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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837689/neurogenic-stunned-myocardium-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#1
REVIEW
Ali Kerro, Timothy Woods, Jason J Chang
"Stunned myocardium," characterized by reversible left ventricular dysfunction, was first described via animal models using transient coronary artery occlusion. However, this phenomenon has also been noted with neurologic pathologies and collectively been labeled "neurogenic stunned myocardium" (NSM). Neurogenic stunned myocardium resulting from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a challenging pathology due to its diagnostic uncertainty. Traditional diagnostic criteria for NSM after SAH focus on electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities and troponemia...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826345/long-term-results-of-early-surgery-versus-conventional-treatment-for-infective-endocarditis-trial
#2
Duk-Hyun Kang, Sahmin Lee, Yong-Jin Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Dae-Hee Kim, Sung-Cheol Yun, Jong-Min Song, Cheol-Hyun Chung, Jae-Kwan Song, Jae-Won Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Compared with conventional treatment, early surgery significantly reduced the composite end point of all-cause death and embolic events during hospitalization, but long-term data in this area are lacking. This study sought to compare long-term outcomes of early surgery with a conventional treatment strategy in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) and large vegetations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The Early Surgery versus Conventional Treatment in Infective Endocarditis (EASE) trial randomly assigned patients with left-sided IE, severe valve disease and large vegetation to early surgery (37 patients) or conventional treatment groups (39 patients)...
November 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777258/diagnosis-and-management-of-supraventricular-tachycardias
#3
REVIEW
Lior Bibas, Michael Levi, Vidal Essebag
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613549/the-right-ventricle-interaction-with-the-pulmonary-circulation
#4
REVIEW
Michael R Pinsky
The primary role of the right ventricle (RV) is to deliver all the blood it receives per beat into the pulmonary circulation without causing right atrial pressure to rise. To the extent that it also does not impede left ventricular (LV) filling, cardiac output responsiveness to increased metabolic demand is optimized. Since cardiac output is a function of metabolic demand of the body, during stress and exercise states the flow to the RV can vary widely. Also, instantaneous venous return varies widely for a constant cardiac output as ventilatory efforts alter the dynamic pressure gradient for venous return...
September 10, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638544/acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#5
Drayton A Hammond, Melanie N Smith, Kristen C Lee, Danielle Honein, April Miller Quidley
Heart failure (HF) is a societal burden due to its high prevalence, frequent admissions for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), and the economic impact of direct and indirect costs associated with HF and ADHF. Common etiologies of ADHF include medication and diet noncompliance, arrhythmias, deterioration in renal function, poorly controlled hypertension, myocardial infarction, and infections. Appropriate medical management of ADHF in patients is guided by the identification of signs and symptoms of fluid overload or low cardiac output and utilization of evidence-based practices...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567408/2016-esc-guidelines-for-the-management-of-atrial-fibrillation-developed-in-collaboration-with-eacts-the-task-force-for-the-management-of-atrial-fibrillation-of-the-european-society-of-cardiology-esc-developed-with-the-special-contribution-of-the-european-heart
#6
Paulus Kirchhof, Stefano Benussi, Dipak Kotecha, Anders Ahlsson, Dan Atar, Barbara Casadei, Manuel Castella, Hans-Christoph Diener, Hein Heidbuchel, Jeroen Hendriks, Gerhard Hindricks, Antonis S Manolis, Jonas Oldgren, Bogdan Alexandru Popescu, Ulrich Schotten, Bart Van Putte, Panagiotis Vardas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 27, 2016: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318408/improving-survival-from-cardiac-arrest-a-review-of-contemporary-practice-and-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Jacob C Jentzer, Casey M Clements, R Scott Wright, Roger D White, Allan S Jaffe
Cardiac arrest is a common and lethal condition frequently encountered by emergency medicine providers. Resuscitation of persons after cardiac arrest remains challenging, and outcomes remain poor overall. Successful resuscitation hinges on timely, high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The optimal method of providing chest compressions and ventilator support during cardiac arrest remains uncertain. Prompt and effective defibrillation of ventricular arrhythmias is one of the few effective therapies available for treatment of cardiac arrest...
December 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229645/cardiac-function-and-dysfunction-in-sepsis
#8
REVIEW
Kimberly E Fenton, Margaret M Parker
Cardiac function and dysfunction are important in the clinical outcomes of sepsis and septic shock. Cardiac dysfunction is not a single entity, but is a broad spectrum of syndromes that result in biventricular cardiac dysfunction manifested by both systolic and diastolic dysfunction and is influenced by cardiac loading conditions (ie, preload and afterload). Elucidating the underlying pathophysiology has proved to be complex. This article emphasizes the underlying pathophysiology of cardiac dysfunction and explores recent evidence related to diagnosis, including the utility of biomarkers, the role of echocardiography, and management goals and treatment...
June 2016: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180891/catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia
#9
Krystien V Lieve, Christian van der Werf, Arthur A Wilde
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia disorder that is characterized by emotion- and exercise-induced polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and may lead to sudden cardiac death (SCD). CPVT plays an important role in SCD in the young and therefore recognition and adequate treatment of the disease are of vital importance. In the past years tremendous improvements have been made in the diagnostic methods and treatment of the disease. In this review, we summarize the clinical characteristics, genetics, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of CPVT and describe the most recent advances and some of the current challenges...
May 25, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162114/the-emergency-management-of-ventricular-assist-devices
#10
REVIEW
Jennifer Robertson, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a common condition in the United States. When medical therapy fails, ventricular device (LVAD) therapy may be required. With increasing use of LVADs, emergency physicians should understand how to manage problems that may arise with these devices. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to familiarize physicians with LVAD components and LVAD physiology, and discuss the evaluation and management of LVAD complications. DISCUSSION: The LVAD contains numerous components, but the most important include the pump, inflow and outflow cannulas, and driveline...
July 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150690/predicting-the-unpredictable-drug-induced-qt-prolongation-and-torsades-de-pointes
#11
REVIEW
Peter J Schwartz, Raymond L Woosley
Drug-induced long QT syndrome (diLQTS) and congenital LQTS (cLQTS) share many features, and both syndromes can result in life-threatening torsades de pointes (TdP). Our understanding of their mechanistic and genetic similarities has led to their improved clinical management. However, our inability to prevent diLQTS has resulted in removal of many medicines from the market and from development. Genetic and clinical risk factors for diLQTS and TdP are well known and raise the possibility of TdP prevention. Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) can scan the patient's electronic health records for clinical risk factors predictive of diLQTS and warn when a drug that can cause TdP is prescribed...
April 5, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27054628/left-ventricular-outflow-tract-obstruction-in-icu-patients
#12
Michel Slama, Christophe Tribouilloy, Julien Maizel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Left ventricular (LV) outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction (LVOTO) is not unusual in ICU patients particularly with septic shock. RECENT FINDINGS: LVOT was first described in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and was defined as LV wall thickness at least 15 mm. LVOT is usually because of systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. By convention, LVOTO is defined as an instantaneous peak Doppler LVOT pressure gradient at least 30 mmHg at rest or during physiological provocation such as Valsalva maneuver...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27011791/sepsis-induced-myocardial-dysfunction-pathophysiology-and-management
#13
REVIEW
Yasuyuki Kakihana, Takashi Ito, Mayumi Nakahara, Keiji Yamaguchi, Tomotsugu Yasuda
Sepsis is aggravated by an inappropriate immune response to invading microorganisms, which occasionally leads to multiple organ failure. Several lines of evidence suggest that the ventricular myocardium is depressed during sepsis with features of diastolic dysfunction. Potential candidates responsible for septic cardiomyopathy include pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), cytokines, and nitric oxide. Extracellular histones and high-mobility group box 1 that function as endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) also contribute to the myocardial dysfunction associated with sepsis...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993075/ed-evaluation-and-management-of-implantable-cardiac-defibrillator-electrical-shocks
#14
REVIEW
Saher Iftikhar, Amal Mattu, William Brady
Patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators not infrequently present to the emergency department after experiencing an implantable cardiac defibrillator shock. This review considers the management of such patients in the emergency department, including appropriate, inappropriate, and phantom shocks as well as electrical storm.
June 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920494/duration-of-cardiac-arrest-resuscitation-deciding-when-to-call-the-code
#15
EDITORIAL
Eric L Mutter, Benjamin S Abella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920493/duration-of-prehospital-resuscitation-efforts-after-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#16
Ken Nagao, Hiroshi Nonogi, Naohiro Yonemoto, David F Gaieski, Noritoshi Ito, Morimasa Takayama, Shinichi Shirai, Singo Furuya, Sigemasa Tani, Takeshi Kimura, Keijiro Saku
BACKGROUND: During out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, it is unclear how long prehospital resuscitation efforts should be continued to maximize lives saved. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2012, we enrolled 282 183 adult patients with bystander-witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from the All-Japan Utstein Registry. Prehospital resuscitation duration was calculated as the time interval from call receipt to return of spontaneous circulation in cases achieving prehospital return of spontaneous circulation or from call receipt to hospital arrival in cases not achieving prehospital return of spontaneous circulation...
April 5, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908409/critical-limb-ischemia-current-trends-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
Martin Teraa, Michael S Conte, Frans L Moll, Marianne C Verhaar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26850077/agents-with-vasodilator-properties-in-acute-heart-failure
#18
Abhishek Singh, Saïd Laribi, John R Teerlink, Alexandre Mebazaa
Millions of patients worldwide are admitted for acute heart failure (AHF) each year and physicians caring for these patients are confronted with the short-term challenges of reducing symptoms while preventing end organ dysfunction without causing additional harm, and the intermediate-term challenges of improving clinical outcomes such as hospital readmission and survival. There are limited data demonstrating the efficacy of any currently available therapies for AHF to meet these goals. After diuretics, vasodilators are the most common intravenous therapy for AHF, but neither nitrates, nitroprusside, nor nesiritide have robust evidence supporting their ability to provide meaningful effects on clinical outcomes, except perhaps early symptom improvement...
February 4, 2016: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26846952/testosterone-and-cardiovascular-disease
#19
REVIEW
Robert A Kloner, Culley Carson, Adrian Dobs, Stephen Kopecky, Emile R Mohler
Testosterone (T) is the principal male sex hormone. As men age, T levels typically fall. Symptoms of low T include decreased libido, vasomotor instability, and decreased bone mineral density. Other symptoms may include depression, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and reduced muscle strength/mass. Epidemiology studies show that low levels of T are associated with more atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular events. However, treating hypogonadism in the aging male has resulted in discrepant results in regard to its effect on cardiovascular events...
February 9, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26836901/cardiac-dysfunction-after-neurologic-injury-what-do-we-know-and-where-are-we-going
#20
REVIEW
Vijay Krishnamoorthy, G Burkhard Mackensen, Edward F Gibbons, Monica S Vavilala
Recent literature has implicated severe neurologic injuries, such as aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, as a cause of cardiac dysfunction, impaired hemodynamic function, and poor outcomes. Mechanistic links between the brain and the heart have been explored in detail over the past several decades, and catecholamine excess, neuroendocrine dysfunction, and unchecked inflammation all likely contribute to the pathophysiologic process. Although cardiac dysfunction has also been described in other disease paradigms, including septic shock and thermal injury, there is likely a common underlying pathophysiology...
May 2016: Chest
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