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Neumología

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47 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126755/-cannabis-and-lung-what-we-know-and-everything-we-don-t-know-yet
#1
REVIEW
T Urban, J Hureaux
Cannabis use increased sharply from 2010 to 2014 in France. Cannabis is often consumed with tobacco, although the use of marijuana is developing. Tobacco and cannabis smoke have many common characteristics in terms of irritants, carcinogens and carbon monoxide. They also differentiate by their dependence mechanisms, with nicotine and its receptors for tobacco and tetra-hydro-cannabinol (THC) and its specific receptors for cannabis. Chronic inhalation (700,000 daily users in France) over a long period most likely increases the relative risk of bronchial cancer...
November 7, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24791253/management-of-necrotizing-pneumonia-and-pulmonary-gangrene-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Neela Chatha, Dalilah Fortin, Karen J Bosma
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing pneumonia is an uncommon but severe complication of bacterial pneumonia, associated with high morbidity and mortality. The availability of current data regarding the management of necrotizing pneumonia is limited to case reports and small retrospective observational cohort studies. Consequently, appropriate management for these patients remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To describe five cases and review the available literature to help guide management of necrotizing pneumonia...
July 2014: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109947/acute-exacerbation-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#3
REVIEW
Gabriela Leuschner, Jürgen Behr
Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) has been defined as an acute, clinically significant deterioration that develops within less than 1 month without obvious clinical cause like fluid overload, left heart failure, or pulmonary embolism. Pathophysiologically, damage of the alveoli is the predominant feature of AE-IPF which manifests histopathologically as diffuse alveolar damage and radiologically as diffuse, bilateral ground-glass opacification on high-resolution computed tomography...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974541/when-to-start-and-when-to-stop-antifibrotic-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Sebastiano Emanuele Torrisi, Mauro Pavone, Ada Vancheri, Carlo Vancheri
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterised by progressive changes of the lung architecture causing cough and dyspnoea and ultimately leading to lung failure and death. Today, for the first time, two drugs that may reduce the inexorable progression of the disease are available, suggesting that treatment with specific drugs for IPF should be started as soon as diagnosis is made. This applies to any disease and particularly to IPF, which is marked by a 5-year survival comparable or even worse than many cancers...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954769/pharmacotherapy-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-current-landscape-and-future-potential
#5
REVIEW
Ganesh Raghu
Over the past two and a half decades, many clinical trials have been designed to determine the safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapy for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, so far, only two drugs (pirfenidone and nintedanib) have been found to have an impact on disease progression as defined by reducing the rate of decline in forced vital capacity over a year among IPF patients with mild to moderate impairment in lung function. These two drugs have been approved for treatment of IPF by regulatory agencies and are currently in clinical use worldwide...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941558/emergency-medicine-evaluation-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-history-examination-imaging-and-laboratory-assessment-and-risk-scores
#6
Brit Long, Drew Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common infection, accounting for approximately one million hospitalizations in the United States annually. This potentially life-threatening disease is commonly diagnosed based on history, physical examination, and chest radiograph. OBJECTIVE: To investigate emergency medicine evaluation of community-acquired pneumonia including history, physical examination, imaging, and the use of risk scores in patient assessment. DISCUSSION: Pneumonia is the number one cause of death from infectious disease...
November 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889110/european-respiratory-society-guidelines-for-the-management-of-adult-bronchiectasis
#7
Eva Polverino, Pieter C Goeminne, Melissa J McDonnell, Stefano Aliberti, Sara E Marshall, Michael R Loebinger, Marlene Murris, Rafael Cantón, Antoni Torres, Katerina Dimakou, Anthony De Soyza, Adam T Hill, Charles S Haworth, Montserrat Vendrell, Felix C Ringshausen, Dragan Subotic, Robert Wilson, Jordi Vilaró, Bjorn Stallberg, Tobias Welte, Gernot Rohde, Francesco Blasi, Stuart Elborn, Marta Almagro, Alan Timothy, Thomas Ruddy, Thomy Tonia, David Rigau, James D Chalmers
Bronchiectasis in adults is a chronic disorder associated with poor quality of life and frequent exacerbations in many patients. There have been no previous international guidelines.The European Respiratory Society guidelines for the management of adult bronchiectasis describe the appropriate investigation and treatment strategies determined by a systematic review of the literature.A multidisciplinary group representing respiratory medicine, microbiology, physiotherapy, thoracic surgery, primary care, methodology and patients considered the most relevant clinical questions (for both clinicians and patients) related to management of bronchiectasis...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867295/asthma-outcomes-and-management-during-pregnancy
#8
REVIEW
Catherine A Bonham, Karen C Patterson, Mary E Strek
Asthma during pregnancy poses a common, increasingly prevalent threat to the health of women and their children. The present article reviews recent insights gained from the epidemiology of asthma during pregnancy, demonstrating the many short- and long-term risks to mother and fetus incurred by poorly controlled maternal asthma. We further discuss emerging evidence that active management of asthma during pregnancy can positively influence and perhaps completely mitigate these poor outcomes. Recent high-quality trials examining best methods for asthma treatment are reviewed and synthesized to offer an evidence-based pathway for comprehensive treatment of asthma in the outpatient setting...
September 1, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416951/spirometry-and-bronchodilator-test
#9
REVIEW
Yun Su Sim, Ji-Hyun Lee, Won-Yeon Lee, Dong In Suh, Yeon-Mok Oh, Jong-Seo Yoon, Jin Hwa Lee, Jae Hwa Cho, Cheol Seok Kwon, Jung Hyun Chang
Spirometry is a physiological test for assessing the functional aspect of the lungs using an objective indicator to measure the maximum amount of air that a patient can inhale and exhale. Acceptable spirometry testing needs to be conducted three times by an acceptable and reproducible method for determining forced vital capacity (FVC). Until the results of three tests meet the criteria of reproducibility, the test should be repeated up to eight times. Interpretation of spirometry should be clear, concise, and informative...
April 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776330/multidimensional-assessment-of-severe-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Vanessa L Clark, Peter G Gibson, Grayson Genn, Sarah A Hiles, Ian D Pavord, Vanessa M McDonald
The management of severe asthma is complex. Multidimensional assessment (MDA) of specific traits has been proposed as an effective strategy to manage severe asthma, although it is supported by few prospective studies. We aimed to systematically review the literature published on MDA in severe asthma, to identify the traits included in MDA and to determine the effect of MDA on asthma-related outcomes. We identified 26 studies and classified these based on study type (cohort/cross-sectional studies; experimental/outcome studies; and severe asthma disease registries)...
October 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719697/diagnosis-and-management-of-asthma-in-adults-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Jennifer L McCracken, Sreenivas P Veeranki, Bill T Ameredes, William J Calhoun
Importance: Asthma affects about 7.5% of the adult population. Evidence-based diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment can improve functioning and quality of life in adult patients with asthma. Observations: Asthma is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome primarily affecting the lower respiratory tract, characterized by episodic or persistent symptoms of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough. The diagnosis of asthma requires these symptoms and demonstration of reversible airway obstruction using spirometry...
July 18, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401628/traditional-therapies-for-severe-asthma
#12
REVIEW
Eileen Wang, Flavia C L Hoyte
Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines define severe asthma for patients 6 years or older as "asthma which requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids…plus a second controller or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy." This article reviews available traditional therapies, data behind their uses in severe asthma, and varying recommendations...
August 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858570/gold-2017-classification-and-lung-function-decline-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
Wan C Tan, Jean Bourbeau, Shawn D Aaron, Guohai Zhou, Francois Maltais, Paul Hernandez, J Mark Fitzgerald, Darcy D Marciniuk, Brandie L Walker, Don D Sin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780895/the-use-of-pulmonary-clearance-medications-in-the-acutely-ill-patient
#14
Michael F Papacostas, Peter Luckett, Susan Hupp
Retention of airway secretions occurs in disease, leading to airway plugging, atelectasis, and worsened respiratory mechanics, making airway clearance an important therapeutic target. Areas covered: Many medications designed to enhance clearance of airway secretions are available. We will review the medications available to enhance airway clearance, their mechanisms of action, and the evidence available for their use in acutely ill patients. Expert commentary: In the cystic fibrosis (CF) population, beneficial effects have been shown in pulmonary function with the use of some of these agents...
October 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798095/the-art-of-breathing-saturation
#15
Gary P Anderson, Tom Kotsimbos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24914770/nebulized-medications-for-the-treatment-of-dyspnea-a-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Jackelyn Y Boyden, Stephen R Connor, Lily Otolorin, Steven D Nathan, Perry G Fine, Malene S Davis, J Cameron Muir
BACKGROUND: Dyspnea significantly impacts quality of life and is one of the most common symptoms in advanced illness. Systemically-administered opioids and benzodiazepines have been the most studied and utilized pharmacologic treatments for refractory dyspnea. Less attention has been given to the use of these medications and others when nebulized. This article presents a review of the literature on the use of nebulized medications for the treatment of dyspnea related to cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, or experimentally-induced dyspnea...
February 2015: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617305/fibrotic-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-key-issues-in-diagnosis-and-management
#17
REVIEW
Vasileios Kouranos, Joseph Jacob, Andrew Nicholson, Elizabetta Renzoni
The diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) relies on the clinical evaluation of a number of features, including a history of significant exposure to potentially causative antigens, physical examination, chest CT scan appearances, bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytosis, and, in selected cases, histology. The presence of fibrosis is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Differentiating fibrotic HP from the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias can be a challenge. Furthermore, even in the context of a clear diagnosis of fibrotic HP, the disease behaviour can parallel that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a subgroup, with inexorable progression despite treatment...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663322/asthma-and-corticosteroids-time-for-a-more-precise-approach-to-treatment
#18
EDITORIAL
Eleanor M Dunican, John V Fahy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633665/optimizing-bronchodilation-in-the-prevention-of-copd-exacerbations
#19
REVIEW
Marc Miravitlles, Antonio Anzueto, José R Jardim
The natural disease course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often punctuated by exacerbations: acute events of symptom worsening associated with significant morbidity and healthcare resource utilization; reduced quality of life; and increased risk of hospitalization and death. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) recommend that patients at risk of exacerbations (GOLD Groups C and D) receive a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) or a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA)/LAMA combination, respectively, as preferred initial treatments...
June 20, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694199/initiation-of-noninvasive-ventilation-for-sleep-related-hypoventilation-disorders-advanced-modes-and-devices
#20
REVIEW
Bernardo J Selim, Lisa Wolfe, John M Coleman, Naresh A Dewan
Although noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been used since the 1950s in the polio epidemic, the development of modern bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) devices did not become a reality until the 1990s. Over the past 25 years, BPAP technology options have increased exponentially. The number of patients receiving this treatment both in the acute setting and at home is growing steadily. However, a knowledge gap exists in the way the settings on these devices are adjusted to achieve synchrony and match the patient's unique physiology of respiratory failure...
July 8, 2017: Chest
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