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Neuroscience

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18 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243196/abnormal-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-women-with-premenstrual-syndrome-revealed-by-regional-homogeneity
#1
Hai Liao, Yong Pang, Peng Liu, Huimei Liu, Gaoxiong Duan, Yanfei Liu, Lijun Tang, Jien Tao, Danhong Wen, Shasha Li, Lingyan Liang, Demao Deng
Background: Previous studies have revealed that the etiologies of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refer to menstrual cycle related brain changes. However, its intrinsic neural mechanism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess abnormal spontaneous brain activity and to explicate the intricate neural mechanism of PMS using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). Materials and Methods: The data of 20 PMS patients (PMS group) and 21 healthy controls (HC group) were analyzed by regional homogeneity (ReHo) method during the late luteal phase of menstrual cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165911/acute-severe-depression-induced-by-stimulation-of-the-right-globus-pallidus-internus
#2
Johanna Philipsson, Rickard L Sjöberg, Jerome Yelnik, Patric Blomstedt
Depressive symptoms may occur after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus. This is often explained by reduced pharmacological treatment after surgery, and not as a direct effect of DBS. Pallidal DBS seems not to be associated with such side effects and have not, to our knowledge, previously been reported. We present a patient with acute depressive symptoms induced by pallidal DBS. We believe this case strengthen the hypothesis that the basal ganglia and structures involved in the functional connectome of these nucleuses play a role not only in regulation of movement but also in regulation of mood...
February 6, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442071/face-processing-systems-from-neurons-to-real-world-social-perception
#3
Winrich Freiwald, Bradley Duchaine, Galit Yovel
Primate face processing depends on a distributed network of interlinked face-selective areas composed of face-selective neurons. In both humans and macaques, the network is divided into a ventral stream and a dorsal stream, and the functional similarities of the areas in humans and macaques indicate they are homologous. Neural correlates for face detection, holistic processing, face space, and other key properties of human face processing have been identified at the single neuron level, and studies providing causal evidence have established firmly that face-selective brain areas are central to face processing...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069532/neural-plasticity-and-network-remodeling-from-concepts-to-pathology
#4
REVIEW
Erez James Cohen, Eros Quarta, Riccardo Bravi, Alberto Granato, Diego Minciacchi
Neuroplasticity has been subject to a great deal of research in the last century. Recently, significant emphasis has been placed on the global effect of localized plastic changes throughout the central nervous system, and on how these changes integrate in a pathological context. Specifically, alterations of network functionality have been described in various pathological contexts to which corresponding structural alterations have been proposed. However, considering the amount of literature and the different pathological contexts, an integration of this information is still lacking...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101530/integrative-analysis-of-disease-signatures-shows-inflammation-disrupts-juvenile-experience-dependent-cortical-plasticity
#5
Milo R Smith, Poromendro Burman, Masato Sadahiro, Brian A Kidd, Joel T Dudley, Hirofumi Morishita
Throughout childhood and adolescence, periods of heightened neuroplasticity are critical for the development of healthy brain function and behavior. Given the high prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, identifying disruptors of developmental plasticity represents an essential step for developing strategies for prevention and intervention. Applying a novel computational approach that systematically assessed connections between 436 transcriptional signatures of disease and multiple signatures of neuroplasticity, we identified inflammation as a common pathological process central to a diverse set of diseases predicted to dysregulate plasticity signatures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104411/brain-and-cognitive-reserve-translation-via-network-control-theory
#6
REVIEW
John Dominic Medaglia, Fabio Pasqualetti, Roy H Hamilton, Sharon L Thompson-Schill, Danielle S Bassett
Traditional approaches to understanding the brain's resilience to neuropathology have identified neurophysiological variables, often described as brain or cognitive "reserve," associated with better outcomes. However, mechanisms of function and resilience in large-scale brain networks remain poorly understood. Dynamic network theory may provide a basis for substantive advances in understanding functional resilience in the human brain. In this perspective, we describe recent theoretical approaches from network control theory as a framework for investigating network level mechanisms underlying cognitive function and the dynamics of neuroplasticity in the human brain...
April 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119279/effects-of-video-game-training-on-behavioral-and-electrophysiological-measures-of-attention-and-memory-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Soledad Ballesteros, Julia Mayas, Eloisa Ruiz-Marquez, Antonio Prieto, Pilar Toril, Laura Ponce de Leon, Maria L de Ceballos, José Manuel Reales Avilés
BACKGROUND: Neuroplasticity-based approaches seem to offer promising ways of maintaining cognitive health in older adults and postponing the onset of cognitive decline symptoms. Although previous research suggests that training can produce transfer effects, this study was designed to overcome some limitations of previous studies by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of training expectations. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the effects of a randomized computer-based intervention consisting of training older adults with nonaction video games on brain and cognitive functions that decline with age, including attention and spatial working memory, using behavioral measures and electrophysiological recordings (event-related potentials [ERPs]) just after training and after a 6-month no-contact period; (2) to explore whether motivation, engagement, or expectations might account for possible training-related improvements; and (3) to examine whether inflammatory mechanisms assessed with noninvasive measurement of C-reactive protein in saliva impair cognitive training-induced effects...
January 24, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170566/network-localization-of-hemichorea-hemiballismus
#8
Simon Laganiere, Aaron D Boes, Michael D Fox
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neuroanatomically heterogeneous strokes causing hemichorea-hemiballismus localize to a common functional network. METHODS: We identified 29 cases of lesion-induced hemichorea-hemiballismus from the literature and mapped each lesion volume onto a reference brain. Using a recently validated technique termed lesion network mapping, we tested whether these lesions belonged to the same functional network. To accomplish this, the network of brain regions functionally connected to each lesion was identified using a connectome dataset from healthy participants...
June 7, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085677/the-thalamus-as-a-relay-station-and-gatekeeper-relevance-to-brain-disorders
#9
Ahmed A Moustafa, Ryan D McMullan, Bjorn Rostron, Doaa H Hewedi, Harry H Haladjian
Here, we provide a review of behavioural, cognitive, and neural studies of the thalamus, including its role in attention, consciousness, sleep, and motor processes. We further discuss neuropsychological and brain disorders associated with thalamus function, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome, and sleep disorders. Importantly, we highlight how thalamus-related processes and disorders can be explained by the role of the thalamus as a relay station.
February 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862868/mirror-neurons-in-the-tree-of-life-mosaic-evolution-plasticity-and-exaptation-of-sensorimotor-matching-responses
#10
Antonella Tramacere, Telmo Pievani, Pier F Ferrari
Considering the properties of mirror neurons (MNs) in terms of development and phylogeny, we offer a novel, unifying, and testable account of their evolution according to the available data and try to unify apparently discordant research, including the plasticity of MNs during development, their adaptive value and their phylogenetic relationships and continuity. We hypothesize that the MN system reflects a set of interrelated traits, each with an independent natural history due to unique selective pressures, and propose that there are at least three evolutionarily significant trends that gave raise to three subtypes: hand visuomotor, mouth visuomotor, and audio-vocal...
November 16, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25032490/embodied-cognition-and-mirror-neurons-a-critical-assessment
#11
REVIEW
Alfonso Caramazza, Stefano Anzellotti, Lukas Strnad, Angelika Lingnau
According to embodied cognition theories, higher cognitive abilities depend on the reenactment of sensory and motor representations. In the first part of this review, we critically analyze the central claims of embodied theories and argue that the existing behavioral and neuroimaging data do not allow investigators to discriminate between embodied cognition and classical cognitive accounts, which assume that conceptual representations are amodal and symbolic. In the second part, we review the main claims and the core electrophysiological findings typically cited in support of the mirror neuron theory of action understanding, one of the most influential examples of embodied cognition theories...
2014: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24775147/mirror-neurons-from-origin-to-function
#12
REVIEW
Richard Cook, Geoffrey Bird, Caroline Catmur, Clare Press, Cecilia Heyes
This article argues that mirror neurons originate in sensorimotor associative learning and therefore a new approach is needed to investigate their functions. Mirror neurons were discovered about 20 years ago in the monkey brain, and there is now evidence that they are also present in the human brain. The intriguing feature of many mirror neurons is that they fire not only when the animal is performing an action, such as grasping an object using a power grip, but also when the animal passively observes a similar action performed by another agent...
April 2014: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889578/molecular-neurobiology-of-mtor
#13
REVIEW
Katarzyna Switon, Katarzyna Kotulska, Aleksandra Janusz-Kaminska, Justyna Zmorzynska, Jacek Jaworski
Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase that controls several important aspects of mammalian cell function. mTOR activity is modulated by various intra- and extracellular factors; in turn, mTOR changes rates of translation, transcription, protein degradation, cell signaling, metabolism, and cytoskeleton dynamics. mTOR has been repeatedly shown to participate in neuronal development and the proper functioning of mature neurons. Changes in mTOR activity are often observed in nervous system diseases, including genetic diseases (e...
January 26, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878552/strength-and-aerobic-exercises-improve-spatial-memory-in-aging-rats-through-stimulating-distinct-neuroplasticity-mechanisms
#14
Thais Ceresér Vilela, Alexandre Pastoris Muller, Adriani Paganini Damiani, Tamires Pavei Macan, Sabrina da Silva, Paula Bortoluzzi Canteiro, Alisson de Sena Casagrande, Giulia Dos Santos Pedroso, Renata Tiscoski Nesi, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade, Ricardo Aurino de Pinho
Aging is associated with impaired cognition and memory and increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Physical exercise is neuroprotective; however, the major evidence of this effect involves studies of only aerobic training in young animals. The benefits of other exercise protocols such as strength training in aged animals remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of aerobic and strength training on spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in aging rats. Aging Wistar rats performed aerobic or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 days/week for 8 weeks...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706924/the-corticospinal-tract-evolution-development-and-human-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Quentin Welniarz, Isabelle Dusart, Emmanuel Roze
The corticospinal tract (CST) plays a major role in cortical control of spinal cord activity. In particular, it is the principal motor pathway for voluntary movements. Here, we discuss: (i) the anatomic evolution and development of the CST across mammalian species, focusing on its role in motor functions; (ii) the molecular mechanisms regulating corticospinal tract formation and guidance during mouse development; and (iii) human disorders associated with abnormal CST development. A comparison of CST anatomy and development across mammalian species first highlights important similarities...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515455/dyscalculia-and-the-calculating-brain
#16
REVIEW
Isabelle Rapin
Dyscalculia, like dyslexia, affects some 5% of school-age children but has received much less investigative attention. In two thirds of affected children, dyscalculia is associated with another developmental disorder like dyslexia, attention-deficit disorder, anxiety disorder, visual and spatial disorder, or cultural deprivation. Infants, primates, some birds, and other animals are born with the innate ability, called subitizing, to tell at a glance whether small sets of scattered dots or other items differ by one or more item...
August 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042814/physiology-of-free-will
#17
Mark Hallett
Free will is a perception that people have that they choose to make their movements. This perception includes a sense of willing the movement and self-agency that they are responsible for the movement. If there is a "free will force" that plays a role in movement selection, it should precede movement. There is no evidence for a driving force, and the perception of willing is not fully processed until after the movement. The perceptions of free will likely arise from an interaction between frontal and parietal areas...
July 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25172344/micrornas-and-epigenetics-in-adult-neurogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Tamami Wakabayashi, Ryo Hidaka, Shin Fujimaki, Makoto Asashima, Tomoko Kuwabara
Neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood in the mammalian brain. Neural stem cells (NSCs) exist in three distinct areas of the brain: the subventricular zone, the olfactory bulb, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression, which includes DNA methylation and histone modification, plays a significant role in modulating NSC proliferation and differentiation. However, the functions of miRNAs in neurogenesis are just beginning to be understood...
2014: Advances in Genetics
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