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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)

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79 papers 0 to 25 followers Clostridium difficile infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588767/effectiveness-of-various-cleaning-and-disinfectant-products-on-clostridium-difficile-spores-of-pcr-ribotypes-010-014-and-027
#1
N Kenters, E G W Huijskens, S C J de Wit, I G J M Sanders, J van Rosmalen, E J Kuijper, A Voss
BACKGROUND: In healthcare facilities, Clostridium difficile infections spread by transmission of bacterial spores. Appropriate sporicidal disinfectants are needed to prevent development of clusters and outbreaks. In this study different cleaning/disinfecting wipes and sprays were tested for their efficacy against spores of distinctive C. difficile PCR ribotypes. METHODS: Four different products were tested; 1) hydrogen peroxide 1.5%; 2) glucoprotamin 1.5%; 3) a mixture of ethanol, propane and N-alkyl amino propyl glycine; and 4) a mixture of didecyldimonium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, polyaminopropyl, biguanide and dimenthicone as active ingredients...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591789/vancomycin-taper-and-pulsed-regimen-with-careful-follow-up-for-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
Benjamin D Sirbu, Melinda M Soriano, Carl Manzo, Jessica Lum, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson
We retrospectively studied vancomycin taper and pulse treatment on 100 consecutive, evaluable patients with recurrent C. difficile infection. Following taper to once-daily vancomycin dosing, 22 of 36 patients (61%) who received every-other-day (QOD) and 50 of 64 (81%) who received QOD followed by every-third-day dosing were cured (P = 0.03).
June 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435086/toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-colonization-among-hospitalised-adults-risk-factors-and-impact-on-survival
#3
Laura Behar, David Chadwick, Angela Dunne, Christopher I Jones, Claire Proctor, Chakravarthi Rajkumar, Paula Sharratt, Philip Stanley, Angela Whiley, Mark Wilks, Martin J Llewelyn
OBJECTIVES: To establish risk factors for Clostridium difficile colonization among hospitalized patients in England. METHODS: Patients admitted to elderly medicine wards at three acute hospitals in England were recruited to a prospective observational study. Participants were asked to provide a stool sample as soon as possible after enrolment and then weekly during their hospital stay. Samples were cultured for C. difficile before ribotyping and toxin detection by PCR...
July 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480289/community-environmental-contamination-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile
#4
M Jahangir Alam, Seth T Walk, Bradley T Endres, Eugenie Basseres, Mohammed Khaleduzzaman, Jonathan Amadio, William L Musick, Jennifer L Christensen, Julie Kuo, Robert L Atmar, Kevin W Garey
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection is often considered to result from recent acquisition of a C difficile isolate in a healthcare setting. However, C difficile spores can persist for long periods of time, suggesting a potentially large community environmental reservoir. The objectives of this study were to assess community environmental contamination of toxigenic C difficile and to assess strain distribution in environmental versus clinical isolates. METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, we collected community environmental swabs from homes and public areas in Houston, Texas to assess C difficile contamination...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486996/thirty-day-readmissions-after-hospitalization-for-clostridium-difficile-enteritis-measures-and-predictors-a-nationwide-analysis
#5
Abhinav Goyal, Kshitij Chatterjee, Chitra Punjabi, Janani Rangaswami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526314/efficacy-of-the-world-health-organization-recommended-handwashing-technique-and-a-modified-washing-technique-to-remove-clostridium-difficile-from-hands
#6
Philippe Deschênes, Frédéric Chano, Léa-Laurence Dionne, Didier Pittet, Yves Longtin
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended handwashing technique against Clostridium difficile is uncertain, and whether it could be improved remains unknown. Also, the benefit of using a structured technique instead of an unstructured technique remains unclear. METHODS: This study was a prospective comparison of 3 techniques (unstructured, WHO, and a novel technique dubbed WHO shortened repeated [WHO-SR] technique) to remove C difficile...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501926/an-outbreak-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-027-in-spain-risk-factors-for-recurrence-and-a-novel-treatment-strategy
#7
E Bouza, L Alcalá, M Marín, M Valerio, E Reigadas, P Muñoz, M González-Del Vecchio, V de Egea
An outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused by ribotype 027 (B1/NAP1) began in our hospital in November 2014, and produced 141 episodes in the following months. The aim of this study is to describe this outbreak, assess risk factors for recurrence of CDI-027 and to analyze the implementation of a novel treatment strategy. This is a prospective study of all patients with CDI-027, from November 2014 to November 2015. The epidemiological data were collected daily for each patient. We compared clinical characteristics and treatment between patients with and without recurrence of CDI-027...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386820/oral-teicoplanin-as-an-alternative-first-line-regimen-in-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-elderly-patients-a-case-series
#8
Benjamin Davido, Céline Leplay, Frédérique Bouchand, Aurélien Dinh, Maryvonne Villart, Jean-Laurent Le Quintrec, Laurent Teillet, Jérôme Salomon, Hugues Michelon
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients are more susceptible to Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Despite existing guidelines, there is no specific treatment for CDI in geriatrics. Vancomycin is commonly used in the treatment of CDI. Teicoplanin is an alternative glycopeptide which recently received marketing authorization approval for CDI in Europe. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the potential interest of oral teicoplanin and assess whether such treatment could potentially become an alternative treatment in mild to severe CDIs in elderly patients...
April 6, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404671/update-on-antimicrobial-resistance-in-clostridium-difficile-resistance-mechanisms-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#9
REVIEW
Zhong Peng, Dazhi Jin, Hyeun Bum Kim, Charles W Stratton, Bin Wu, Yi-Wei Tang, Xingmin Sun
Oral antibiotics such as metronidazole, vancomycin and fidaxomicin are therapies of choice for Clostridium difficile infection. Several important mechanisms for C. difficile antibiotic resistance have been described, including the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes via the transfer of mobile genetic elements, selective pressure in vivo resulting in gene mutations, altered expression of redox-active proteins, iron metabolism, and DNA repair, as well as via biofilm formation. This update summarizes new information published since 2010 on phenotypic and genotypic resistance mechanisms in C...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411069/clostridium-difficile-and-cystic-fibrosis-management-strategies-and-the-role-of-faecal-transplantation
#10
REVIEW
Roisin Dunwoody, Alan Steel, Jonathan Landy, Nicholas Simmonds
Clostridium difficile is a bacterial infection that colonises the gut in susceptible hosts. It is associated with exposure to healthcare settings and antibiotic use. It could be assumed that cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are a high-risk group for C.difficile. However, despite high carriage rates, CF patients have low rates of active disease. There are guidelines for the treatment of C.difficile, however little is published specific to treating C.difficile in CF. This article provides an overview of the current management strategies for C...
March 14, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431238/reducing-recurrence-of-c-difficile-infection
#11
Michael G Dieterle, Vincent B Young
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is facilitated by alteration of the microbiome following antibiotic administration. Antimicrobial therapy directed against the pathogen can treat CDI. Unfortunately, ∼20% of successfully treated patients will suffer recurrence. Bezlotoxumab, a human monoclonal antibody, binds to C. difficile toxin B (TcdB), reducing recurrence presumably by limiting epithelial damage and facilitating microbiome recovery.
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299963/cost-effectiveness-analysis-on-the-use-of-fidaxomicin-and-vancomycin-to-treat-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-france
#12
Maureen Watt, Aurélien Dinh, Alban Le Monnier, Patrick Tilleul
BACKGROUND: Fidaxomicin is a macrocyclic antibiotic with proven efficacy against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. It was licensed in France in 2012, but, due to higher acquisition costs compared with existing treatments, healthcare providers require information on its cost/benefit profile. OBJECTIVE: To compare healthcare costs and health outcomes of fidaxomicin and vancomycin, as reference treatment for CDI. METHODS: A Markov model was used to simulate the treatment pathway, over 1 year, of adult patients with CDI receiving fidaxomicin or vancomycin...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300019/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-acute-care-hospitals-systematic-review-and-best-practices-for-prevention
#13
Irene K Louh, William G Greendyke, Emilia A Hermann, Karina W Davidson, Louise Falzon, David K Vawdrey, Jonathan A Shaffer, David P Calfee, E Yoko Furuya, Henry H Ting
OBJECTIVE Prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in acute-care hospitals is a priority for hospitals and clinicians. We performed a qualitative systematic review to update the evidence on interventions to prevent CDI published since 2009. DESIGN We searched Ovid, MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, the ISI Web of Knowledge, and grey literature databases from January 1, 2009 to August 1, 2015. SETTING We included studies performed in acute-care hospitals. PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS We included studies conducted on hospitalized patients that investigated the impact of specific interventions on CDI rates...
April 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318210/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-clostridium-difficile-infection-evidence-and-indications
#14
Aasma Shaukat, Andrew R Reinink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346281/recognition-and-management-of-clostridium-difficile-in-older-adults
#15
Anna Wentz Sams, Laurie Kennedy-Malone
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasing in the outpatient setting, and older adults are at a higher risk for contracting CDI and experiencing poor outcomes. NPs may see this infection in the primary care setting. This article focuses on the presentation, treatment, and clinical practice implications for CDI in community-dwelling older adults.
May 12, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347160/primary-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-how-difficult-can-it-be
#16
Lynne V McFarland
C. difficile infections (CDI) have been a challenging disease to treat, much less to prevent, for decades. Efforts for primary prevention have mainly focused on improving infection control practices, but CDI outbreaks continue to plague healthcare facilities. Areas covered: A literature search from 1970-December 2016 found 13 facility-level and 2 patient-level strategies that were evidence-based. The aim of this manuscript is to assess the current state of the literature on primary prevention of CDI and offer insights into which strategies may be more effective...
April 5, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121498/bezlotoxumab-for-prevention-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mark H Wilcox, Dale N Gerding, Ian R Poxton, Ciaran Kelly, Richard Nathan, Thomas Birch, Oliver A Cornely, Galia Rahav, Emilio Bouza, Christine Lee, Grant Jenkin, Werner Jensen, You-Sun Kim, Junichi Yoshida, Lori Gabryelski, Alison Pedley, Karen Eves, Robert Tipping, Dalya Guris, Nicholas Kartsonis, Mary-Beth Dorr
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Recurrences are common after antibiotic therapy. Actoxumab and bezlotoxumab are human monoclonal antibodies against C. difficile toxins A and B, respectively. METHODS: We conducted two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials, MODIFY I and MODIFY II, involving 2655 adults receiving oral standard-of-care antibiotics for primary or recurrent C...
January 26, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254263/updates-on-clostridium-difficile-spore-biology
#18
Fernando Gil, Sebastián Lagos-Moraga, Paulina Calderón-Romero, Marjorie Pizarro-Guajardo, Daniel Paredes-Sabja
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, anaerobic spore former, and an important nosocomial pathogenic bacterium. C. difficile spores are the morphotype of transmission and recurrence of the disease. The formation of C. difficile spores and their subsequent germination are essential processes during the infection. Recent in vitro and in vivo work has shed light on how spores are formed and the timing of in vivo sporulation in a mouse model. Advances have also been made in our understanding of the machineries involved in spore germination, and how antibiotic-induced dysbiosis affects the metabolism of bile salts and thus impacts C...
June 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257555/antibiotic-treatment-for-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhoea-in-adults
#19
REVIEW
Richard L Nelson, Katie J Suda, Charlesnika T Evans
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is recognized as a frequent cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and colitis. This review is an update of a previously published Cochrane review. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to investigate the efficacy and safety of antibiotic therapy for C. difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), or C. difficile infection (CDI), being synonymous terms. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Trials Register from inception to 26 January 2017...
March 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029471/treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-national-survey-of-clinician-recommendations-and-the-use-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation
#20
A R Prior, D Kevans, L McDowell, S Cudmore, F Fitzpatrick
Adherence to Clostridium difficile infection treatment guidelines is associated with lower recurrence rates and mortality as well as cost savings. This survey of Irish clinicians indicates that patients are managed using a variety of approaches. Faecal microbiota transplantation is potentially underused despite its recommendation in national and European guidelines.
April 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
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