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Educational Psychology

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By Max Anderson I am an Instructional Designer in Undergraduate Medical Education at UIC College of Medicine.
David A Cook, Anthony R Artino
OBJECTIVE: To succinctly summarise five contemporary theories about motivation to learn, articulate key intersections and distinctions among these theories, and identify important considerations for future research. RESULTS: Motivation has been defined as the process whereby goal-directed activities are initiated and sustained. In expectancy-value theory, motivation is a function of the expectation of success and perceived value. Attribution theory focuses on the causal attributions learners create to explain the results of an activity, and classifies these in terms of their locus, stability and controllability...
October 2016: Medical Education
Dario Cecilio-Fernandes, Wouter Kerdijk, A D Debbie C Jaarsma, René A Tio
BACKGROUND: Beside acquiring knowledge, medical students should also develop the ability to apply and reflect on it, requiring higher-order cognitive processing. Ideally, students should have reached higher-order cognitive processing when they enter the clinical program. Whether this is the case, is unknown. We investigated students' cognitive processing, and awareness of their knowledge during medical school. METHODS: Data were gathered from 347 first-year preclinical and 196 first-year clinical students concerning the 2008 and 2011 Dutch progress tests...
April 27, 2016: Medical Teacher
Petra J Lewis
Many didactic lectures induce a cognitive load in learners out of proportion to the content that they need to learn (or can learn) during that teaching session. This is due in part to the content, and in part to the way it is displayed or presented. By reducing the cognitive load on our audience, we can increase long-term retention of information. This article briefly summarizes some of the science behind cognitive load as it relates to presentations, and identifies simple steps to reduce it, while maximizing learning...
July 2016: Academic Radiology
Richard Tindle, Mitchell G Longstaff
Previous research has assumed that writing is a cognitively complex task, but has not determined if writing overloads Working Memory more than reading and listening. To investigate this, participants completed three recall tasks. These were reading lists of words before recalling them, hearing lists of words before recalling them, and hearing lists of words and writing them as they heard them, then recalling them. The experiment involved serial recall of lists of 6 words. The hypothesis that fewer words would be recalled overall when writing was supported...
2015: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
John Q Young, David M Irby, Maria-Louise Barilla-LaBarca, Olle Ten Cate, Patricia S O'Sullivan
INTRODUCTION: The application of cognitive load theory to workplace-based activities such as patient handovers is hindered by the absence of a measure of the different load types. This exploratory study tests a method for measuring cognitive load during handovers. METHODS: The authors developed the Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs (CLI4H) with items for intrinsic, extraneous, and germane load. Medical students completed the measure after participating in a simulated handover...
February 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
John Q Young, Justin L Sewell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Perspectives on Medical Education
Kristin L Fraser, Paul Ayres, John Sweller
Simulation-based education (SBE) has emerged as an effective and important tool for medical educators, but research about how to optimize training with simulators is in its infancy. It is often difficult to generalize results from experiments on instructional design issues in simulation because of the heterogeneity of learner groups, teaching methods, and rapidly changing technologies. We have found that cognitive load theory is highly relevant to teaching in the simulation laboratory and a useful conceptual framework to reference when designing or researching simulation-based education...
October 2015: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
Laura M Naismith, Faizal A Haji, Matthew Sibbald, Jeffrey J H Cheung, Walter Tavares, Rodrigo B Cavalcanti
Theory-based instructional design is a top priority in medical education. The goal of this Show and Tell article is to present our theory-driven approach to the design of instruction for clinical educators. We adopted cognitive load theory as a framework to design and evaluate a series of professional development workshops that were delivered at local, national and international academic conferences in 2014. We used two rating scales to measure participants' cognitive load. Participants also provided narrative comments as to how the workshops could be improved...
October 21, 2015: Perspectives on Medical Education
Laura M Naismith, Rodrigo B Cavalcanti
BACKGROUND: Cognitive load theory (CLT) provides a rich framework to inform instructional design. Despite the applicability of CLT to simulation-based medical training, findings from multimedia learning have not been consistently replicated in this context. This lack of transferability may be related to issues in measuring cognitive load (CL) during simulation. The authors conducted a review of CLT studies across simulation training contexts to assess the validity evidence for different CL measures...
November 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Faizal A Haji, Rabia Khan, Glenn Regehr, James Drake, Sandrine de Ribaupierre, Adam Dubrowski
As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance (signal detection rate, SDR and recognition reaction time, RRT) as measures of CL. In phase 1 of the study, novice learners and expert surgeons attempted a visual-monitoring task under two conditions: single-task (monitoring a virtual patient's heart-rate) and dual-task (tying surgical knots on a bench-top simulator while monitoring the virtual patient's heart-rate)...
December 2015: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Caitlin Tenison, Jon M Fincham, John R Anderson
This fMRI study examines the changes in participants' information processing as they repeatedly solve the same mathematical problem. We show that the majority of practice-related speedup is produced by discrete changes in cognitive processing. Because the points at which these changes take place vary from problem to problem, and the underlying information processing steps vary in duration, the existence of such discrete changes can be hard to detect. Using two converging approaches, we establish the existence of three learning phases...
June 2016: Cognitive Psychology
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