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Susanne Hay, John A F Zupancic, Dustin D Flannery, Haresh Kirpalani, Dmitry Dukhovny
Numerous observational studies appear to demonstrate an association between packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusions and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, the limited numbers of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) do not support a causal relationship between pRBC transfusion and NEC. We sought to determine the quality of the evidence behind transfusion-associated necrotizing enterocolitis (TANEC), and to formulate a GRADE-based recommendation regarding transfusion practices to reduce the risk of TANEC...
November 17, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
Mark A Underwood
A large number of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials and cohort studies have demonstrated a decrease in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis with administration of probiotic microbes. These studies have prompted many neonatologists to adopt routine prophylactic administration of probiotics while others await more definitive studies and/or probiotic products with demonstrated purity and stable numbers of live organisms. Cross-contamination and inadequate sample size limit the value of further traditional placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials...
November 8, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
Alain Cuna, Venkatesh Sampath
An underlying genetic predisposition to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is increasingly being recognized. Candidate gene or pathway approaches as well as genome-wide approaches are beginning to identify potential pathogenic variants for NEC in premature infants. However, a majority of these studies have not yielded definitive results because of limited sample size and lack of validation. Despite these challenges, understanding the contribution of genetic variation to NEC is important for providing new insights into the pathogenesis of NEC as well as allowing for targeted care of infants with inherent susceptibility...
November 8, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
Silvia Martini, Arianna Aceti, Mario Lima, Michela Maffi, Giacomo Faldella, Luigi Corvaglia
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most severe gastrointestinal complication of prematurity. Surgery, either peritoneal drainage placement or laparotomy with resection of the intestinal necrotic tracts, is the definitive treatment of perforated NEC; however, when clinical conditions contraindicate surgical approaches, little is known about medical treatments adjuvant or alternative to surgery. Octreotide is a synthetic somatostatin analog that inhibits pancreatic secretion and leads to splanchnic vasoconstriction...
August 2016: Pediatrics
M J Mϋller, T Paul, S Seeliger
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common acquired disease of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in premature infants and newborns. It is defined as an ulcerative inflammation of the intestinal wall. The clinical signs of incipient NEC are often very discrete, and range from localized intestinal symptoms to generalized signs of sepsis. NEC is classified depending on its severity into disease states according to the modified Bell's Classification. Treatment of NEC ranges, depending on its severity, from a conservative therapeutic approach to surgery with resection of the affected parts of the intestine...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
A Pickering, R White, N L Davis
OBJECTIVE: To determine sensitivity, specificity, predictive value of routine fecal occult blood (FOB) testing on the identification of Bell's Stage II or III necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: Retrospective medical record review of VLBW infants from 2012- 2013 evaluating FOB results and clinical and demographic risk factors. We determined predictive values of positive FOB testing within 48 hours of definite NEC diagnosis...
May 19, 2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Sathyaprasad C Burjonrappa, David Schwartzberg
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most common reason for emergent surgery in the neonatal intensive care unit. The common pathophysiology in all NEC involves alteration in gut microflora, abnormal blood supply to the intestine, and uncontrolled cytokine release. We report a full-term neonate who developed NEC. The neonate had surgical resection of approximately 120cms of bowel. After an initial proximal jejunostomy she underwent a successful jejuno-ileal anastomosis with preservation of her ileocolic valve at 6 weeks of age...
July 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
Shalinkumar Patel, Narendra Dereddy, Ajay J Talati, Kan Gaston, Ramasubbareddy Dhanireddy
Objective To study the characteristics of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glycerin suppositories (GS) and evaluate the association of GS use with outcomes. Study Design This is a retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit. Infants with birth weight between 500 and 1,499 g were evaluated. We evaluated the frequency of GS use and compared the characteristics and outcomes of the GS group with the no-GS group. Multivariate analyses controlling for gestational age and small for gestational age status were performed to study the effect of GS on outcomes...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Anand Pandey, Shailendra P Singh, Vipin Gupta, Rajesh Verma
INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a common in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients; especially in premature and low birth weight ones. Surgery is indicated when there is pneumoperitoneum. Other therapies include conservative observation or primary peritoneal drain (PPD). This study was conceived to evaluate peritoneal tapping, rather than primary peritoneal drain (PPD) as a treatment of NEC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective observational study conducted from December 2012 to December 2014 and including all patients of NEC having pneumoperitoneum on X-ray...
April 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
José Luis Gómez-Chaparro Moreno, Alejandro Rodríguez Torronteras, María Dolores Ruiz González, Lucía Izquierdo Palomares, Daniel Bonilla Valverde, Julia Ruiz Laguna, Alfonso Delgado Rubio, Juan López-Barea
UNLABELLED: We aimed to establish the utility of serum cytosolic β-glycosidase (CBG) assay as a NEC diagnosis tool. CBG activity has been compared in 192 NEC-free (NEC(-)) and 13 NEC-affected (NEC(+)) neonates, with modified Bell's stages II/III, born at Reina Sofia University Hospital; additional blood hematology, microbiology, and biochemical parameters have been assayed. NEC(+) neonates have higher serum CBG activity, 26.4 ± 12.4 mU/mg; 95 % CI (18.8-33.9), than NEC(-) infants, 11...
July 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Jann P Foster, Rakesh Seth, Michael J Cole
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common emergency involving the gastrointestinal tract occurring in the neonatal period. There have been published reports that suggest that oral immunoglobulins (Ig)A and IgG produce an immunoprotective effect in the gastrointestinal mucosa. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of oral immunoglobulin on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and other complications in preterm or low birth weight (or both) neonates...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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