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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255267/epilepsy-antiepileptic-drugs-and-aggression-an-evidence-based-review
#1
REVIEW
Martin J Brodie, Frank Besag, Alan B Ettinger, Marco Mula, Gabriella Gobbi, Stefano Comai, Albert P Aldenkamp, Bernhard J Steinhoff
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment...
July 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640182/the-critical-care-management-of-spontaneous-intracranial-hemorrhage-a-contemporary-review
#2
REVIEW
Airton Leonardo de Oliveira Manoel, Alberto Goffi, Fernando Godinho Zampieri, David Turkel-Parrella, Abhijit Duggal, Thomas R Marotta, R Loch Macdonald, Simon Abrahamson
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), defined as nontraumatic bleeding into the brain parenchyma, is the second most common subtype of stroke, with 5.3 million cases and over 3 million deaths reported worldwide in 2010. Case fatality is extremely high (reaching approximately 60 % at 1 year post event). Only 20 % of patients who survive are independent within 6 months. Factors such as chronic hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and anticoagulation are commonly associated with ICH. Chronic arterial hypertension represents the major risk factor for bleeding...
September 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582897/poststroke-epilepsy-update-and-future-directions
#3
REVIEW
Johan Zelano
Stroke is among the most common causes of epilepsy after middle age. Patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) differ in several respects from patients with other forms of structural-metabolic epilepsy; not least in age, age-related sensitivity to side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and specific drug-drug interaction issues related to secondary-stroke prophylaxis. Encouragingly, there has lately been remarkable activity in the study of PSE. Three developments in PSE research deserve particular focus. First, large prospective trials have established the incidence and risk factors of PSE in the setting of modern stroke care...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852691/medical-management-of-intracerebral-haemorrhage
#4
REVIEW
Floris H B M Schreuder, Shoichiro Sato, Catharina J M Klijn, Craig S Anderson
The global burden of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is enormous. Developing evidence-based management strategies for ICH has been hampered by its diverse aetiology, high case fatality and variable cooperative organisation of medical and surgical care. Progress is being made through the conduct of collaborative multicentre studies with the large sample sizes necessary to evaluate therapies with realistically modest treatment effects. This narrative review describes the major consequences of ICH and provides evidence-based recommendations to support decision-making in medical management...
January 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886201/cryptococcal-meningitis-epidemiology-immunology-diagnosis-and-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Joseph N Jarvis, Anil A Panackal, Matthew C Fisher, Síle F Molloy, Angela Loyse, Thomas S Harrison
HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039522/focal-task-specific-dystonia-a-review-and-update
#6
Christine M Stahl, Steven J Frucht
In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the etiology, risk factors and pathophysiology of focal task specific dystonia (FTSD), movement disorders characterized by abnormal motor activation during the performance of specific, repetitive actions. We focus on two common FTSD, musician's dystonia and writer's cramp. FTSD may pose a threat to the patient's livelihood, and improved therapeutic treatments are needed.
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526039/progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-corticobasal-degeneration-pathophysiology-and-treatment-options
#7
REVIEW
Ruth Lamb, Jonathan D Rohrer, Andrew J Lees, Huw R Morris
There are currently no disease-modifying treatments for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and no approved pharmacological or therapeutic treatments that are effective in controlling their symptoms. The use of most pharmacological treatment options are based on experience in other disorders or from non-randomized historical controls, case series, or expert opinion. Levodopa may provide some improvement in symptoms of Parkinsonism (specifically bradykinesia and rigidity) in PSP and CBD; however, evidence is conflicting and where present, benefits are often negligible and short lived...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083888/vestibular-migraine-the-most-frequent-entity-of-episodic-vertigo
#8
REVIEW
Marianne Dieterich, Mark Obermann, Nese Celebisoy
Vestibular migraine (VM) is the most common cause of episodic vertigo in adults as well as in children. The diagnostic criteria of the consensus document of the International Bárány Society for Neuro-Otology and the International Headache Society (2012) combine the typical signs and symptoms of migraine with the vestibular symptoms lasting 5 min to 72 h and exclusion criteria. Although VM accounts for 7% of patients seen in dizziness clinics and 9% of patients seen in headache clinics it is still underdiagnosed...
April 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27036919/duration-of-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-a-systematic-review-for-the-2016-acc-aha-guideline-focused-update-on-duration-of-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-with-coronary%C3%A2-artery-disease-a-report-of-the-american-college-of-cardiology-american-heart-association
#9
John A Bittl, Usman Baber, Steven M Bradley, Duminda N Wijeysundera
BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after implantation of newer-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) remains uncertain. Similarly, questions remain about the role of DAPT in long-term therapy of stable post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. AIM: Our objective was to compare the incidence of death, major hemorrhage, MI, stent thrombosis, and major adverse cardiac events in patients randomized to prolonged or short-course DAPT after implantation of newer-generation DES and in secondary prevention after MI...
September 6, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017468/neurological-prognostication-of-outcome-in-patients-in-coma-after-cardiac-arrest
#10
REVIEW
Andrea O Rossetti, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Mauro Oddo
Management of coma after cardiac arrest has improved during the past decade, allowing an increasing proportion of patients to survive, thus prognostication has become an integral part of post-resuscitation care. Neurologists are increasingly confronted with raised expectations of next of kin and the necessity to provide early predictions of long-term prognosis. During the past decade, as technology and clinical evidence have evolved, post-cardiac arrest prognostication has moved towards a multimodal paradigm combining clinical examination with additional methods, consisting of electrophysiology, blood biomarkers, and brain imaging, to optimise prognostic accuracy...
May 2016: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950113/the-immunology-of-neuromyelitis-optica-current-knowledge-clinical-implications-controversies-and-future-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Michalina Jasiak-Zatonska, Alicja Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Slawomir Michalak, Wojciech Kozubski
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with typical clinical manifestations of optic neuritis and acute transverse myelitis attacks. Previously believed to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is now considered an independent disorder which needs to be differentiated from MS. The discovery of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgGs) changed our understanding of NMO immunopathogenesis and revolutionized the diagnostic process. AQP4-IgG is currently regarded as a specific biomarker of NMO and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOsd) and a key factor in its pathogenesis...
March 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944272/restless-legs-syndrome-associated-with-major-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-new-concept
#12
REVIEW
Claudia Trenkwalder, Richard Allen, Birgit Högl, Walter Paulus, Juliane Winkelmann
Recent publications on both the genetics and environmental factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) defined as a clinical disorder suggest that overlapping genetic risk factors may play a role in primary (idiopathic) and secondary (symptomatic) RLS. Following a systematic literature search of RLS associated with comorbidities, we identified an increased prevalence of RLS only in iron deficiency and kidney disease. In cardiovascular disease, arterial hypertension, diabetes, migraine, and Parkinson disease, the methodology of studies was poor, but an association might be possible...
April 5, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928912/diagnosis-and-management-of-diabetes-synopsis-of-the-2016-american-diabetes-association-standards-of-medical-care-in-diabetes
#13
James J Chamberlain, Andrew S Rhinehart, Charles F Shaefer, Annie Neuman
DESCRIPTION: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) published the 2016 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes (Standards) to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested parties with the components of diabetes care, general treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. METHODS: The ADA Professional Practice Committee performed a systematic search on MEDLINE to revise or clarify recommendations based on new evidence. The committee assigns the recommendations a rating of A, B, or C, depending on the quality of evidence...
April 19, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26906964/a-clinical-approach-to-diagnosis-of-autoimmune-encephalitis
#14
REVIEW
Francesc Graus, Maarten J Titulaer, Ramani Balu, Susanne Benseler, Christian G Bien, Tania Cellucci, Irene Cortese, Russell C Dale, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Michael Geschwind, Carol A Glaser, Jerome Honnorat, Romana Höftberger, Takahiro Iizuka, Sarosh R Irani, Eric Lancaster, Frank Leypoldt, Harald Prüss, Alexander Rae-Grant, Markus Reindl, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Kevin Rostásy, Albert Saiz, Arun Venkatesan, Angela Vincent, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Patrick Waters, Josep Dalmau
Encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain with many possible causes and a complex differential diagnosis. Advances in autoimmune encephalitis research in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to these disorders. However, existing criteria for autoimmune encephalitis are too reliant on antibody testing and response to immunotherapy, which might delay the diagnosis. We reviewed the literature and gathered the experience of a team of experts with the aims of developing a practical, syndrome-based diagnostic approach to autoimmune encephalitis and providing guidelines to navigate through the differential diagnosis...
April 2016: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26897101/generalized-safety-and-efficacy-of-simplified-intravenous-thrombolysis-treatment-smart-criteria-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-the-multi-smart-study
#15
Sigrid B Sørensen, Nobl Barazangi, Charlene Chen, Christine Wong, David Grosvenor, Jack Rose, Ann Bedenk, Megan Morrow, Dan McDermott, Jens D Hove, David C Tong
BACKGROUND: Common intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) exclusion criteria may substantially limit the use of thrombolysis. Preliminary data have shown that the SMART (Simplified Management of Acute stroke using Revised Treatment) criteria greatly expand patient eligibility by reducing thrombolysis exclusions, but they have not been assessed on a large scale. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of general adoption of SMART thrombolysis criteria to a large regional stroke network...
May 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26890473/endarterectomy-stenting-or-neither-for-asymptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis
#16
EDITORIAL
J David Spence, A Ross Naylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26886206/clinical-features-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-myasthenia-gravis-a-supplement-to-the-guidelines-of-the-german-neurological-society
#17
REVIEW
Nico Melzer, Tobias Ruck, Peter Fuhr, Ralf Gold, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Alexander Marx, Arthur Melms, Björn Tackenberg, Berthold Schalke, Christiane Schneider-Gold, Fritz Zimprich, Sven G Meuth, Heinz Wiendl
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune antibody-mediated disorder of neuromuscular synaptic transmission. The clinical hallmark of MG consists of fluctuating fatigability and weakness affecting ocular, bulbar and (proximal) limb skeletal muscle groups. MG may either occur as an autoimmune disease with distinct immunogenetic characteristics or as a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with tumors of the thymus. Impairment of central thymic and peripheral self-tolerance mechanisms in both cases is thought to favor an autoimmune CD4(+) T cell-mediated B cell activation and synthesis of pathogenic high-affinity autoantibodies of either the IgG1 and 3 or IgG4 subclass...
August 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26839703/evidence-based-treatments-for-adults-with-migraine
#18
REVIEW
Rubesh Gooriah, Randa Nimeri, Fayyaz Ahmed
Migraine, a significantly disabling condition, is treated with acute and preventive medications. However, some individuals are refractory to standard treatments. Although there is a host of alternative management options available, these are not always backed by strong evidence. In fact, most of the drugs used in migraine were initially designed for other purposes. Whilst effective, the benefits from these medications are modest, reflecting the need for newer and migraine-specific therapeutic agents. In recent years, we have witnessed the emergence of novel treatments, of which noninvasive neuromodulation appears to be the most attractive given its ease of use and excellent tolerability profile...
2015: Pain Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26822746/mri-criteria-for-the-diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-magnims-consensus-guidelines
#19
REVIEW
Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca, Olga Ciccarelli, Nicola De Stefano, Nikos Evangelou, Ludwig Kappos, Alex Rovira, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Mar Tintorè, Jette L Frederiksen, Claudio Gasperini, Jacqueline Palace, Daniel S Reich, Brenda Banwell, Xavier Montalban, Frederik Barkhof
In patients presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome, MRI can support and substitute clinical information in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis by showing disease dissemination in space and time and by helping to exclude disorders that can mimic multiple sclerosis. MRI criteria were first included in the diagnostic work-up for multiple sclerosis in 2001, and since then several modifications to the criteria have been proposed in an attempt to simplify lesion-count models for showing disease dissemination in space, change the timing of MRI scanning to show dissemination in time, and increase the value of spinal cord imaging...
March 2016: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26815291/thrombolysis-with-low-dose-tissue-plasminogen-activator-3-4-5-h-after-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-five-hospital-groups-in-japan
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Ryuta Morihara, Syoichiro Kono, Kota Sato, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Toru Yamashita, Kentaro Deguchi, Yasuhiro Manabe, Yoshiki Takao, Kenichi Kashihara, Satoshi Inoue, Hideki Kiriyama, Koji Abe
Clinical data from Japan on the safety and real-world outcomes of alteplase (tPA) thrombolysis in the extended therapeutic window are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and real-world outcomes of tPA administered within 3-4.5 h of stroke onset. The study comprised consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients (n = 177) admitted across five hospitals between September 2012 and August 2014. Patients received intravenous tPA within <3 or 3-4.5 h of stroke onset. Endovascular therapy was used for tPA-refractory patients...
April 2016: Translational Stroke Research
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