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Neurology

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121 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656928/benign-paroxysmal-migraine-variants-of-infancy-and-childhood-transitions-and-clinical-features
#1
Jacob Brodsky, Karampreet Kaur, Talia Shoshany, Sophie Lipson, Guangwei Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Migraine variant disorders of childhood include benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy (BPTI) and benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood (BPVC). This study aimed to review our experience with BPTI and BPVC and determine the incidence of children transitioning between each of these disorders and to vestibular migraine (VM). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients seen at the Balance and Vestibular Program at Boston Children's Hospital between January 2012 and December 2016 who were diagnosed with BPTI, BPVC, and/or VM...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504481/alien-hand-syndrome-and-migraine-with-aura-a-case-report
#2
Yuksel Erdal, Ufuk Emre, Arife Cimen Atalar, Taskın Gunes
Background Alien Hand Syndrome (AHS) is an uncontrollable, involuntary, but in appearance, purposeful motor control disorder of the upper extremity. Case report A 42-year-old male patient was admitted to our clinic complaining of involuntary motor activity in his right hand. He had a previous history of migraine with visual aura. The uncontrollable motor control disorder was compatible with Alien Hand Syndrome, which was appearing immediately after the visual aura and before the beginning of headache. Conclusion Alien Hand Syndrome is usually observed with anterior cerebral artery infarction, midline tumors, trauma and several neurodegenerative diseases, but is rarely seen in paroxysmal conditions such as migraine with aura...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195824/pseudotumor-cerebri-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-narcolepsy-type-1
#3
Thomas Rossor, Ming Lim, Kirandeep VanDenEshof, Paul Gringras
Type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) is a chronic primary disorder of hypersomnolence characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and disrupted nocturnal sleep. NT1 is linked to hypothalamic hypocretin deficiency, strongly associated with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) marker DQB1*06:02 and of probable autoimmune origin. NT1 is usually associated with increased rates of overweight and obesity, and sometimes with increases in overnight blood pressure and increased rates of hypoventilation with raised CO2 levels overnight...
January 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282001/nitrous-oxide-induced-subacute-combined-degeneration-with-longitudinally-extensive-myelopathy-with-inverted-v-sign-on-spinal-mri-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Jun Liang Yuan, Shuang Kun Wang, Tao Jiang, Wen Li Hu
BACKGROUND: Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is also neurotoxic by interfering with the bioavailability of vitamin B12 if abused. A few case studies have reported the neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we reported a patient of N2O induced subacute combined degeneration (SCD) with longitudinally extensive myelopathy with inverted V-sign exhibiting progressive limb paresthesia and unsteady gait. CONCLUSIONS: This case raises the awareness of an important mechanism of neural toxicity of N2O, and clinical physicians should be well recognized this in the field of substance-related disorders...
December 28, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940011/pediatric-intracranial-hypertension
#5
REVIEW
Shawn C Aylward, Rachel E Reem
Primary (idiopathic) intracranial hypertension has been considered to be a rare entity, but with no precise estimates of the pediatric incidence in the United States. There have been attempts to revise the criteria over the years and adapt the adult criteria for use in pediatrics. The clinical presentation varies with age, and symptoms tending to be less obvious in younger individuals. In the prepubertal population, incidentally discovered optic disc edema is relatively common. By far the most consistent symptom is headache; other symptoms include nausea, vomiting tinnitus, and diplopia...
January 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174005/quick-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-with-diffusion-weighted-imaging-as-a-first-imaging-modality-in-pediatric-stroke
#6
Alison Christy, Charles Murchison, Jenny L Wilson
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic delay hinders management of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke. Quick brain MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging sequences may provide a rapid diagnosis without the ionizing radiation of a computed tomography (CT) scan. METHODS: This was a single center retrospective chart review of children one month to 18 years old with acute arterial ischemic stroke hospitalized between January 2010 and January 2017. We evaluated sensitivity and the time to diagnostic study based on the first imaging study (CT or quick brain MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging)...
January 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887767/management-of-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#7
REVIEW
Roland Veltkamp, Jan Purrucker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the current evidence for medical and surgical treatments of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). RECENT FINDINGS: Therapy with hemostatic agents (e.g. factor VIIa and tranexamic acid) if started early after bleeding onset may reduce hematoma expansion, but their clinical effectiveness has not been shown. Rapid anticoagulation reversal with prothrombin concentrates (PCC) plus vitamin K is the first choice in vitamin K antagonist-related ICH...
September 8, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110887/managing-peripheral-facial-palsy
#8
REVIEW
Aris Garro, Lise E Nigrovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187684/-a-case-of-hereditary-sensory-and-autonomic-neuropathy-type-1e-with-frontal-lobe-dysfunction-as-an-initial-symptom
#9
Masashi Watanabe, Yushi Matsumoto, Kensho Okamoto, Bungo Okuda, Ikuko Mizuta, Toshiki Mizuno
A 49-year-old man had developed gradually personality change, gait disturbance, and hearing loss for five years. On admission, he presented with frontal release signs, stuttering, vertical gaze palsy, sensorineural deafness, muscle rigidity, ataxia, and sensory disturbance with areflexia in the lower extremities. Brain MRI demonstrated atrophy in the cerebellum and midbrain tegmentum as well as cerebral atrophy, predominantly in the frontal lobe. He was tentatively diagnosed as progressive supranuclear palsy on the basis of clinical features and imagings...
December 27, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20722665/doose-syndrome-myoclonic-astatic-epilepsy-40-years-of-progress
#10
REVIEW
Sarah A Kelley, Eric H Kossoff
Doose syndrome, otherwise traditionally known as myoclonic-astatic epilepsy, was first described as a unique epilepsy syndrome by Dr Hermann Doose in 1970. In 1989, the International League Against Epilepsy classified it formally as a symptomatic generalized epilepsy, and 20 years later it was renamed 'epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures'. In this review, we discuss the components of this unique disorder including its incidence, clinical features, and electroencephalographic findings. Recent evidence has suggested possible genetic links to the GEFS+ (generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus) family, and, additionally, some children with structural brain lesions can mimic the Doose syndrome phenotype...
November 2010: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017677/artery-of-percheron-infarct-ararity-not-to-be-missed
#11
Farheen Niazi, Sameen Bin Naeem
Artery of Percheron (AOP) is a rare vascular variant of posterior cerebral circulation and it supplies blood to the bilateral paramedian thalami and the rostral midbrain. Artery of Percheron infarct requires a comprehensive clinical and radiological examination. It can be easily overlooked due to normal CTfindings and wide range of differential diagnosis. Classic triad of presentation is altered mental status, memory impairment and the vertical gaze palsy. We report a case of a 66-year female who had sudden onset of severe vertigo, diplopia and ataxia...
September 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054862/current-evidence-based-recommendations-on-investigating-children-with-global-developmental-delay
#12
REVIEW
Renuka Mithyantha, Rachel Kneen, Emma McCann, Melissa Gladstone
INTRODUCTION: Global developmental delay (GDD) affects 1%-3% of the population of children under 5 years of age, making it one of the most common conditions presenting in paediatric clinics; causes are exogenous, genetic (non-metabolic) or genetic (metabolic). Recent advances in biotechnology and genetic testing mean that the investigations available to perform for children under 5 years are increasing and are more sensitive than previously. This change in availability and type of testing necessitates an update in the recommendations for investigating GDD...
November 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522451/ada2-deficiency-dada2-as-an-unrecognised-cause-of-early-onset-polyarteritis-nodosa-and-stroke-a-multicentre-national-study
#13
MULTICENTER STUDY
Roberta Caorsi, Federica Penco, Alice Grossi, Antonella Insalaco, Alessia Omenetti, Maria Alessio, Giovanni Conti, Federico Marchetti, Paolo Picco, Alberto Tommasini, Silvana Martino, Clara Malattia, Romina Gallizi, Rosa Anna Podda, Annalisa Salis, Fernanda Falcini, Francesca Schena, Francesca Garbarino, Alessia Morreale, Manuela Pardeo, Claudia Ventrici, Chiara Passarelli, Qing Zhou, Mariasavina Severino, Carlo Gandolfo, Gianluca Damonte, Alberto Martini, Angelo Ravelli, Ivona Aksentijevich, Isabella Ceccherini, Marco Gattorno
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the prevalence of CECR1 mutations in patients diagnosed with early onset livedo reticularis and/or haemorrhagic/ischaemic strokes in the context of inflammation or polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). Forty-eight patients from 43 families were included in the study. METHODS: Direct sequencing of CECR1 was performed by Sanger analysis. Adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) enzymatic activity was analysed in monocyte isolated from patients and healthy controls incubated with adenosine and with or without an ADA1 inhibitor...
October 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/6149233/the-jittery-newborn-and-infant-a-review
#14
REVIEW
N P Rosman, J H Donnelly, M A Braun
Jitteriness is an involuntary movement that is particularly frequent in the newborn. Its hallmark is tremor. The pathogenesis is poorly understood. Jitteriness is often accompanied by other signs of central nervous system excitation, such as hypermotility, hypertonicity, and ease of startle. It must be differentiated from myoclonus and seizure, although they may coexist. Jitteriness can be caused by a variety of pre-, peri-, and postnatal insults, and it is the nature and treatability of these, rather than the tremor itself, that are the major determinants of the ultimate prognosis...
October 1984: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/1875026/jitteriness-beyond-the-neonatal-period-a-benign-pattern-of-movement-in-infancy
#15
A Shuper, J Zalzberg, R Weitz, M Mimouni
Jitteriness is a frequent, well-recognized phenomenon in neonates. Its occurrence in early infancy, beyond the neonatal period, is much less documented. Thirty-eight full-term infants who were jittery after 6 weeks of age were followed until the jitteriness disappeared and then reevaluated at the age of 3 years. The jittery movements had already been observed during the neonatal period in 16 babies but not before 6 weeks of age in 22. In 34 infants (89%), 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores were 9 or 10. At the initial examination, a mildly increased muscle tone was found in 12 infants, and hyperactive deep-tendon reflexes were found in 19...
July 1991: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771404/benign-neonatal-shudders-shivers-jitteriness-or-tremors-early-signs-of-vitamin-d-deficiency
#16
Millicent Collins, Michal Young
Jitteriness and tremors in the newborn period typically precipitate an extensive, invasive, and expensive search for the etiology. Vitamin D deficiency has not been historically included in the differential of tremors. We report a shivering, jittery newborn who was subjected to a battery of testing, with the only biochemical abnormality being vitamin D deficiency. A second case had chin tremors and vitamin D deficiency. Review of our patients suggests that shudders, shivers, jitteriness, or tremors may be the earliest sign of vitamin D deficiency in the newborn...
August 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904568/pediatric-autoimmune-encephalitis
#17
REVIEW
Massimo Barbagallo, Giovanna Vitaliti, Piero Pavone, Catia Romano, Riccardo Lubrano, Raffaele Falsaperla
Autoimmune (antibody mediated) encephalitis (AE) is emerging as a more common cause of pediatric encephalopathy than previously thought. The autoimmune process may be triggered by an infection, vaccine, or occult neoplasm. In the latter case, onconeural autoantibodies are directed against intracellular neuronal antigens, but a recent heterogeneous group of encephalitic syndromes has been found not to have underlying tumor but is associated with autoantibodies to the neuronal surface or synaptic antigens. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are very common in autoimmune encephalopathy; as a result, affected children may be initially present to psychiatrists...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870420/value-of-protein-concentration-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-paediatric-patients-with-guillain-barre-syndrome
#18
Martha Esther Vidrio-Becerra, Jaime Valle-Leal, María Enriqueta Loaiza-Sarabia, Lucia Alvarez-Bastidas, Jesus Ignacio Lachica-Valle, Cruz Mónica López-Morales
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The albumin-cytologic dissociation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) supports the diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) but does not support the prognosis, so the aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of protein numbers in the CSF to predict progression in paediatric patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A diagnostic test was performed in paediatric patients with GBS, analysing sociodemographic, clinical and protein variables in CSF as well as electromyography...
September 1, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861122/the-role-of-natalizumab-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-benefits-and-risks
#19
REVIEW
Barry A Singer
Natalizumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks lymphocyte infiltration in the central nervous system, is a valuable tool in the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). In a phase III clinical trial comparing natalizumab with placebo over 2 years, natalizumab reduced annualized relapse rate by 68%, 12-week confirmed disability progression by 42%, and reduced contrast-enhancing lesions by 92%. In post hoc analyses, natalizumab treatment was associated with 37% of patients achieving no evidence of disease activity (versus 7% on placebo) and 30% achieving sustained disability improvement (versus 19% on placebo)...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827979/trigeminal-neuralgia-glossopharyngeal-neuralgia-and-myofascial-pain-dysfunction-syndrome-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Mohammad Khan, Shamima Easmin Nishi, Siti Nazihahasma Hassan, Md Asiful Islam, Siew Hua Gan
Neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon that affects millions of people worldwide. Maxillofacial structures consist of various tissues that receive frequent stimulation during food digestion. The unique functions (masticatory process and facial expression) of the maxillofacial structure require the exquisite organization of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuralgia is painful paroxysmal disorder of the head-neck region characterized by some commonly shared features such as the unilateral pain, transience and recurrence of attacks, and superficial and shock-like pain at a trigger point...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
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