune system can be modulated by PGE2, with regards to immunosuppression, inhibition of nitrogen oxide (NO) production, inhibition of interferon (IFN) and apoptotic pathways, and inhibition of viral receptor expression...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258667/leprosy-one-of-the-many-forgotten-tropical-diseases
#18
Zofia Zwolska, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć
Leprosy or Hansen disease is caused by an infection of Mycobacterium leprae. The large number of undetected cases (2000-2012 years 4 mln people) remains a threat to the elimination of leprosy. Leprosy is an unheard in Poland and generally is considered a condition so "exotic" that it is not worth to spend more attention to it. Forgotten disease in developed countries still thrives in an environment of poor and uneducated. Regardless of the conclusion that in the 21st century none infectious disease should not be treated as a disease on the designated regions of the world, other than our own, it should be recalled that the M...
February 14, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249232/prevotella-intermedia-infection-causing-acute-and-complicated-aortitis-a-case-report
#19
C Boersma, L M Kampschreur, H Buter, B M Doorenbos, P Klinkert, G G Koning
INTRODUCTION: Aortitis is a general term that refers to all conditions involving an inflammation of the aortic wall. This case report describes the surgical approach of a patient with infectious and symptomatic aortitis caused by the rare vector Prevotella intermedia. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 44-year old male patient was admitted with fever and general discomfort after a period of sore throat in a non-teaching hospital. After two weeks he developed acute abdominal and back pain accompanied by sweating and elevated infection parameters...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249703/joint-document-of-the-spanish-society-of-infectious-diseases-and-clinical-microbiology-seimc-and-the-spanish-society-of-preventive-medicine-public-health-and-hygiene-sempsph-for-combating-antimicrobial-resistance
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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