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Gastroenterología

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24 papers 0 to 25 followers Acute pancreatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25078422/urea-and-ammonia-metabolism-and-the-control-of-renal-nitrogen-excretion
#1
REVIEW
I David Weiner, William E Mitch, Jeff M Sands
Renal nitrogen metabolism primarily involves urea and ammonia metabolism, and is essential to normal health. Urea is the largest circulating pool of nitrogen, excluding nitrogen in circulating proteins, and its production changes in parallel to the degradation of dietary and endogenous proteins. In addition to serving as a way to excrete nitrogen, urea transport, mediated through specific urea transport proteins, mediates a central role in the urine concentrating mechanism. Renal ammonia excretion, although often considered only in the context of acid-base homeostasis, accounts for approximately 10% of total renal nitrogen excretion under basal conditions, but can increase substantially in a variety of clinical conditions...
August 7, 2015: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25865476/refining-the-ammonia-hypothesis-a-physiology-driven-approach-to-the-treatment-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#2
REVIEW
Elliot B Tapper, Z Gordon Jiang, Vilas R Patwardhan
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the most important complications of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Although the etiology is incompletely understood, it has been linked to ammonia directly and indirectly. Our goal is to review for the clinician the mechanisms behind hyperammonemia and the pathogenesis of HE to explain the rationale for its therapy. We reviewed articles collected through a search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar between October 1, 1948, and December 8, 2014, and by a manual search of citations within retrieved articles...
May 2015: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25503497/blood-ammonia-and-glutamine-as-predictors-of-hyperammonemic-crises-in-patients-with-urea-cycle-disorder
#3
Brendan Lee, George A Diaz, William Rhead, Uta Lichter-Konecki, Annette Feigenbaum, Susan A Berry, Cindy Le Mons, James A Bartley, Nicola Longo, Sandesh C Nagamani, William Berquist, Renata Gallagher, Dennis Bartholomew, Cary O Harding, Mark S Korson, Shawn E McCandless, Wendy Smith, Stephen Cederbaum, Derek Wong, J Lawrence Merritt, Andreas Schulze, Jerry Vockley, Gerard Vockley, David Kronn, Roberto Zori, Marshall Summar, Douglas A Milikien, Miguel Marino, Dion F Coakley, Masoud Mokhtarani, Bruce F Scharschmidt
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine predictors of ammonia exposure and hyperammonemic crises in patients with urea cycle disorders. METHODS: The relationships between fasting ammonia, daily ammonia exposure, and hyperammonemic crises were analyzed in >100 patients with urea cycle disorders. RESULTS: Fasting ammonia correlated strongly with daily ammonia exposure (r = 0.764; P < 0.001). For patients with fasting ammonia concentrations <0...
July 2015: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860485/an-update-on-the-use-of-benzoate-phenylacetate-and-phenylbutyrate-ammonia-scavengers-for-interrogating-and-modifying-liver-nitrogen-metabolism-and-its-implications-in-urea-cycle-disorders-and-liver-disease
#4
REVIEW
Javier De Las Heras, Luis Aldámiz-Echevarría, María-Luz Martínez-Chantar, Teresa C Delgado
Ammonia-scavenging drugs, benzoate and phenylacetate (PA)/phenylbutyrate (PB), modulate hepatic nitrogen metabolism mainly by providing alternative pathways for nitrogen disposal. Areas covered: We review the major findings and potential novel applications of ammonia-scavenging drugs, focusing on urea cycle disorders and liver disease. Expert opinion: For over 40 years, ammonia-scavenging drugs have been used in the treatment of urea cycle disorders. Recently, the use of these compounds has been advocated in acute liver failure and cirrhosis for reducing hyperammonemic-induced hepatic encephalopathy...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26654994/ammonia-produces-pathological-changes-in-human-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-is-a-target-for-therapy-of-portal-hypertension
#5
Rajiv Jalan, Francesco De Chiara, Vairappan Balasubramaniyan, Fausto Andreola, Varun Khetan, Massimo Malago, Massimo Pinzani, Rajeshwar P Mookerjee, Krista Rombouts
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are vital to hepatocellular function and the liver response to injury. They share a phenotypic homology with astrocytes that are central in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, a condition in which hyperammonemia plays a pathogenic role. This study tested the hypothesis that ammonia modulates human HSC activation in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated whether ammonia lowering, by using l-ornithine phenylacetate (OP), modifies HSC activation in vivo and reduces portal pressure in a bile duct ligation (BDL) model...
April 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26870932/hepatic-encephalopathy-pharmacological-therapies-targeting-ammonia
#6
REVIEW
Robert S Rahimi, Don C Rockey
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major complication in patients with decompensated cirrhosis, leading to higher readmission rates causing a profound burden of disease and considerable health care costs. Because ammonia is thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HE, therapies directed at reducing ammonia levels are now being aggressively developed. Ammonia scavengers such as AST-120 (spherical carbon adsorbent), glycerol phenylbutyrate, sodium phenylacetate or sodium benzoate, and ornithine phenylacetate have been used to improve HE symptoms...
February 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350893/celiac-disease-and-nonceliac-gluten-or-wheat-sensitivity-the-risks-and-benefits-of-diagnosis
#7
Nicholas J Talley, Marjorie M Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052623/prevention-and-treatment-of-variceal-haemorrhage-in-2017
#8
REVIEW
Felix Brunner, Annalisa Berzigotti, Jaime Bosch
Variceal haemorrhage is a major complication of portal hypertension that still causes high mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Improved knowledge of the pathophysiology of portal hypertension has recently led to a more comprehensive approach to prevent all the complications of this condition. Thus, optimal treatment of portal hypertension requires a strategy that takes into account the clinical stage of the disease and all the major variables that affect the risk of progression to the next stage and death...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925883/acg-clinical-guideline-management-of-patients-with-acute-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#9
Lisa L Strate, Ian M Gralnek
This guideline provides recommendations for the management of patients with acute overt lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Hemodynamic status should be initially assessed with intravascular volume resuscitation started as needed. Risk stratification based on clinical parameters should be performed to help distinguish patients at high- and low-risk of adverse outcomes. Hematochezia associated with hemodynamic instability may be indicative of an upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding source and thus warrants an upper endoscopy...
April 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26948434/chronic-pancreatitis
#10
REVIEW
Shounak Majumder, Suresh T Chari
Chronic pancreatitis describes a wide spectrum of fibro-inflammatory disorders of the exocrine pancreas that includes calcifying, obstructive, and steroid-responsive forms. Use of the term chronic pancreatitis without qualification generally refers to calcifying chronic pancreatitis. Epidemiology is poorly defined, but incidence worldwide seems to be on the rise. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and genetic predisposition are the major risk factors for chronic calcifying pancreatitis. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of chronic calcifying pancreatitis, focusing on pain management, the role of endoscopic and surgical intervention, and the use of pancreatic enzyme-replacement therapy...
May 7, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068718/acg-clinical-guideline-diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention-of-acute-diarrheal-infections-in-adults
#11
Mark S Riddle, Herbert L DuPont, Bradley A Connor
Acute diarrheal infections are a common health problem globally and among both individuals in the United States and traveling to developing world countries. Multiple modalities including antibiotic and non-antibiotic therapies have been used to address these common infections. Information on treatment, prevention, diagnostics, and the consequences of acute diarrhea infection has emerged and helps to inform clinical management. In this ACG Clinical Guideline, the authors present an evidence-based approach to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of acute diarrhea infection in both US-based and travel settings...
May 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27077712/acute-pancreatitis-landmark-studies-management-decisions-and-the-future
#12
REVIEW
Peter A Banks
A great deal of progress has been made in the last 50 years in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Many landmark studies have been published and have focused on the classification of acute pancreatitis, markers of severity, important roles of imaging and endoscopy, and improvements in our treatment. This report will review several landmark studies, describe ongoing controversies in management decisions including standards of early fluid resuscitation and appropriate use of enteral feeding, and outline what will be required in the future to improve the care of patients with acute pancreatitis...
May 2016: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085810/easl-clinical-practice-guidelines-on-the-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-gallstones
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151132/acg-clinical-guideline-management-of-patients-with-acute-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#14
Lisa L Strate, Ian M Gralnek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274107/pathophysiology-and-management-of-alcoholic-liver-disease-update-2016
#15
REVIEW
Felix Stickel, Christian Datz, Jochen Hampe, Ramon Bataller
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of cirrhosis, liver cancer, and acute and chronic liver failure and as such causes significant morbidity and mortality. While alcohol consumption is slightly decreasing in several European countries, it is rising in others and remains high in many countries around the world. The pathophysiology of ALD is still incompletely understood but relates largely to the direct toxic effects of alcohol and its main intermediate, acetaldehyde. Recently, novel putative mechanisms have been identified in systematic scans covering the entire human genome and raise new hypotheses on previously unknown pathways...
March 15, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109913/barrett-s-esophagus-diagnosis-and-management
#16
REVIEW
Swathi Eluri, Nicholas J Shaheen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119010/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-ascites
#17
Emmanuel A Tsochatzis, Alexander L Gerbes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897155/diagnosis-and-management-of-microscopic-colitis
#18
REVIEW
Darrell S Pardi
Microscopic colitis (MC) is a relatively common cause of chronic watery diarrhea, especially in older persons. Associated symptoms, including abdominal pain and arthralgias, are common. The diagnosis is based upon characteristic histological findings in the presence of diarrhea. The two types of MC, collagenous and lymphocytic colitis, share similar clinical features, with the main difference being the presence or absence of a thickened subepithelial collagen band. There are several treatment options for patients with MC, although only budesonide has been well studied in multiple controlled clinical trials...
January 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784575/the-appropriate-use-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-ppis-need-for-a-reappraisal
#19
REVIEW
Vincenzo Savarino, Pietro Dulbecco, Nicola de Bortoli, Andrea Ottonello, Edoardo Savarino
The advent of powerful acid-suppressive drugs, such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), has revolutionized the management of acid-related diseases and has minimized the role of surgery. The major and universally recognized indications for their use are represented by treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in combination with antibiotics, therapy of H. pylori-negative peptic ulcers, healing and prophylaxis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated gastric ulcers and control of several acid hypersecretory conditions...
January 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071659/acg-clinical-guideline-treatment-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#20
William D Chey, Grigorios I Leontiadis, Colin W Howden, Steven F Moss
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a common worldwide infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. H. pylori may also have a role in uninvestigated and functional dyspepsia, ulcer risk in patients taking low-dose aspirin or starting therapy with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, unexplained iron deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. While choosing a treatment regimen for H. pylori, patients should be asked about previous antibiotic exposure and this information should be incorporated into the decision-making process...
February 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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