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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)

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112 papers 0 to 25 followers Clostridium difficile infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659747/two-distinct-patterns-of-clostridium-difficile-diversity-across-europe-indicates-contrasting-routes-of-spread
#1
David W Eyre, Kerrie A Davies, Georgina Davis, Warren N Fawley, Kate E Dingle, Nicola De Maio, Andreas Karas, Derrick W Crook, Tim E A Peto, A Sarah Walker, Mark H Wilcox
Background: Rates of Clostridium difficile infection vary widely across Europe, as do prevalent ribotypes. The extent of Europe-wide diversity within each ribotype is however unknown. Methods: Inpatient diarrhoeal faecal samples submitted on one day in summer and winter (2012-2013) to laboratories in 482 European hospitals were cultured for C. difficile, and isolates ribotyped; those from the 10 most prevalent ribotypes were Illumina whole-genome sequenced. Pairwise single nucleotide differences (SNPs) were obtained from recombination-corrected maximum-likelihood phylogenies...
April 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582768/new-clinical-recommendations-for-clostridium-difficile
#2
Ammara Mushtaq
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535530/recent-progress-for-the-effective-prevention-and-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#3
Isobel Ramsay, Nicholas M Brown, David A Enoch
Recurrence occurs in approximately 25% of all cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and poses a unique clinical challenge. Traditionally, treatment options of CDI have been limited to regimes of established antibiotics (eg, pulsed/tapered vancomycin) but faecal transplantation is emerging as a useful alternative. In recent years, promising new strategies have emerged for effective prevention of recurrent CDI (rCDI) including new antimicrobials (eg, fidaxomicin) and monoclonal antibodies (eg, bezlotoxumab)...
2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540433/understanding-clostridium-difficile-colonization
#4
REVIEW
Monique J T Crobach, Jonathan J Vernon, Vivian G Loo, Ling Yuan Kong, Séverine Péchiné, Mark H Wilcox, Ed J Kuijper
Clostridium difficile is the main causative agent of antibiotic-associated and health care-associated infective diarrhea. Recently, there has been growing interest in alternative sources of C. difficile other than patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the hospital environment. Notably, the role of C. difficile -colonized patients as a possible source of transmission has received attention. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of C. difficile colonization...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559802/statin-use-and-the-risk-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Raseen Tariq, Dhruvika Mukhija, Arjun Gupta, Siddharth Singh, Darrell S Pardi, Sahil Khanna
Purpose: Statins have pleiotropic effects beyond cholesterol lowering by immune modulation. The association of statins with primary Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is unclear as studies have reported conflicting findings. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between statin use and CDI. Patients and methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science from January 1978 to December 2016 for studies assessing the association between statin use and CDI...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562266/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-and-children-2017-update-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-idsa-and-society-for-healthcare-epidemiology-of-america-shea
#6
L Clifford McDonald, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson, Johan S Bakken, Karen C Carroll, Susan E Coffin, Erik R Dubberke, Kevin W Garey, Carolyn V Gould, Ciaran Kelly, Vivian Loo, Julia Shaklee Sammons, Thomas J Sandora, Mark H Wilcox
A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) to update the 2010 clinical practice guideline on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. The update, which has incorporated recommendations for children (following the adult recommendations for epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment), includes significant changes in the management of this infection and reflects the evolving controversy over best methods for diagnosis...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479439/treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-colitis-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
Roy J Hopkins, Robert B Wilson
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacillus that was originally isolated from the stool of a healthy neonate in 1935. In high-income countries, C. difficile is the most common cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalized patients. The incidence of C. difficile infection in the USA has increased markedly since 2000, with hospitalizations for C. difficile infections in non-pregnant adults doubling between 2000 and 2010. Between 20% and 35% of patients with C. difficile infection will fail initial antibiotic treatment and, of these, 40-60% will have a second recurrence...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505879/guidance-document-for-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-acute-healthcare-settings
#8
Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Ed J Kuijper, Ana Durovic, Maria J G T Vehreschild, Frédéric Barbut, Catherine Eckert, Fidelma Fitzpatrick, Markus Hell, Torbjörn Norén, Jean O'Driscoll, John Coia, Petra Gastmeier, Lutz von Müller, Mark H Wilcox, Andreas F Widmer
SCOPE: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most important infective cause of healthcare-associated diarrhoea in high income countries and one of the most important healthcare-associated pathogens in both Europe and the United States. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality resulting in both societal and financial burden. A significant proportion of this burden is potentially preventable by a combination of targeted infection prevention and control measures and antimicrobial stewardship...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521664/new-and-emerging-therapies-in-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#9
Hemant Goyal, Abhilash Perisetti, M Rubayat Rehman, Umesh Singla
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents one of the most serious nosocomial infections that have grown dramatically over the past decade. Vancomycin and metronidazole are currently used as a standard therapy for CDI. Metronidazole is recommended as a first-line therapy for mild-to-moderate infections and vancomycin is mainly used for severe and/or refractory cases. However, studies have demonstrated that there are quite high CDI relapse rates with both of these medications, which represents a challenge for clinicians...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474439/the-zoonotic-potential-of-clostridium-difficile-from-small-companion-animals-and-their-owners
#10
Denise Rabold, Werner Espelage, Muna Abu Sin, Tim Eckmanns, Alexander Schneeberg, Heinrich Neubauer, Nadine Möbius, Katja Hille, Lothar H Wieler, Christian Seyboldt, Antina Lübke-Becker
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in humans range from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening intestinal disease. Findings on C. difficile in various animal species and an overlap in ribotypes (RTs) suggest potential zoonotic transmission. However, the impact of animals for human CDI remains unclear. METHODS: In a large-scale survey we collected 1,447 fecal samples to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in small companion animals (dogs and cats) and their owners and to assess potential epidemiological links within the community...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939450/prediction-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-at-the-bedside-the-geih-cdi-score
#11
Javier Cobo, Esperanza Merino, Cristina Martínez, Alberto Cózar-Llistó, Evelyn Shaw, Teresa Marrodán, Esther Calbo, Elena Bereciartúa, Luis A Sánchez-Muñoz, Miguel Salavert, M Teresa Pérez-Rodríguez, Dácil García-Rosado, J María Bravo-Ferrer, Juan Gálvez-Acebal, César Henríquez-Camacho, Jordi Cuquet, Berta Pino-Calm, Luis Torres, Antonio Sánchez-Porto, Borja M Fernández-Félix
Recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has major consequences for both patients and the health system. The ability to predict which patients are at increased risk of recurrent CDI makes it possible to select candidates for treatment with new drugs and therapies (including fecal microbiota transplantation) that have proven to reduce the incidence of recurrence of CDI. Our objective was to develop a clinical prediction tool, the GEIH-CDI score, to determine the risk of recurrence of CDI. Predictors of recurrence of CDI were investigated using logistic regression in a prospective cohort of 274 patients diagnosed with CDI...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424238/the-rise-and-fall-of-metronidazole-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#12
Elias B Chahine
Clostridium difficile is posing urgent health threats. Older studies have shown that metronidazole and vancomycin are equally effective in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Given its inexpensive cost and low propensity to select antimicrobial resistant organisms, metronidazole became rapidly the drug of choice despite its pharmacokinetic limitations in the treatment of CDI. However, newer studies demonstrated that metronidazole is inferior to vancomycin, prompting clinicians to change their long-standing position on using metronidazole for mild to moderate infections and on reserving vancomycin for severe infections...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349705/stool-cultures-at-the-icu-get-rid-of-it
#13
Carolin F Manthey, Darja Dranova, Martin Christner, Laura Berneking, Stefan Kluge, Ansgar W Lohse, Valentin Fuhrmann
BACKGROUND: Stool cultures for Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella and/or Yersinia spp. are frequently ordered in critically ill patients with diarrhea. The aim of this study is to analyze the diagnostic yield in a large cohort of critically ill patients. Therefore, we performed a cohort study at the Department of Intensive Care Medicine of a University Hospital (11 ICUs). RESULTS: From all patients who were admitted to the ICU between 2010 and 2015, stool cultures were taken from 2...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353504/clostridium-difficile-control-measures-current-and-future-methods-for-prevention
#14
Carlos Mejia-Chew, Erik R Dubberke
Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of healthcare associated infection, and C. difficile infection (CDI) is associated with significant costs, morbidity, and mortality. One obstacle to preventing CDI is lack of high quality data on interventions to prevent CDI. This has led some to focus on areas, such as method of hand hygiene, unlikely to impact CDI incidence as much as others, such as contact precautions. In addition, existing strategies, although effective, do have limitations. Another challenge is the ability to rapidly, and accurately, diagnose CDI...
February 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383662/diagnostic-guidance-for-c-difficile-infections
#15
Monique J T Crobach, Amoe Baktash, Nikolas Duszenko, Ed J Kuijper
Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can be challenging. First of all, there has been debate on which of the two reference assays, cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) or toxigenic culture (TC) should be considered the gold standard for CDI detection. Although the CCNA suffers most from suboptimal storage conditions and subsequent toxin degradation, TC is reported to falsely increase CDI detection rates as it cannot differentiate CDI patients from patients asymptomatically colonised by toxigenic C...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383665/cellular-uptake-and-mode-of-action-of-clostridium-difficile-toxins
#16
Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Holger Barth, Nigel Minton, Klaus Aktories
Research on the human gut pathogen Clostridium difficile and its toxins has gained much attention, particularly as a consequence of the increasing threat to human health presented by emerging hypervirulent strains. Toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) are the two major virulence determinants of C. difficile. Both are single-chain proteins with a similar multidomain architecture. Certain hypervirulent C. difficile strains also produce a third toxin, namely binary toxin CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase). As C. difficile toxins are the causative agents of C...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383668/antibiotic-resistances-of-clostridium-difficile
#17
Patrizia Spigaglia, Paola Mastrantonio, Fabrizio Barbanti
The rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance in Clostridium difficile and the consequent effects on prevention and treatment of C. difficile infections (CDIs) are matter of concern for public health. Antibiotic resistance plays an important role in driving C. difficile epidemiology. Emergence of new types is often associated with the emergence of new resistances and most of epidemic C. difficile clinical isolates is currently resistant to multiple antibiotics. In particular, it is to worth to note the recent identification of strains with reduced susceptibility to the first-line antibiotics for CDI treatment and/or for relapsing infections...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383670/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-as-emerging-treatment-in-european-countries
#18
Marcello Maida, James Mcilroy, Gianluca Ianiro, Giovanni Cammarota
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections in the world and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients.Although several antibiotics effectively treat CDI, some individuals do not respond to these drugs and may be cured by transplanting stool from healthy donors. This procedure, termed Faecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT), has demonstrated remarkable efficacy as a treatment for recurrent CDI.FMT has also been investigated in other diseases and disorders where perturbations to the gut microbiota have been theorized to play a causative role in pathogenesis and severity, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383669/probiotics-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#19
Lorena Valdés-Varela, Miguel Gueimonde, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo
Probiotics have been claimed as a valuable tool to restore the balance in the intestinal microbiota following a dysbiosis caused by, among other factors, antibiotic therapy. This perturbed environment could favor the overgrowth of Clostridium difficile and, in fact, the occurrence of C. difficile-associated infections (CDI) is being increasing in recent years. In spite of the high number of probiotics able to in vitro inhibit the growth and/or toxicity of this pathogen, its application for treatment or prevention of CDI is still scarce since there are not enough well-defined clinical studies supporting efficacy...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310122/dietary-trehalose-enhances-virulence-of-epidemic-clostridium-difficile
#20
J Collins, C Robinson, H Danhof, C W Knetsch, H C van Leeuwen, T D Lawley, J M Auchtung, R A Britton
Clostridium difficile disease has recently increased to become a dominant nosocomial pathogen in North America and Europe, although little is known about what has driven this emergence. Here we show that two epidemic ribotypes (RT027 and RT078) have acquired unique mechanisms to metabolize low concentrations of the disaccharide trehalose. RT027 strains contain a single point mutation in the trehalose repressor that increases the sensitivity of this ribotype to trehalose by more than 500-fold. Furthermore, dietary trehalose increases the virulence of a RT027 strain in a mouse model of infection...
January 18, 2018: Nature
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