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P Kathpalia, A Bhatia, S Robertazzi, J Ahn, S M Cohen, S Sontag, A Luke, R Durazo-Arvizu, A A Pillai
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in hospitalised cirrhotics with ascites is 10-30%. Treatment for refractory ascites includes paracenteses, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt or drain placement; the latter is discouraged due to a perceived infection risk. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the risk of bacterial peritonitis (BP) with peritoneal drains in patients with Child-Pugh class B or C cirrhosis and determine their impact on survival...
October 2015: Internal Medicine Journal
Paolo Angeli, Arun Sanyal, Soren Moller, Carlo Alessandria, Adrian Gadano, Ray Kim, Shiv K Sarin, Mauro Bernardi
Advanced cirrhosis is often complicated by a multi organ failure syndrome which involves many different organs besides the liver. The high morbidity and mortality secondary to this clinical setting is often related to renal dysfunction, either alone or, more frequently, in combination with other organ dysfunction. A clear definition of renal dysfunction, an accurate differential diagnostic process of its different phenotypes as well as of full understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms are crucial to the development of strategies for the management of this complication...
January 2013: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Francesco Salerno, Monica Guevara, Mauro Bernardi, Richard Moreau, Florence Wong, Paolo Angeli, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Samuel S Lee
Ascites is a frequent complication of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, because of the increase of the sinusoidal hydrostatic pressure. Cirrhosis accounts for over 75% of episodes of ascites. Cirrhotic patients with ascites have marked alterations in the splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics, causing central hypovolaemia and arterial hypotension with consequent activation of the vasoconstrictor systems, renin-angiotensin and sympathetic systems, and with increased renal sodium re-absorption. One of the most serious complications in cirrhotic patients with ascites is the occurrence of refractoriness, that is the inability to resolve ascites by the standard medical treatment with low sodium diet and diuretic doses up to 160 mg/day of furosemide and 400 mg/day of spironolactone...
August 2010: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Arun J Sanyal, Chris Genning, K Rajender Reddy, Florence Wong, Kris V Kowdley, Kent Benner, Timothy McCashland
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The clinical utility of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) vis-à-vis total paracentesis in the management of refractory ascites is unclear. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical trial was performed in which 109 subjects with refractory ascites were randomized to either medical therapy (sodium restriction, diuretics, and total paracentesis) (n = 57) or medical therapy plus TIPS (n = 52). The principal end points were recurrence of tense symptomatic ascites and mortality...
March 2003: Gastroenterology
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