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Autonomic system -- concussion and sport

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43 papers 0 to 25 followers
By David Rhine MD FRCPC. Emergency medicine. Special interest in concussion management.
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506501/sympathetic-control-of-the-brain-circulation-appreciating-the-complexities-to-better-understand-the-controversy
#1
Patrice Brassard, Michael M Tymko, Philip N Ainslie
Although the human cerebral circulation is richly innervated with sympathetic nerve fibers, the role of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) on the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains debated. Several issues may be responsible for the conflicting conclusions reported in the animal vs. human literature in regards to the sympathetic control of the brain circulation. Furthermore, due to the physiological consequences associated with SNA blockade (e.g. changes in blood pressure and cardiac output), and differences in methodology (e...
May 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407652/smartphone-enabled-heart-rate-variability-and-acute-mountain-sickness
#2
Adrian Mellor, Josh Bakker-Dyos, John OʼHara, David Richard Woods, David A Holdsworth, Christopher J Boos
INTRODUCTION: The autonomic system and sympathetic activation appears integral in the pathogenesis of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at high altitude (HA), yet a link between heart rate variability (HRV) and AMS has not been convincingly shown. In this study we investigated the utility of the smartphone-derived HRV score to predict and diagnose AMS at HA. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy adults were investigated at baseline at 1400 m and over 10 days during a trek to 5140 m...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392310/the-role-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-arrhythmias-and-sudden-cardiac-death
#3
REVIEW
Sonia Franciosi, Frances K G Perry, Thomas M Roston, Kathryn R Armstrong, Victoria E Claydon, Shubhayan Sanatani
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is complex and plays an important role in cardiac arrhythmia pathogenesis. A deeper understanding of the anatomy and development of the ANS has shed light on its involvement in cardiac arrhythmias. Alterations in levels of Sema-3a and NGF, both growth factors involved in innervation patterning during development of the ANS, leads to cardiac arrhythmias. Dysregulation of the ANS, including polymorphisms in genes involved in ANS development, have been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome...
March 31, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391987/cardiovascular-and-autonomic-reactivity-to-psychological-stress-neurophysiological-substrates-and-links-to-cardiovascular-disease
#4
REVIEW
Annie T Ginty, Thomas E Kraynak, James P Fisher, Peter J Gianaros
Psychologically stressful experiences evoke changes in cardiovascular physiology that may influence risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). But what are the neural circuits and intermediate physiological pathways that link stressful experiences to cardiovascular changes that might in turn confer disease risk? This question is important because it has broader implications for our understanding of the neurophysiological pathways that link stressful and other psychological experiences to physical health. This review highlights selected findings from brain imaging studies of stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity and CVD risk...
March 16, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222566/pilot-study-of-the-sub-symptom-threshold-exercise-program-sstep-for-persistent-concussion-symptoms-in-youth
#5
Sara P D Chrisman, Kathryn B Whitlock, Elissa Somers, Monique S Burton, Stanley A Herring, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Frederick P Rivara
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest potential benefit using monitored aerobic exercise to treat youth with persistent concussion symptoms, but these studies have been small. OBJECTIVES: To explore the safety and potential benefits of a rehabilitative exercise intervention, the Sub-symptom Threshold Exercise Program (SSTEP), for treating youth with persistent concussion symptoms >1 month. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 83 youth who participated in SSTEP, completing trajectory analysis of concussion symptoms using the symptom subscale of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, version 2 (SCAT-2)...
February 9, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219941/ithlete-heart-rate-variability-app-knowing-when-to-train
#6
Lucía Sagarra-Romero, Mercedes Ruidiaz Peña, Antonio Monroy Antón, Santiago Calero Morales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154104/heart-brain-axis-effects-of-neurologic-injury-on-cardiovascular-function
#7
REVIEW
Pouya Tahsili-Fahadan, Romergryko G Geocadin
A complex interaction exists between the nervous and cardiovascular systems. A large network of cortical and subcortical brain regions control cardiovascular function via the sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow. A dysfunction in one system may lead to changes in the function of the other. The effects of cardiovascular disease on the nervous system have been widely studied; however, our understanding of the effects of neurological disorders on the cardiovascular system has only expanded in the past 2 decades...
February 3, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148495/sport-related-concussion-induces-transient-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction
#8
John L Dobson, Mary Beth Yarbrough, Jose Perez, Kelsey Evans, Thomas Buckley
Recent evidence suggests that concussions may disrupt autonomic cardiovascular control. This study investigated the initial effects of concussion on cardiovascular function using three autonomic reflex tests. Twenty-three recreational athletes (12 women, 11 men) were divided into concussed (n = 12) and control (n = 11) groups. Concussed participants performed forced breathing, standing, and Valsalva autonomic tests four times: 1) within 48 h of injury; 2) 24 h later; 3) 1 wk after injury; and 4) 2 wk after injury...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131565/asymmetric-sympathetic-output-the-dorsomedial-hypothalamus-as-a-potential-link-between-emotional-stress-and-cardiac-arrhythmias
#9
Marco Antônio Peliky Fontes, Marcelo Limborço Filho, Natália L Santos Machado, Cristiane Amorim de Paula, Letícia M Souza Cordeiro, Carlos Henrique Xavier, Fernanda Ribeiro Marins, Luke Henderson, Vaughan G Macefield
The autonomic response to emotional stress, while involving several target organs, includes an important increase in sympathetic drive to the heart. There is ample evidence that cardiac sympathetic innervation is lateralized, and asymmetric autonomic output to the heart during stress is postulated to be a causal factor that precipitates cardiac arrhythmias. Recent animal studies provided a new picture of the central pathways involved in the cardiac sympathetic response evoked by emotional stress, pointing out a key role for the region of dorsomedial hypothalamus...
January 17, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114247/neuroendocrine-dysfunction-in-a-young-athlete-with-concussion-a-case-report
#10
David M Langelier, Gregory A Kline, Chantel T Debert
An 18-year-old female ringette and basketball player presented to our sport concussion clinic 27 months after concussion with fatigue, headache, exercise intolerance, polyuria, nocturia, and difficulties concentrating. Her history was remarkable for 4 previous concussions. Her neurologic examination was normal. Neuroendocrine screen including thyroid function, morning cortisol, glucose, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (screening test for growth hormone deficiency) were normal. Further testing for growth hormone deficiency with an insulin hypoglycemia test revealed severe growth hormone deficiency...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045562/parasympathetic-baroreflexes-and-heart-rate-variability-during-acute-stage-of-sport-concussion-recovery
#11
Scott Bishop, Ryan Dech, Taylor Baker, Matthew Butz, Kaishan Aravinthan, J Patrick Neary
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the parasympathetic state of individuals in healthy vs concussion groups, by measuring cardiovascular metrics under resting and baroreflex conditions using a squat-stand manoeuvre. RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a retrospective mixed-method study, with participants who sustained a medically diagnosed sport concussion (n = 12), being tested within 72-hours post-injury. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Participant's heart rate (Electrocardiogram, ECG) and blood pressure (finger plethysmography) data was collected during rest and during 10-second squat-stands (10SS, 0...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915363/outcomes-following-a-vestibular-rehabilitation-and-aerobic-training-program-to-address-persistent-post-concussion-symptoms
#12
Brian M Moore, Joseph T Adams, Edward Barakatt
PURPOSE: To describe changes in adults with persistent symptoms and disability following a concussion after completing a supervised home exercise vestibular rehabilitation (VR) program combined with aerobic training. METHOD: Participants included 14 consecutive individuals referred for VR within the context of a comprehensive concussion center. Outcome measures were administered at initial evaluation, 3 mos, and 6 mos. Outcome measures included: Rivermead Post-Concussion Questionnaire symptom (RPQ-3) and function (RPQ-13) subcategories, Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), functional gait assessment (FGA), return to work/study (RTW), and return to activity (RTA)...
2016: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865628/the-genesis-and-presentation-of-anxiety-in-disorders-of-autonomic-overexcitation
#13
Andrew P Owens, David A Low, Valeria Iodice, Hugo D Critchley, Christopher J Mathias
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the genesis and presentation of previously-reported anxiety in disorders of autonomic overexcitation in relation to interoception, body vigilance and trauma to test our hypothesis that patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), vasovagal syncope (VVS) and essential hyperhidrosis (EH) represent atypical anxiety phenotypes in whom affective symptoms are more related to apprehension and vigilance of physiological (interoceptive) feedback than neurotic or trauma-related factors...
March 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812398/the-effect-of-exertion-on-heart-rate-and-rating-of-perceived-exertion-in-acutely-concussed-individuals
#14
Andrea Hinds, John Leddy, Michael Freitas, Natalie Czuczman, Barry Willer
OBJECTIVE: Research suggests that one physiological effect of concussion is a disruption in regulation of autonomic nervous system control that affects the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic output. While changes in heart rate after concussion have been observed, the nature of the heart rate change during progressive exercise has not been well evaluated in acutely symptomatic patients. Additionally, little is known about the relationship between HR and RPE in this population...
August 2016: Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595200/significance-of-neuro-cardiac-control-mechanisms-governed-by-higher-regions-of-the-brain
#15
REVIEW
Peter Taggart, Hugo Critchley, Stefan van Duijvendoden, Pier D Lambiase
Advances in investigative techniques have led to an increasing awareness and understanding of the role of central neural control in the autonomic nervous system regulation of the heart. Substantial evidence exists for a role of the higher centres in neuro-cardiac control including the effect of focal brain stimulation and acute brain lesions on cardiac electrophysiology, blood pressure, contractile function and the development of arrhythmias. Mental stress and strong emotions have long been associated with sudden cardiac death...
August 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590099/cardiac-sympatho-vagal-balance-and-ventricular-arrhythmia
#16
REVIEW
Manish Kalla, Neil Herring, David J Paterson
A hallmark of cardiovascular disease is cardiac autonomic dysregulation. The phenotype of impaired parasympathetic responsiveness and sympathetic hyperactivity in experimental animal models is also well documented in large scale human studies in the setting of heart failure and myocardial infarction, and is predictive of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in emergency revascularisation strategies for myocardial infarction, device therapy for heart failure and secondary prevention pharmacotherapies, mortality from malignant ventricular arrhythmia remains high...
August 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554429/cerebral-perfusion-changes-in-post-concussion-syndrome-a-prospective-controlled-cohort-study
#17
Karen M Barlow, Lorenzo D Marcil, Deborah Dewey, Helen L Carlson, Frank P MacMaster, Brian L Brooks, R Marc Lebel
The biology of post-concussive symptoms is unclear. Symptoms are often increased during activities, and have been linked to decreased cerebrovascular reactivity and perfusion. The aim of this study was to examine cerebral blood flow (CBF) in children with different clinical recovery patterns following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). This was a prospective controlled cohort study of children with mTBI (ages 8 to 18 years) who were symptomatic with post-concussive symptoms at one month post-injury (symptomatic, n = 27) and children who had recovered quickly (asymptomatic, n = 24)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542313/exercise-training-induced-modification-in-autonomic-nervous-system-an-update-for-cardiac-patients
#18
REVIEW
Florent Besnier, Marc Labrunée, Atul Pathak, Anne Pavy-Le Traon, Céline Galès, Jean-Michel Sénard, Thibaut Guiraud
Patients with cardiovascular disease show autonomic dysfunction, including sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal, which leads to fatal events. This review aims to place sympathovagal balance as an essential element to be considered in management for cardiovascular disease patients who benefit from a cardiac rehabilitation program. Many studies showed that exercise training, as non-pharmacologic treatment, plays an important role in enhancing sympathovagal balance and could normalize levels of markers of sympathetic flow measured by microneurography, heart rate variability or plasma catecholamine levels...
January 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541745/comparison-of-pupillary-dynamics-to-light-in-the-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi-and-normal-populations
#19
James Q Truong, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
PURPOSE: To determine if mTBI adversely affects the pupillary light reflex (PLR). METHODS: The PLR was evaluated in mTBI and compared to normal individuals under a range of test conditions. Nine pupil parameters (maximum, minimum and final pupil diameter, latency, amplitude and peak and average constriction and dilation velocities) and six stimulus conditions (dim pulse, dim step, bright pulse, bright step, bright red step and bright blue step) were assessed in 32 adults with mTBI (21-60 years of age) and compared to 40 normal (22-56 years of age)...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423297/neuro-cardiac-interaction-in-malignant-ventricular-arrhythmia-and-sudden-cardiac-death
#20
REVIEW
G André Ng
Sudden cardiac death as a result of lethal ventricular arrhythmias is a major cause of death in cardiac diseases such as heart failure and prior myocardial infarct. Activity of the autonomic nervous system is often abnormal where sympathetic activity is upregulated and vagal activity reduced in these conditions. The abnormal autonomic state has been shown to be a strong prognostic marker of increased mortality and propensity to lethal arrhythmias, for which there is no effective prevention. Research effort over the years has established good evidence for a causal link between autonomic disturbance and ventricular arrhythmias...
August 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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