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Genetics

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27 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119487/stag1-mutations-cause-a-novel-cohesinopathy-characterised-by-unspecific-syndromic-intellectual-disability
#1
Daphné Lehalle, Anne-Laure Mosca-Boidron, Amber Begtrup, Odile Boute-Benejean, Perrine Charles, Megan T Cho, Amanda Clarkson, Orrin Devinsky, Yannis Duffourd, Laurence Duplomb-Jego, Bénédicte Gérard, Aurélia Jacquette, Paul Kuentz, Alice Masurel-Paulet, Carey McDougall, Sébastien Moutton, Hilde Olivié, Soo-Mi Park, Anita Rauch, Nicole Revencu, Jean-Baptiste Rivière, Karol Rubin, Ingrid Simonic, Deborah J Shears, Thomas Smol, Ana Lisa Taylor Tavares, Paulien Terhal, Julien Thevenon, Koen Van Gassen, Catherine Vincent-Delorme, Marjolein H Willemsen, Golder N Wilson, Elaine Zackai, Christiane Zweier, Patrick Callier, Christel Thauvin-Robinet, Laurence Faivre
BACKGROUND: Cohesinopathies are rare neurodevelopmental disorders arising from a dysfunction in the cohesin pathway, which enables chromosome segregation and regulates gene transcription. So far, eight genes from this pathway have been reported in human disease. STAG1 belongs to the STAG subunit of the core cohesin complex, along with five other subunits. This work aimed to identify the phenotype ascribed to STAG1 mutations. METHODS: Among patients referred for intellectual disability (ID) in genetics departments worldwide, array-comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH), gene panel, whole-exome sequencing or whole-genome sequencing were performed following the local diagnostic standards...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143899/a-missense-mutation-in-the-crbn-gene-that-segregates-with-intellectual-disability-and-self-mutilating-behaviour-in-a-consanguineous-saudi-family
#2
Atia Sheereen, Manal Alaamery, Shahad Bawazeer, Yusra Al Yafee, Salam Massadeh, Wafaa Eyaid
BACKGROUND: Autosomal-recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability (ARNS-ID) is an aetiologically heterogeneous disorder. Although little is known about the function of human cereblon (CRBN), its relationship to mild cognitive deficits suggests that it is involved in the basic processes of human memory and learning. OBJECTIVES: We aim to identify the genetic cause of intellectual disability and self-mutilation in a consanguineous Saudi family with five affected members...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23858412/lipoid-proteinosis-with-bilateral-amygdalae-calcifications-headache-and-cognitive-impairments
#3
David Arkadir, Israela Lerer, Laurent Klapholz, Michael Halpert, J P Newman, J Moshe Gomori, Alexander Lossos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2013: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23439709/teaching-neuroimages-lipoid-proteinosis-urbach-wiethe-disease-typical-findings-in-this-rare-genodermatosis
#4
Marcelo Bianco Quirici, Antonio J da Rocha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2013: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26564090/lipoid-proteinosis
#5
REVIEW
John A Mcgrath
Lipoid proteinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in ECM1, encoding extracellular matrix protein 1, a glycoprotein expressed in many organs and which has important protein-protein interactions in tissue homeostasis. Although the disease usually presents clinically with warty infiltration of the skin and mucous membranes and a hoarse voice, neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric abnormalities are often prominent features. There may be bean- or comma-shaped intracranial calcifications, often selectively affecting the amygdala...
2015: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080490/vascular-cerebral-anomalies-associated-with-septo-optic-dysplasia
#6
I Chiaramonte, G Cappello, A Uccello, V Guarrera, A Damore, T Cavallaro, R Chiaramonte, G C Ettorre
We describe a case of Septo-Optic Dysplasia (SOD) characterized by the presence of anomalous cerebral vessels. In our young patient the classical features of SOD were associated with vascular anomalies including absence of the vein of Galen, right Rosenthal vein leading to the superior petrosal sinus, and anomalous origin of the anterior choroidal arteries. These findings have never been associated with SOD in the literature but their revelation supports the hypothesis of a vascular disruption as a possible cause of the SOD...
February 2013: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073790/clemizole-and-modulators-of-serotonin-signalling-suppress-seizures-in-dravet-syndrome
#7
Aliesha Griffin, Kyla R Hamling, Kelly Knupp, SoonGweon Hong, Luke P Lee, Scott C Baraban
Dravet syndrome is a catastrophic childhood epilepsy with early-onset seizures, delayed language and motor development, sleep disturbances, anxiety-like behaviour, severe cognitive deficit and an increased risk of fatality. It is primarily caused by de novo mutations of the SCN1A gene encoding a neuronal voltage-activated sodium channel. Zebrafish with a mutation in the SCN1A homologue recapitulate spontaneous seizure activity and mimic the convulsive behavioural movements observed in Dravet syndrome. Here, we show that phenotypic screening of drug libraries in zebrafish scn1 mutants rapidly and successfully identifies new therapeutics...
January 10, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943641/genomic-variants-genes-and-pathways-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Adam C Naj, Gerard D Schellenberg
Alzheimer's disease (AD) (MIM: 104300) is a highly heritable disease with great complexity in its genetic contributors, and represents the most common form of dementia. With the gradual aging of the world's population, leading to increased prevalence of AD, and the substantial cost of care for those afflicted, identifying the genetic causes of disease represents a critical effort in identifying therapeutic targets. Here we provide a comprehensive review of genomic studies of AD, from the earliest linkage studies identifying monogenic contributors to early-onset forms of AD to the genome-wide and rare variant association studies of recent years that are being used to characterize the mosaic of genetic contributors to late-onset AD (LOAD), and which have identified approximately ∼20 genes with common variants contributing to LOAD risk...
January 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079229/the-transcription-factor-xbp1-in-memory-and-cognition-implications-in-alzheimer-disease
#9
Moustapha Cissé, Eric Duplan, Frédéric Checler
X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is a unique basic region leucine zipper transcription factor isolated two decades ago in a search for regulators of major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression. XBP1 is a very complex protein regulating many physiological functions, including immune system, inflammatory responses, and lipid metabolism. Evidence over the past few years suggests that XBP1 also plays important roles in pathological settings since its activity as transcription factor has profound effects on the prognosis and progression of diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080202/chemical-probes-targeting-epigenetic-proteins-applications-beyond-oncology
#10
Suzanne Ackloo, Peter J Brown, Susanne Müller
Epigenetic chemical probes are potent, cell-active, small molecule inhibitors and antagonists of specific domains in a protein; they have been indispensable for studying bromodomains and protein methyltransferases. The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), comprising scientists from academic and pharmaceutical laboratories, has generated most of the current epigenetic chemical probes. Moreover, the SGC has shared about four thousand aliquots of these probes, which have been used primarily for phenotypic profiling or to validate targets in cell lines or primary patient samples cultured in vitro...
January 12, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919468/somatic-gnaq-mutation-is-enriched-in-brain-endothelial-cells-in%C3%A2-sturge-weber-syndrome
#11
Lan Huang, Javier A Couto, Anna Pinto, Sanda Alexandrescu, Joseph R Madsen, Arin K Greene, Mustafa Sahin, Joyce Bischoff
BACKGROUND: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare congenital neurocutaneous disorder characterized by facial and extracraniofacial capillary malformations and capillary-venule malformations in the leptomeninges. A somatic mosaic mutation in GNAQ (c.548G>A; p.R183Q) was found in SWS brain and skin capillary malformations. Our laboratory showed endothelial cells in skin capillary malformations are enriched for the GNAQ mutation. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the GNAQ mutation is also enriched in endothelial cells in affected SWS brain...
February 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024842/congenital-myasthenic-syndrome-in-israel-genetic-and-clinical-characterization
#12
Sharon Aharoni, Menachem Sadeh, Yehuda Shapira, Simon Edvardson, Muhannad Daana, Talia Dor-Wollman, Aviva Mimouni-Bloch, Ayelet Halevy, Rony Cohen, Liora Sagie, Zohar Argov, Malcolm Rabie, Ronen Spiegel, Ilana Chervinsky, Naama Orenstein, Andrew G Engel, Yoram Nevo
The objective of the study was to evaluate the epidemiology of patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) in Israel. Targeted mutation analysis was performed based on the clinical symptoms and electrophysiological findings for known CMS. Additional specific tests were performed in patients of Iranian and/or Iraqi Jewish origin. All medical records were reviewed and clinical data, genetic mutations and outcomes were recorded. Forty-five patients with genetic mutations in known CMS genes from 35 families were identified...
February 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017939/huntingtin-is-a-scaffolding-protein-in-the-atm-oxidative-dna-damage-response-complex
#13
Tamara Maiuri, Andrew J Mocle, Claudia L Hung, Jianrun Xia, Willeke M C van Roon-Mom, Ray Truant
Huntington's disease (HD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease. DNA repair pathways have recently been implicated as the most predominant modifiers of age of onset in HD patients. We report that endogenous huntingtin protein directly participates in oxidative DNA damage repair. Using novel chromobodies to detect endogenous human huntingtin in live cells, we show that localization of huntingtin to DNA damage sites is dependent on the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Super-resolution microscopy and biochemical assays revealed that huntingtin co-localizes with and scaffolds proteins of the DNA damage response pathway in response to oxidative stress...
December 25, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024081/deletion-of-the-gaa-repeats-from-the-human-frataxin-gene-using-the-crispr-cas9-system-in-yg8r-derived-cells-and-mouse-models-of-friedreich-ataxia
#14
D L Ouellet, K Cherif, J Rousseau, J P Tremblay
The Friedreich ataxia is a monogenic disease due to a hyperexpanded GAA triplet located within the first intron of the frataxin gene that causes transcriptional issues. The resulting frataxin protein deficiency leads to a Fe-S cluster biosynthesis dysfunction in the mitochondria and to oxidative stress and cell death. Here we use the CRISPR-Cas9 system to remove the mutated GAA expansion and restore the frataxin gene transcriptional activity and protein level. Both YG8R and YG8sR mouse models and cell lines derived from these mice were used to CRISPR-edited successfully the GAA expansion in vitro and in vivo...
January 19, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959436/novel-cc2d2a-compound-heterozygous-mutations-cause-joubert-syndrome
#15
Daimin Xiao, Chunli Lv, Zhimin Zhang, Mingsong Wu, Xiang Zheng, Lei Yang, Xueying Li, Guan Wu, Jindong Chen
Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, which is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, psychomotor delay, and variable occurrences of oculomotor apraxia and neonatal breathing abnormalities. JS is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. The present study investigated a typical JS family. The 'molar tooth sign' was observed in the proband through magnetic resonance imaging. Other symptoms of JS include cerebellar vermis hypoplasia/dysplasia, oculomotor apraxia and intellectual disability. High‑throughput sequencing revealed that JS was caused by coiled‑coil and C2 domain containing 2A (CC2D2A) compound heterozygous mutations...
January 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25554107/epigenetics-in-pediatrics
#16
REVIEW
Susan E Puumala, H Eugene Hoyme
Epigenetic mechanisms are external modifications of DNA that cause changes in gene function and are involved in many diseases. Specific examples of pediatric diseases with a known or suspected epigenetic component include Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, childhood leukemia, allergies, asthma, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, childhood obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Currently, epigenetically active treatments are being used to treat childhood leukemia. Potential epigenetically active treatments and preventive regimens are under study for other diseases...
January 2015: Pediatrics in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672172/clinical-reasoning-a-52-year-old-man-with-diplopia-and-ataxia
#17
Michael J Bradshaw, Siddharama Pawate, Karen C Bloch, Paul Moots, Nishitha M Reddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25695404/molecular-basis-of-klotho-from-gene-to-function-in-aging
#18
REVIEW
Yuechi Xu, Zhongjie Sun
The discovery of the Klotho (KL) gene, which was originally identified as a putative aging-suppressor gene, has generated tremendous interest and has advanced understanding of the aging process. In mice, the overexpression of the KL gene extends the life span, whereas mutations to the KL gene shorten the life span. The human KL gene encodes the α-Klotho protein, which is a multifunctional protein that regulates the metabolism of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D. α-Klotho also may function as a hormone, although the α-Klotho receptor(s) has not been found...
April 2015: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27841880/the-genomic-landscape-of-balanced-cytogenetic-abnormalities-associated-with-human-congenital-anomalies
#19
Claire Redin, Harrison Brand, Ryan L Collins, Tammy Kammin, Elyse Mitchell, Jennelle C Hodge, Carrie Hanscom, Vamsee Pillalamarri, Catarina M Seabra, Mary-Alice Abbott, Omar A Abdul-Rahman, Erika Aberg, Rhett Adley, Sofia L Alcaraz-Estrada, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Yu An, Mary-Anne Anderson, Caroline Antolik, Kwame Anyane-Yeboa, Joan F Atkin, Tina Bartell, Jonathan A Bernstein, Elizabeth Beyer, Ian Blumenthal, Ernie M H F Bongers, Eva H Brilstra, Chester W Brown, Hennie T Brüggenwirth, Bert Callewaert, Colby Chiang, Ken Corning, Helen Cox, Edwin Cuppen, Benjamin B Currall, Tom Cushing, Dezso David, Matthew A Deardorff, Annelies Dheedene, Marc D'Hooghe, Bert B A de Vries, Dawn L Earl, Heather L Ferguson, Heather Fisher, David R FitzPatrick, Pamela Gerrol, Daniela Giachino, Joseph T Glessner, Troy Gliem, Margo Grady, Brett H Graham, Cristin Griffis, Karen W Gripp, Andrea L Gropman, Andrea Hanson-Kahn, David J Harris, Mark A Hayden, Rosamund Hill, Ron Hochstenbach, Jodi D Hoffman, Robert J Hopkin, Monika W Hubshman, A Micheil Innes, Mira Irons, Melita Irving, Jessie C Jacobsen, Sandra Janssens, Tamison Jewett, John P Johnson, Marjolijn C Jongmans, Stephen G Kahler, David A Koolen, Jerome Korzelius, Peter M Kroisel, Yves Lacassie, William Lawless, Emmanuelle Lemyre, Kathleen Leppig, Alex V Levin, Haibo Li, Hong Li, Eric C Liao, Cynthia Lim, Edward J Lose, Diane Lucente, Michael J Macera, Poornima Manavalan, Giorgia Mandrile, Carlo L Marcelis, Lauren Margolin, Tamara Mason, Diane Masser-Frye, Michael W McClellan, Cinthya J Zepeda Mendoza, Björn Menten, Sjors Middelkamp, Liya R Mikami, Emily Moe, Shehla Mohammed, Tarja Mononen, Megan E Mortenson, Graciela Moya, Aggie W Nieuwint, Zehra Ordulu, Sandhya Parkash, Susan P Pauker, Shahrin Pereira, Danielle Perrin, Katy Phelan, Raul E Piña Aguilar, Pino J Poddighe, Giulia Pregno, Salmo Raskin, Linda Reis, William Rhead, Debra Rita, Ivo Renkens, Filip Roelens, Jayla Ruliera, Patrick Rump, Samantha L P Schilit, Ranad Shaheen, Rebecca Sparkes, Erica Spiegel, Blair Stevens, Matthew R Stone, Julia Tagoe, Joseph V Thakuria, Bregje W van Bon, Jiddeke van de Kamp, Ineke van Der Burgt, Ton van Essen, Conny M van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Markus J van Roosmalen, Sarah Vergult, Catharina M L Volker-Touw, Dorothy P Warburton, Matthew J Waterman, Susan Wiley, Anna Wilson, Maria de la Concepcion A Yerena-de Vega, Roberto T Zori, Brynn Levy, Han G Brunner, Nicole de Leeuw, Wigard P Kloosterman, Erik C Thorland, Cynthia C Morton, James F Gusella, Michael E Talkowski
Despite the clinical significance of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs), their characterization has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing revised 93% of karyotypes and demonstrated complexity that was cryptic to karyotyping in 21% of BCAs, highlighting the limitations of conventional cytogenetic approaches. At least 33.9% of BCAs resulted in gene disruption that likely contributed to the developmental phenotype, 5...
January 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777022/clinical-phenotype-and-genetic-associations-in-autosomal-dominant-familial-alzheimer-s-disease-a-case-series
#20
Natalie S Ryan, Jennifer M Nicholas, Philip S J Weston, Yuying Liang, Tammaryn Lashley, Rita Guerreiro, Gary Adamson, Janna Kenny, Jon Beck, Lucia Chavez-Gutierrez, Bart de Strooper, Tamas Revesz, Janice Holton, Simon Mead, Martin N Rossor, Nick C Fox
BACKGROUND: The causes of phenotypic heterogeneity in familial Alzheimer's disease with autosomal dominant inheritance are not well understood. We aimed to characterise clinical phenotypes and genetic associations with APP and PSEN1 mutations in symptomatic autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease (ADAD). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed genotypic and phenotypic data (age at symptom onset, initial cognitive or behavioural symptoms, and presence of myoclonus, seizures, pyramidal signs, extrapyramidal signs, and cerebellar signs) from all individuals with ADAD due to APP or PSEN1 mutations seen at the Dementia Research Centre in London, UK...
October 21, 2016: Lancet Neurology
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