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Neuroscience

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45 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709212/memory-allocation-mechanisms-and-function
#1
Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Memories for events are thought to be represented in sparse, distributed neuronal ensembles (or engrams). In this article, we review how neurons are chosen to become part of a particular engram, via a process of neuronal allocation. Experiments in rodents indicate that eligible neurons compete for allocation to a given engram, with more excitable neurons winning this competition. Moreover, fluctuations in neuronal excitability determine how engrams interact, promoting either memory integration (via coallocation to overlapping engrams) or separation (via disallocation to nonoverlapping engrams)...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439808/neuroradiologic-correlation-with-aphasias-cortico-subcortical-map-of-language
#2
M M Jiménez de la Peña, L Gómez Vicente, R García Cobos, V Martínez de Vega
Aphasia is an acquired language disorder due to a cerebral lesion; it is characterized by errors in production, denomination, or comprehension of language. Although most aphasias are mixed, from a practical point of view they are classified into different types according to their main clinical features: Broca's aphasia, Wernicke's aphasia, conduction aphasia, transcortical aphasia, and alexia with or without agraphia. We present the clinical findings for the main subtypes of aphasia, illustrating them with imaging cases, and we provide an up-to-date review of the language network with images from functional magnetic resonance imaging and tractography...
February 10, 2018: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702740/neuro-cognitive-mechanisms-of-simultanagnosia-in-patients-with-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#3
Julia Neitzel, Marion Ortner, Marleen Haupt, Petra Redel, Timo Grimmer, Igor Yakushev, Alexander Drzezga, Peter Bublak, Christoph Preul, Christian Sorg, Kathrin Finke
Posterior cortical atrophy is dominated by progressive degradation of parieto-occipital grey and white matter, and represents in most cases a variant of Alzheimer's disease. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy are characterized by increasing higher visual and visuo-spatial impairments. In particular, a key symptom of posterior cortical atrophy is simultanagnosia i.e. the inability to perceive multiple visual objects at the same time. Two neuro-cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to underlie simultanagnosia, either reduced visual short-term memory capacity or decreased visual processing speed possibly resulting from white matter impairments over and above damage to cortical brain areas...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291529/anatomical-and-functional-changes-in-the-brain-after-simultaneous-interpreting-training-a-longitudinal-study
#4
Eowyn Van de Putte, Wouter De Baene, Lorna García-Pentón, Evy Woumans, Aster Dijkgraaf, Wouter Duyck
In the recent literature on bilingualism, a lively debate has arisen about the long-term effects of bilingualism on cognition and the brain. These studies yield inconsistent results, in part because they rely on comparisons between bilingual and monolingual control groups that may also differ on other variables. In the present neuroimaging study, we adopted a longitudinal design, assessing the long-term anatomical and cognitive effects of an extreme form of bilingualism, namely simultaneous interpreting. We compared a group of students starting interpreting training with a closely matched group of translators, before and after nine months of training...
February 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275902/synaptic-tenacity-or-lack-thereof-spontaneous-remodeling-of-synapses
#5
REVIEW
Noam E Ziv, Naama Brenner
Synaptic plasticity - the directed modulation of synaptic connections by specific activity histories or physiological signals - is believed to be a major mechanism for the modification of neuronal network function. This belief, however, has a 'flip side': the supposition that synapses do not change spontaneously in manners unrelated to such signals. Contrary to this supposition, recent studies reveal that synapses do change spontaneously, and to a fairly large extent. Here we review experimental results on spontaneous synaptic remodeling, its relative contributions to total synaptic remodeling, its statistical characteristics, and its physiological importance...
February 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271284/amygdala-reactivity-to-fearful-faces-correlates-positively-with-impulsive-aggression
#6
Sofi da Cunha-Bang, Patrick M Fisher, Liv V Hjordt, Klaus Holst, Gitte M Knudsen
Facial expressions robustly activate the amygdala, a brain structure playing a critical role in aggression. Whereas previous studies suggest that amygdala reactivity is related to various measures of impulsive aggression, we here estimate a composite measure of impulsive aggression and evaluate whether it is associated with amygdala reactivity to angry and fearful faces. We estimated amygdala reactivity with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 47 men with varying degree of aggressive traits (19 incarcerated violent offenders and 28 healthy controls)...
January 7, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347442/alice-in-wonderland-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Jan Dirk Blom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature on Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS), a disorder characterized by distortions of visual perception, the body schema, and the experience of time. RECENT FINDINGS: On the basis of 169 published case descriptions, the etiology of AIWS is divided into 8 main groups, with neurologic disorders affecting mostly adults and elderly patients and encephalitides affecting mostly patients aged ≤18 years. Symptoms of AIWS are also experienced in the general population, with up to 30% of adolescents reporting nonclinical symptoms...
June 2016: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778930/the-useless-hand-of-oppenheim
#8
EDITORIAL
Louise Wiblin, Joe Guadagno
Hermann Oppenheim described the 'Useless Hand' in 1911 as a classical but uncommon presentation of multiple sclerosis, in which a hand loses useful function due to proprioceptive loss, with relatively preserved motor function. Light touch perception may be subjectively altered or can be relatively intact. The lesion is (usually) a demyelinating plaque in the posterior columns of the cervical spinal cord. Depending on its location, it may affect one limb, or if more central, may produce a bilateral (if asymmetrical) picture...
December 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492272/brainstorming-is-not-the-way-to-discuss-scientific-issues
#9
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23045648/brain-on-stress-how-the-social-environment-gets-under-the-skin
#10
REVIEW
Bruce S McEwen
Stress is a state of the mind, involving both brain and body as well as their interactions; it differs among individuals and reflects not only major life events but also the conflicts and pressures of daily life that alter physiological systems to produce a chronic stress burden that, in turn, is a factor in the expression of disease. This burden reflects the impact of not only life experiences but also genetic variations and individual health behaviors such as diet, physical activity, sleep, and substance abuse; it also reflects stable epigenetic modifications in development that set lifelong patterns of physiological reactivity and behavior through biological embedding of early environments interacting with cumulative change from experiences over the lifespan...
October 16, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057628/apraxia-review-and-update
#11
REVIEW
Jung E Park
Praxis, the ability to perform skilled or learned movements is essential for daily living. Inability to perform such praxis movements is defined as apraxia. Apraxia can be further classified into subtypes such as ideomotor, ideational and limb-kinetic apraxia. Relevant brain regions have been found to include the motor, premotor, temporal and parietal cortices. Apraxia is found in a variety of highly prevalent neurological disorders including dementia, stroke and Parkinsonism. Furthermore, apraxia has been shown to negatively affect quality of life...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191650/cortical-language-areas-and-plasticity-in-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Naomi Chou, Sandra Serafini, Carrie R Muh
Chronic injury to the brain from seizure activity is associated with decreased language skills in pediatric patients, as measured on neuropsychological tests for language function and academic achievement. This makes the study of language in patients with epilepsy clinically necessary. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and direct electrical cortical stimulation have been used to evaluate aspects of cortical language processing in healthy adults and in adults with epilepsy or other neurological insults. Results of these studies help to locate cortical language areas that are involved with modality-specific language processing (visual naming, auditory naming, sentence-completion, and repetition) and the neuroplasticity of language areas in the setting of neurological injury and reorganization...
January 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197665/to-create-or-to-recall-original-ideas-brain-processes-associated-with-the-imagination-of-novel-object-uses
#13
Mathias Benedek, Till Schües, Roger E Beaty, Emanuel Jauk, Karl Koschutnig, Andreas Fink, Aljoscha C Neubauer
This fMRI study investigated what brain processes contribute to the generation of new ideas. Brain activation was measured while participants generated new original object uses, recalled original object uses, or recalled common object uses. Post-scan evaluations were used to confirm what ideas were newly generated on the spot or actually retrieved from memory. When compared to the recall of common ideas, the generation of new and old original ideas showed a similar activation pattern including activation of bilateral parahippocampal and mPFC regions, suggesting that the construction of new ideas builds on similar processes like the reconstruction of original ideas from episodic memory...
February 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24130136/young-patient-with-aphasia-monoparesis-facial-drop-facial-sensory-loss-diplopia-dysarthria-and-vertical-gaze-palsy
#14
Daniel Strbian, Sophia Sundararajan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2013: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23423537/agrypnia-excitata
#15
REVIEW
Federica Provini
Agrypnia (from the Greek: to chase sleep) excitata (AE) is a syndrome characterized by loss of sleep and permanent motor and autonomic hyperactivation (excitata). Disruption of the sleep-wake rhythm consists in the disappearance of spindle-delta activities, and the persistence of stage 1 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep persists but fails to stabilize, appearing in short recurrent episodes, isolated, or mixed with stage 1 NREM sleep. Diurnal and nocturnal motor, autonomic and hormonal overactivity is the second hallmark of AE...
April 2013: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594659/the-neuroprotective-aspects-of-sleep
#16
Andy R Eugene, Jolanta Masiak
Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of...
March 2015: MEDtube Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032144/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-ppar%C3%AE-a-master-gatekeeper-in-cns-injury-and-repair
#17
REVIEW
Wei Cai, Tuo Yang, Huan Liu, Lijuan Han, Kai Zhang, Xiaoming Hu, Xuejing Zhang, Ke-Jie Yin, Yanqin Gao, Michael V L Bennett, Rehana K Leak, Jun Chen
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a widely expressed ligand-modulated transcription factor that governs the expression of genes involved in inflammation, redox equilibrium, trophic factor production, insulin sensitivity, and the metabolism of lipids and glucose. Synthetic PPARγ agonists (e.g. thiazolidinediones) are used to treat Type II diabetes and have the potential to limit the risk of developing brain injuries such as stroke by mitigating the influence of comorbidities. If brain injury develops, PPARγ serves as a master gatekeeper of cytoprotective stress responses, improving the chances of cellular survival and recovery of homeostatic equilibrium...
October 12, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859463/neuroanatomical-interpretation-of-the-painting-starry-night-by-vincent-van-gogh
#18
Bradford A Richardson, Alexandra M Rusyniak, W George Rusyniak, Charles B Rodning
Gogh, Vincent Van (1853-1890). The Starry Night. Saint Rémy, June 1889. Oil on canvas, 29 × 36 1/4″ (73.7 × 92.1 cm). Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest. The Museum of Modern Art. Digital Image © The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA/Art Resource, NY.
September 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945627/the-visual-agnosias-and-related-disorders
#19
Sameen Haque, Michael S Vaphiades, Christian J Lueck
BACKGROUND: There are many disorders of higher visual processing that result from damage to specific areas of the cerebral cortex that have a specific role in processing certain aspects (modalities) of vision. These can be grouped into those that affect the ventral, or "what?", pathway (e.g., object agnosia, cerebral achromatopsia, prosopagnosia, topographagnosia, and pure alexia), and those that affect the dorsal, or "where?", pathway (e.g., akinetopsia, simultanagnosia, and optic ataxia)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632524/callosal-motor-impersistence-a-novel-disconnection-syndrome
#20
Hee Jin Kim, Dongyeop Kim, Da-Heen Won, Juhee Chin, Kwang Ho Lee, Sang Won Seo, Kenneth M Heilman, Duk L Na
Motor impersistence, an inability to sustain a certain position or movement, is a motor-intentional disorder, caused more often by right than left hemisphere lesions. Since the right hemisphere is dominant for mediating motor persistence, callosal lesions that disconnect the left hemisphere from the right may induce impersistence of the right upper and lower limbs. After an undiagnosed left callosal infarction, a 65-year-old right-handed man suddenly developed a transient loss of volitional movement of his left leg...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
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