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Neuroscience

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9 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862868/mirror-neurons-in-the-tree-of-life-mosaic-evolution-plasticity-and-exaptation-of-sensorimotor-matching-responses
#1
Antonella Tramacere, Telmo Pievani, Pier F Ferrari
Considering the properties of mirror neurons (MNs) in terms of development and phylogeny, we offer a novel, unifying, and testable account of their evolution according to the available data and try to unify apparently discordant research, including the plasticity of MNs during development, their adaptive value and their phylogenetic relationships and continuity. We hypothesize that the MN system reflects a set of interrelated traits, each with an independent natural history due to unique selective pressures, and propose that there are at least three evolutionarily significant trends that gave raise to three subtypes: hand visuomotor, mouth visuomotor, and audio-vocal...
November 16, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25032490/embodied-cognition-and-mirror-neurons-a-critical-assessment
#2
REVIEW
Alfonso Caramazza, Stefano Anzellotti, Lukas Strnad, Angelika Lingnau
According to embodied cognition theories, higher cognitive abilities depend on the reenactment of sensory and motor representations. In the first part of this review, we critically analyze the central claims of embodied theories and argue that the existing behavioral and neuroimaging data do not allow investigators to discriminate between embodied cognition and classical cognitive accounts, which assume that conceptual representations are amodal and symbolic. In the second part, we review the main claims and the core electrophysiological findings typically cited in support of the mirror neuron theory of action understanding, one of the most influential examples of embodied cognition theories...
2014: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24775147/mirror-neurons-from-origin-to-function
#3
REVIEW
Richard Cook, Geoffrey Bird, Caroline Catmur, Clare Press, Cecilia Heyes
This article argues that mirror neurons originate in sensorimotor associative learning and therefore a new approach is needed to investigate their functions. Mirror neurons were discovered about 20 years ago in the monkey brain, and there is now evidence that they are also present in the human brain. The intriguing feature of many mirror neurons is that they fire not only when the animal is performing an action, such as grasping an object using a power grip, but also when the animal passively observes a similar action performed by another agent...
April 2014: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889578/molecular-neurobiology-of-mtor
#4
REVIEW
Katarzyna Switon, Katarzyna Kotulska, Aleksandra Janusz-Kaminska, Justyna Zmorzynska, Jacek Jaworski
Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase that controls several important aspects of mammalian cell function. mTOR activity is modulated by various intra- and extracellular factors; in turn, mTOR changes rates of translation, transcription, protein degradation, cell signaling, metabolism, and cytoskeleton dynamics. mTOR has been repeatedly shown to participate in neuronal development and the proper functioning of mature neurons. Changes in mTOR activity are often observed in nervous system diseases, including genetic diseases (e...
January 26, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878552/strength-and-aerobic-exercises-improve-spatial-memory-in-aging-rats-through-stimulating-distinct-neuroplasticity-mechanisms
#5
Thais Ceresér Vilela, Alexandre Pastoris Muller, Adriani Paganini Damiani, Tamires Pavei Macan, Sabrina da Silva, Paula Bortoluzzi Canteiro, Alisson de Sena Casagrande, Giulia Dos Santos Pedroso, Renata Tiscoski Nesi, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade, Ricardo Aurino de Pinho
Aging is associated with impaired cognition and memory and increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Physical exercise is neuroprotective; however, the major evidence of this effect involves studies of only aerobic training in young animals. The benefits of other exercise protocols such as strength training in aged animals remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of aerobic and strength training on spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in aging rats. Aging Wistar rats performed aerobic or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 days/week for 8 weeks...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706924/the-corticospinal-tract-evolution-development-and-human-disorders
#6
Quentin Welniarz, Isabelle Dusart, Emmanuel Roze
The corticospinal tract (CST) plays a major role in cortical control of spinal cord activity. In particular, it is the principal motor pathway for voluntary movements. Here, we discuss: (i) the anatomic evolution and development of the CST across mammalian species, focusing on its role in motor functions; (ii) the molecular mechanisms regulating corticospinal tract formation and guidance during mouse development; and (iii) human disorders associated with abnormal CST development. A comparison of CST anatomy and development across mammalian species first highlights important similarities...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515455/dyscalculia-and-the-calculating-brain
#7
REVIEW
Isabelle Rapin
Dyscalculia, like dyslexia, affects some 5% of school-age children but has received much less investigative attention. In two thirds of affected children, dyscalculia is associated with another developmental disorder like dyslexia, attention-deficit disorder, anxiety disorder, visual and spatial disorder, or cultural deprivation. Infants, primates, some birds, and other animals are born with the innate ability, called subitizing, to tell at a glance whether small sets of scattered dots or other items differ by one or more item...
August 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042814/physiology-of-free-will
#8
Mark Hallett
Free will is a perception that people have that they choose to make their movements. This perception includes a sense of willing the movement and self-agency that they are responsible for the movement. If there is a "free will force" that plays a role in movement selection, it should precede movement. There is no evidence for a driving force, and the perception of willing is not fully processed until after the movement. The perceptions of free will likely arise from an interaction between frontal and parietal areas...
July 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25172344/micrornas-and-epigenetics-in-adult-neurogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Tamami Wakabayashi, Ryo Hidaka, Shin Fujimaki, Makoto Asashima, Tomoko Kuwabara
Neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood in the mammalian brain. Neural stem cells (NSCs) exist in three distinct areas of the brain: the subventricular zone, the olfactory bulb, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression, which includes DNA methylation and histone modification, plays a significant role in modulating NSC proliferation and differentiation. However, the functions of miRNAs in neurogenesis are just beginning to be understood...
2014: Advances in Genetics
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