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4 papers 0 to 25 followers
Quentin Welniarz, Isabelle Dusart, Emmanuel Roze
The corticospinal tract (CST) plays a major role in cortical control of spinal cord activity. In particular, it is the principal motor pathway for voluntary movements. Here, we discuss: (i) the anatomic evolution and development of the CST across mammalian species, focusing on its role in motor functions; (ii) the molecular mechanisms regulating corticospinal tract formation and guidance during mouse development; and (iii) human disorders associated with abnormal CST development. A comparison of CST anatomy and development across mammalian species first highlights important similarities...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Isabelle Rapin
Dyscalculia, like dyslexia, affects some 5% of school-age children but has received much less investigative attention. In two thirds of affected children, dyscalculia is associated with another developmental disorder like dyslexia, attention-deficit disorder, anxiety disorder, visual and spatial disorder, or cultural deprivation. Infants, primates, some birds, and other animals are born with the innate ability, called subitizing, to tell at a glance whether small sets of scattered dots or other items differ by one or more item...
August 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Mark Hallett
Free will is a perception that people have that they choose to make their movements. This perception includes a sense of willing the movement and self-agency that they are responsible for the movement. If there is a "free will force" that plays a role in movement selection, it should precede movement. There is no evidence for a driving force, and the perception of willing is not fully processed until after the movement. The perceptions of free will likely arise from an interaction between frontal and parietal areas...
July 2016: Annals of Neurology
Tamami Wakabayashi, Ryo Hidaka, Shin Fujimaki, Makoto Asashima, Tomoko Kuwabara
Neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood in the mammalian brain. Neural stem cells (NSCs) exist in three distinct areas of the brain: the subventricular zone, the olfactory bulb, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression, which includes DNA methylation and histone modification, plays a significant role in modulating NSC proliferation and differentiation. However, the functions of miRNAs in neurogenesis are just beginning to be understood...
2014: Advances in Genetics
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