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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096129/current-knowledge-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants-and-the-impact-of-different-types-of-enteral-nutrition-products
#1
REVIEW
Jocelyn Shulhan, Bryan Dicken, Lisa Hartling, Bodil Mk Larsen
Preterm infants are extremely vulnerable to a range of morbidities and mortality. Underdeveloped cardiac, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and immune systems in the preterm period increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious disease of the gut. NEC affects 5-12% of very-low birth-weight infants, leads to surgery in 20-40% of cases, and is fatal in 25-50% of cases. There are multiple factors that may contribute to NEC, but the exact cause is not yet fully understood. Severe cases can result in intestinal resection or death, and the health care costs average >$300,000/infant when surgical management is required...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514886/physiological-effects-of-prebiotics-and-its-role-in-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-neonates
#2
Bhawan Deep Garg, Haribalakrishna Balasubramanian, Nandkishor S Kabra
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most serious gastrointestinal emergencies in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates, affecting 7-14% of these neonates. Due to the seriousness of the disease, prevention of NEC is the most important goal. Current evidence from systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that probiotics are the most promising intervention in reduction of the incidence of NEC in VLBW neonates. As per the evidence, prebiotics modulate the composition of human intestine microflora to the benefit of the host by suppression of colonization of harmful microorganism and/or the stimulation of bifidobacterial growth, decreased stool viscosity, reduced gastrointestinal transit time, and better feed tolerance...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513631/paediatrics-are-human-milk-oligosaccharides-the-magic-bullet-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#3
Michael S Caplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914455/using-probiotics-to-prevent-necrotising-enterocolitis
#4
EDITORIAL
Thomas R Abrahamsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833564/why-haven-t-the-documented-benefits-of-probiotics-on-preterm-babies-led-to-their-wider-acceptance-and-use
#5
EDITORIAL
Constantin R Popescu, Leah T Stiemsma, Pascal M Lavoie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949953/effects-of-probiotics-on-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Gayatri Athalye-Jape, Shripada Rao, Sanjay Patole
BackgroundMeta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. Many animal RCTs have evaluated probiotics for preventing NEC. We systematically reviewed the literature on this topic.MethodsThe protocol for systematic review of animal intervention studies (SYRCLE) was followed. Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Science, e-abstracts from the Pediatric Academic Society meetings, and other neonatal conferences were searched in December 2015 and August 2016...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281615/vitamin-d-ameliorates-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-via-suppressing-tlr4-in-a-murine-model
#7
Yongyan Shi, Tianjing Liu, Xinyi Zhao, Li Yao, Ana Hou, Jianhua Fu, Xindong Xue
BACKGROUND: The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to play an important role in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). As an established regulator of TLR4, vitamin D has been demonstrated to be intestinal-protective. This study aims at finding out whether the vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) pathway ameliorates NEC by regulating TLR4. METHODS: Serum 25(OH)D was tested and compared in 15 preterm infants with NEC, 12 preterm infants without known complications and 20 healthy term infants...
December 27, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255185/standardized-feeding-and-probiotic-supplementation-for-reducing-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants-in-a-resource-limited-set-up
#8
Saurabh Patel, Mayur Chaudhari, Sandeep Kadam, Shripada Rao, Sanjay Patole
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC ≥ Stage II) is associated with high mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. To assess if introduction of standardized feeding regimen (SFR) and routine probiotic supplementation (RPS) was associated with reduced incidence of NEC in preterm infants in our nursery in a resource limited set up. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study assessing the incidence of NEC ≥ Stage II before (Epoch 1: N = 144) vs...
December 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275816/probiotics-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#9
Ravi Mangal Patel, Mark A Underwood
In this review, we summarize existing knowledge regarding the effects of probiotics on necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We review the role of the microbiome in NEC and pre-clinical data on mechanisms of probiotic action. Next, we summarize existing randomized controlled trials and observational studies of probiotics to prevent NEC. We also summarize findings from several recent meta-analyses and report a new cumulative meta-analysis of probiotic trials. Finally, we review data from cohorts routinely using commercially available probiotics...
February 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275810/necrotizing-enterocolitis-pathophysiology-from-a-historical-context
#10
David Hackam, Michael Caplan
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) continues to afflict approximately 7% of preterm infants born weighing less than 1500g, though recent investigations have provided novel insights into the pathogenesis of this complex disease. The disease has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units worldwide for many years, and our current understanding reflects exceptional observations made decades ago. In this review, we will describe NEC from a historical context and summarize seminal findings that underscore the importance of enteral feeding, the gut microbiota, and intestinal inflammation in this complex pathophysiology...
February 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275814/changing-the-paradigm-of-defining-detecting-and-diagnosing-nec-perspectives-on-bell-s-stages-and-biomarkers-for-nec
#11
Sheila M Gephart, Phillip V Gordon, Alexander H Penn, Katherine E Gregory, Jonathan R Swanson, Akhil Maheshwari, Karl Sylvester
Better means to diagnose and define necrotizing enterocolitis are needed to guide clinical practice and research. Adequacy of Bell's staging system for clinical practice and clarity of cases used in NEC clinical datasets has been a topic of controversy for some time. This article provides reasons why a better global definition for NEC is needed and offers a simple alternative bedside definition for preterm NEC called the "Two out of Three" rule. Some argue that biomarkers may fill knowledge gaps and provide greater precision in defining relevant features of a clinical disease like NEC...
February 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176013/transfusion-associated-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants-an-updated-meta-analysis-of-observational-data
#12
Parvesh Garg, Rachel Pinotti, C Vivek Lal, Ariel A Salas
BACKGROUND: The number of observational studies that report an association between packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has increased. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the association between PRBC transfusions and NEC in observational studies. METHODS: Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases as well as the Pediatrics Academic Societies abstract archives were systematically searched to identify observational studies that investigated the association between PRBC transfusions and NEC...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276042/intestinal-tight-junctions-are-severely-altered-in-nec-preterm-neonates
#13
Amir Bein, Smadar Eventov-Friedman, Dan Arbell, Betty Schwartz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe inflammatory disorder of the intestine endangering the health and survival of preterm infants. It is well established that the gut barrier is severely damaged in NEC patients, nonetheless an in depth investigation of modifications at the transcriptional and translational levels of tight junction genes and proteins during NEC are still missing. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the expression of tight junctions and other associated proteins during NEC and determine their correlation to the disease severity...
December 7, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270303/nec-zero-recommendations-from-scoping-review-of-evidence-to-prevent-and-foster-timely-recognition-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#14
REVIEW
Sheila M Gephart, Corrine Hanson, Christine M Wetzel, Michelle Fleiner, Erin Umberger, Laura Martin, Suma Rao, Amit Agrawal, Terri Marin, Khaver Kirmani, Megan Quinn, Jenny Quinn, Katherine M Dudding, Tanya Clay, Jason Sauberan, Yael Eskenazi, Caroline Porter, Amy L Msowoya, Christina Wyles, Melissa Avenado-Ruiz, Shayla Vo, Kristina M Reber, Jennifer Duchon
Background: Although decades have focused on unraveling its etiology, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a chief threat to the health of premature infants. Both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors contribute to varying rates of disease across neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a scoping review with two new meta-analyses, clinical recommendations, and implementation strategies to prevent and foster timely recognition of NEC...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241163/diagnosis-and-management-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-an-international-survey-of-neonatologists-and-pediatric-surgeons
#15
Mélanie Valpacos, Delphine Arni, Amy Keir, Ann Aspirot, James C H Wilde, Spencer Beasley, Daniele De Luca, Riccardo E Pfister, Oliver Karam
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious complication of prematurity. Currently, there is limited evidence to guide investigation and treatment strategies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the parameters used to diagnose or exclude NEC, and to identify differences between neonatologists and pediatric surgeons. METHODS: A scenario-based survey was sent to neonatologists and pediatric surgeons. RESULTS: 173 physicians from 26 countries completed the survey (55% neonatologists and 45% pediatric surgeons)...
2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471478/probiotics-for-the-prevention-of-necrotising-enterocolitis-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
John P Thomas, Tim Raine, Sanath Reddy, Gusztav Belteki
We performed an updated meta-analysis incorporating the results of recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to measure the effectiveness of probiotic supplementation in preventing necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and death in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants, and to investigate any differences in efficacy by probiotic agent. Using meta-regression analysis, we assessed the contribution of other measured variables on the overall effect size and between-study variability. CONCLUSION: Overall, probiotics lead to significant reductions in NEC incidence and mortality in VLBW infants...
November 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092912/one-year-outcomes-following-surgery-for-necrotising-enterocolitis-a-uk-wide-cohort-study
#17
Benjamin Saul Raywood Allin, Anna-May Long, Amit Gupta, Kokila Lakhoo, Marian Knight
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe outcomes and investigate factors affecting prognosis at 1 year post intervention for infants with surgical necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). DESIGN: Using the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System, we conducted a prospective, multicentre cohort study of every infant reported to require surgical intervention for NEC in the UK and Ireland between 1 March 2013 and 28 February 2014...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068791/transfusion-associated-necrotizing-enterocolitis-re-evaluated-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Stientje Esther Rai, Amneet Kaur Sidhu, Rohin Jayaram Krishnan
CONTEXT: Significant controversy exists surrounding the possible association between recent packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion and the subsequent development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants. Previous studies and meta-analyses reporting a statistically significant association led to a practice change to withhold enteral feeds in the peri-transfusion period in many centers in an effort to prevent NEC; however, results from more recent studies do not support the existence of an association and, thus, question the validity of this practice change...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916575/effects-of-probiotics-on-necrotizing-enterocolitis-sepsis-intraventricular-hemorrhage-mortality-length-of-hospital-stay-and-weight-gain-in-very-preterm-infants-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Jing Sun, Gayatri Marwah, Matthew Westgarth, Nicholas Buys, David Ellwood, Peter H Gray
Probiotics are increasingly used as a supplement to prevent adverse health outcomes in preterm infants. We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis, and subgroup analysis of findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the magnitude of the effect of the probiotics on health outcomes among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Relevant articles from January 2003 to June 2017 were selected from a broad range of databases, including Medline, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase. Studies were included if they used an RCT design, involved a VLBW infant (birthweight <1500 g or gestational age <32 wk) population, included a probiotic intervention group, measured necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) as a primary outcome, and measured sepsis, mortality, length of hospital stay, weight gain, and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) as additional outcomes...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829405/probiotics-prevent-late-onset-sepsis-in-human-milk-fed-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Arianna Aceti, Luca Maggio, Isadora Beghetti, Davide Gori, Giovanni Barone, Maria Luisa Callegari, Maria Pia Fantini, Flavia Indrio, Fabio Meneghin, Lorenzo Morelli, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Luigi Corvaglia
Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics' efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs...
August 22, 2017: Nutrients
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