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Brit Long, Jennifer Robertson, Alex Koyfman, Kurian Maliel, Justin R Warix
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an abnormal heart rhythm which may lead to stroke, heart failure, and death. Emergency physicians play a role in diagnosing AF, managing symptoms, and lessening complications from this dysrhythmia. OBJECTIVE: This review evaluates recent literature and addresses ED considerations in the management of AF. DISCUSSION: Emergency physicians should first assess patient clinical stability and evaluate and treat reversible causes...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kalyan Chakravarthy Potu, Amol Raizada, Maheedhar Gedela, Adam Stys
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also called "broken heart" syndrome or apical ballooning syndrome, is a reversible cardiomyopathy characterized by left ventricular dysfunction and ballooning of the left ventricular apex on imaging during systole. It predominantly occurs in post-menopausal women and is commonly associated with emotional or physical stress. Patients commonly present with chest pain and electrocardiographic evidence of ST segment elevation or T-wave-mimicking acute coronary syndrome, but with an absence of angiographic evidence of obstructive coronary disease...
April 2016: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Ezra A Amsterdam, Nanette K Wenger, Ralph G Brindis, Donald E Casey, Theodore G Ganiats, David R Holmes, Allan S Jaffe, Hani Jneid, Rosemary F Kelly, Michael C Kontos, Glenn N Levine, Philip R Liebson, Debabrata Mukherjee, Eric D Peterson, Marc S Sabatine, Richard W Smalling, Susan J Zieman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2014: Circulation
Pablo A Chiale, Adrián Baranchuk, Mario D González, Rubén A Sánchez, Hugo A Garro, Pablo A Fernández, Carlos Quiroga Avalos, Andres Enriquez, Marcelo V Elizari
BACKGROUND: Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) often terminate spontaneously, presumably due to changes in the electrophysiological properties of the reentrant circuit. However, the mechanism of spontaneous termination of these arrhythmias is incompletely understood. METHODS: We included 70 consecutive patients with reentrant supraventricular tachycardias (35 AVNRT, 35 AVRT) in whom the arrhythmia ended spontaneously during the electrophysiologic study...
July 15, 2015: International Journal of Cardiology
Sana M Al-Khatib, Aysha Arshad, Ethan M Balk, Sandeep R Das, Jonathan C Hsu, Josè A Joglar, Richard L Page
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature systematically to determine whether noninvasive or invasive risk stratification, such as with an electrophysiological study of patients with asymptomatic pre-excitation, reduces the risk of arrhythmic events and improves patient outcomes. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all January 1, 1970, through August 31, 2014) were searched for randomized controlled trials and cohort studies examining noninvasive or invasive risk stratification in patients with asymptomatic pre-excitation...
April 5, 2016: Circulation
Francesco Pelliccia, Gianfranco Sinagra, Perry Elliott, Guido Parodi, Cristina Basso, Paolo G Camici
Unraveling the mechanisms underlying Takotsubo (TTS) leads to question the current inclusion of the condition within the spectrum of cardiomyopathies. Indeed, the clinical presentation and pathophysiology of TTS clearly differ from cardiomyopathies, i.e. diseases of heart muscle unexplained by abnormal loading conditions or coronary artery disease, which cannot recover spontaneously and may cause sudden death often in minimally symptomatic individuals or result in a gradual deterioration in ventricular function and end-stage heart failure...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Volkmar Falk, Helmut Baumgartner, Jeroen J Bax, Michele De Bonis, Christian Hamm, Per Johan Holm, Bernard Iung, Patrizio Lancellotti, Emmanuel Lansac, Daniel Rodriguez Muñoz, Raphael Rosenhek, Johan Sjögren, Pilar Tornos Mas, Alec Vahanian, Thomas Walther, Olaf Wendler, Stephan Windecker, Jose Luis Zamorano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Nazar Luqman, Ruey J Sung, Chun-Li Wang, Chi-Tai Kuo
Ventricular fibrillation (VF) and myocardial ischemia are inseparable. The first clinical manifestation of myocardial ischemia or infarction may be sudden cardiac death in 20-25% of patients. The occurrence of potentially lethal arrhythmia is the end result of a cascade of pathophysiological abnormalities that result from complex interactions between coronary vascular events, myocardial injury, and changes in autonomic tone, metabolic conditions and ionic state of the myocardium. It is also related to the time from the onset of ischemia...
July 31, 2007: International Journal of Cardiology
Yu-ki Iwasaki, Kunihiro Nishida, Takeshi Kato, Stanley Nattel
Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, is an important contributor to population morbidity and mortality. An arrhythmia that is particularly common in the elderly, AF is growing in prevalence with the aging of the population. Our understanding of the basic mechanisms that govern AF occurrence and persistence has been increasing rapidly. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of AF over a broad range of levels, touching on the tissue mechanisms that maintain the arrhythmia, the relationship between clinical presentation and basic mechanisms, ion channel and transporter abnormalities that lead to ectopic impulse formation, basic models and tissue determinants of reentry, ion channel determinants of reentry, the nature and roles of electric and structural remodeling, autonomic neural components, anatomic factors, interactions between atrial and ventricular functional consequences of AF, and the basic determinants of atrial thromboembolism...
November 15, 2011: Circulation
Yu-Feng Hu, Yi-Jen Chen, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Shih-Ann Chen
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. However, the development of preventative therapies for AF has been disappointing. The infiltration of immune cells and proteins that mediate the inflammatory response in cardiac tissue and circulatory processes is associated with AF. Furthermore, the presence of inflammation in the heart or systemic circulation can predict the onset of AF and recurrence in the general population, as well as in patients after cardiac surgery, cardioversion, and catheter ablation...
April 2015: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Jason Andrade, Paul Khairy, Dobromir Dobrev, Stanley Nattel
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia (estimated lifetime risk, 22%-26%). The aim of this article is to review the clinical epidemiological features of AF and to relate them to underlying mechanisms. Long-established risk factors for AF include aging, male sex, hypertension, valve disease, left ventricular dysfunction, obesity, and alcohol consumption. Emerging risk factors include prehypertension, increased pulse pressure, obstructive sleep apnea, high-level physical training, diastolic dysfunction, predisposing gene variants, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart disease...
April 25, 2014: Circulation Research
Basil Saour, Bryan Smith, Clyde W Yancy
The Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention estimates that 5.7 million adults in the United States suffer from heart failure and 1 in 9 deaths in 2009 cited heart failure as a contributing cause. Almost 50% of patients who are diagnosed with heart failure die within 5 years of diagnosis. Cardiovascular disease is a public health burden. The prognosis of patients with heart failure has improved significantly. However, the risk for death remains high. Managing sudden death risk and intervening appropriately with primary or secondary prevention strategies are of paramount importance...
December 2017: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
Nabil El-Sherif, Mohamed Boutjdir, Gioia Turitto
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) accounts for approximately 360,000 deaths annually in the United States. Ischemic heart disease is the major cause of death in the general adult population. SCD can be due to arrhythmic or nonarrhythmic cardiac causes. Arrhythmic SCD may be caused by ventricular tachyarrhythmia or pulseless electrical activity/asystole. This article reviews the most recent pathophysiology and risk stratification strategies for SCD, emphasizing electrophysiologic surrogates of conduction disorder, dispersion of repolarization, and autonomic imbalance...
December 2017: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
Robert Sheldon, Morwenna Opie-Moran
The placebo effect is the clinical benefit caused by interaction with a caregiver and health care system in the absence of a biologically active intervention and has been used successfully for millennia. The placebo response results from the interaction of psychosocial mechanisms, human relationships, and preconceptions functioning in specific neuroanatomic locations with known genes and neurotransmitters. It occurs with or without the administration of an inactive substance to deliberately deceive patients...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Claire A Martin, Pier D Lambiase
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Peng-Sheng Chen, Lan S Chen, Michael C Fishbein, Shien-Fong Lin, Stanley Nattel
Autonomic nervous system activation can induce significant and heterogeneous changes of atrial electrophysiology and induce atrial tachyarrhythmias, including atrial tachycardia and atrial fibrillation (AF). The importance of the autonomic nervous system in atrial arrhythmogenesis is also supported by circadian variation in the incidence of symptomatic AF in humans. Methods that reduce autonomic innervation or outflow have been shown to reduce the incidence of spontaneous or induced atrial arrhythmias, suggesting that neuromodulation may be helpful in controlling AF...
April 25, 2014: Circulation Research
Viorel G Florea, Jay N Cohn
The pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) is characterized by hemodynamic abnormalities that result in neurohormonal activation and autonomic imbalance with increase in sympathetic activity and withdrawal of vagal activity. Alterations in receptor activation from this autonomic imbalance may have profound effects on cardiac function and structure. Inhibition of the sympathetic drive to the heart through β-receptor blockade has become a standard component of therapy for HF with a dilated left ventricle because of its effectiveness in inhibiting the ventricular structural remodeling process and in prolonging life...
May 23, 2014: Circulation Research
Giuseppe Mancia, Guido Grassi
Physiological studies have long documented the key role played by the autonomic nervous system in modulating cardiovascular functions and in controlling blood pressure values, both at rest and in response to environmental stimuli. Experimental and clinical investigations have tested the hypothesis that the origin, progression, and outcome of human hypertension are related to dysfunctional autonomic cardiovascular control and especially to abnormal activation of the sympathetic division. Here, we review the recent literature on the adrenergic and vagal abnormalities that have been reported in essential hypertension, with emphasis on their role as promoters and as amplifiers of the high blood pressure state...
May 23, 2014: Circulation Research
Mark J Shen, Douglas P Zipes
The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the modulation of cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmogenesis. Decades of research has contributed to a better understanding of the anatomy and physiology of cardiac autonomic nervous system and provided evidence supporting the relationship of autonomic tone to clinically significant arrhythmias. The mechanisms by which autonomic activation is arrhythmogenic or antiarrhythmic are complex and different for specific arrhythmias. In atrial fibrillation, simultaneous sympathetic and parasympathetic activations are the most common trigger...
March 14, 2014: Circulation Research
Holly R Middlekauff, Jeanie Park, Roya S Moheimani
This review summarizes the detrimental effects of cigarette and noncigarette emission exposure on autonomic function, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms of acute and chronic modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. We propose that the nicotine and fine particulate matter in tobacco smoke lead to increased sympathetic nerve activity, which becomes persistent via a positive feedback loop between sympathetic nerve activity and reactive oxidative species. Furthermore, we propose that baroreflex suppression of sympathetic activation is attenuated in habitual smokers; that is, the baroreflex plays a permissive role, allowing sympathoexcitation to occur without restraint in the setting of increased pressor response...
October 21, 2014: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
2017-11-30 03:42:19
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