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Autonomic system -- concussion and sport

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54 papers 25 to 100 followers
By David Rhine MD FRCPC. Emergency medicine. Special interest in concussion management.
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918243/homeostatic-systems-biocybernetics-and-autonomic-neuroscience
#1
REVIEW
David S Goldstein, Irwin J Kopin
In this review we describe a series of major concepts introduced during the past 150years that have contributed to our current understanding about how physiological processes required for well-being and survival are regulated. One can theorize that hierarchical networks involving input-output relationships continuously orchestrate and learn adaptive patterns of observable behaviors, cognition, memory, mood, and autonomic systems. Taken together, these networks function as "good regulators" determining levels of internal variables and act as if there were homeostatic comparators ("homeostats")...
September 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916152/effects-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-on-cardiovascular-autonomic-control-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Raphael Martins de Abreu, Patrícia Rehder-Santos, Vinicius Minatel, Gabriela Lopes Dos Santos, Aparecida Maria Catai
PURPOSE: To carry out a systematic review to determine if inspiratory muscle training (IMT) promotes changes in cardiovascular autonomic responses in humans. METHODS: The methodology followed the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic review analysis. MEDLINE, PEDro, SCOPUS and PubMed electronic databases were searched from the inception to March 2017. The quality assessment was performed using a PEDro scale. The articles were included if: (1) primary objective was related to the effects of IMT on the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system, and (2) randomized clinical trials and quasi-experimental studies...
September 7, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768072/linear-analysis-of-heart-rate-variability-in-post-concussive-syndrome
#3
Susan Mirow, Steffanie H Wilson, Lindell K Weaver, Susan Churchill, Kayla Deru, Anne S Lindblad
Heart rate variability (HRV) represents measurable output of coordinated structural and functional systems within the body and brain. Both mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and HRV are modulated by changes in autonomic nervous system function. We present baseline HRV results from an ongoing mTBI clinical trial. HRV was assessed via 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography; recordings were segmented by physiological state (sleep, wakefulness, exercise, standing still). Time, frequency, and spatial domain measures were summarized and compared with symptoms, sleep quality, and neurological examination...
August 2016: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870754/clinical-and-non-clinical-depression-and-anxiety-in-young-people-a-scoping-review-on-heart-rate-variability
#4
REVIEW
Melissa Paniccia, David Paniccia, Scott Thomas, Tim Taha, Nick Reed
BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of cardiac autonomic nervous system functioning, has emerged as a physiological indicator for emotional regulation and psychological well-being. HRV is understudied in the context of depression and anxiety in young people (10-24years old). Main objectives: (1) describe the nature and breadth of reviewed studies; and (2) synthesize main findings in the context of clinical and non-clinical populations of young people with depression and/or anxiety...
August 26, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849757/graded-aerobic-treadmill-testing-in-adolescent-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#5
Dean M Cordingley, Richard Girardin, Marc P Morissette, Karen Reimer, Jeff Leiter, Kelly Russell, Michael J Ellis
PURPOSE: To examine the safety and tolerability of clinical graded aerobic treadmill testing in recovering adolescent moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program. METHODS: We completed a retrospective case series of two moderate and five severe TBI patients (mean age, 17.3 years) who underwent initial Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Testing at a mean time of 71.6 days (range, 55-87) postinjury...
August 29, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802636/cardiac-neuroanatomy-imaging-nerves-to-define-functional-control
#6
REVIEW
Peter Hanna, Pradeep S Rajendran, Olujimi A Ajijola, Marmar Vaseghi, J Andrew Armour, Jefrrey L Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
The autonomic nervous system regulates normal cardiovascular function and plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Further understanding of the interplay between the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system holds promise for the development of neuroscience-based cardiovascular therapeutics. To this end, techniques to image myocardial innervation will help provide a basis for understanding the fundamental underpinnings of cardiac neural control. In this review, we detail the evolution of gross and microscopic anatomical studies for functional mapping of cardiac neuroanatomy...
July 29, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800081/autonomic-dysfunction-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Dmitry Esterov, Brian D Greenwald
A mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a complex pathophysiologic process that has a systemic effect on the body aside from solely an impairment in cognitive function. Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been found to induce abnormalities in organ systems throughout the body, and may contribute to cardiovascular dysregulation and increased mortality. Autonomic dysfunction, also known as dysautonomia, has been studied in moderate and severe TBI, and has emerged as a major contributing factor in the symptomatology in mTBI as well...
August 11, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774803/temporal-stability-and-drivers-of-change-in-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-system-activity
#8
Mandy X Hu, Femke Lamers, Brenda W J H Penninx, Eco J C de Geus
OBJECTIVES: This study determined temporal stability of ambulatory measured cardiac autonomic activity for different time periods and investigated potential drivers of changes in this activity. METHODS: Data was drawn from baseline (n=2379), 2-year (n=2245), and 6-year (n=1876) follow-up from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Cardiac autonomic activity was measured with heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP)...
July 27, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701282/risk-factors-for-myocardial-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-one-year-follow-up-study
#9
Kang Lu, Cheng-Loong Liang, Ping-Chia Li, Po-Chou Liliang, Chih-Yuan Huang, Yi-Che Lee, Kuo-Wei Wang, San-Nan Yang, Yuan-Ting Sun, Hao-Kuang Wang
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury has been associated with an increased risk of myocardial dysfunction. Common abnormalities accompanying this pathology include electrocardiographic abnormalities, elevated creatine kinase levels, arrhythmias, and pathologic changes of the myocardium. The aim of this study was to determine if TBI patients have a higher risk of myocardial dysfunction than the general population and to identify the risk factors of myocardial dysfunction in TBI patients...
July 8, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570092/the-effect-of-physical-exercise-after-a-concussion-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Avtar Lal, Stephanie A Kolakowsky-Hayner, Jamshid Ghajar, Maya Balamane
BACKGROUND: Data evaluating the role of exercise in patients with a concussion are contradictory. Studies have reported improvement in the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) score, whereas others showed no effect on the PCSS score. PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the role of physical exercise on different outcomes in patients with a concussion. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A search of 5 databases from the earliest available date to September 30, 2016, and a hand search of a few articles were performed...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537493/the-relationship-between-cerebral-vasoreactivity-and-post-concussive-symptom-severity
#11
Tamadher Albalawi, Jason W Hamner, Matthew Lapointe, William P Meehan, Can Ozan Tan
While pathophysiology underlying post-concussion symptom burden is unknown, data suggest that cerebrovascular dysfunction may be among the culprits. We sought to determine whether the degree of impairment in the ability of cerebrovasculature to buffer against changes in arterial gases (vasoreactivity) is associated with concussion symptoms. In 15 participants (19 ± 5 years, 1 week to 1 year post-injury) diagnosed with concussion, we assessed vasoreactivity from the slope of the linear relationship of beat-by-beat middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (transcranial Doppler ultrasound) to end-tidal CO2 during progressive increases in end-tidal CO2 (air rebreathing)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506501/sympathetic-control-of-the-brain-circulation-appreciating-the-complexities-to-better-understand-the-controversy
#12
REVIEW
Patrice Brassard, Michael M Tymko, Philip N Ainslie
Although the human cerebral circulation is richly innervated with sympathetic nerve fibers, the role of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) on the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains debated. Several issues may be responsible for the conflicting conclusions reported in the animal vs. human literature in regards to the sympathetic control of the brain circulation. Furthermore, due to the physiological consequences associated with SNA blockade (e.g. changes in blood pressure and cardiac output), and differences in methodology (e...
May 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407652/smartphone-enabled-heart-rate-variability-and-acute-mountain-sickness
#13
Adrian Mellor, Josh Bakker-Dyos, John OʼHara, David Richard Woods, David A Holdsworth, Christopher J Boos
INTRODUCTION: The autonomic system and sympathetic activation appears integral in the pathogenesis of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at high altitude (HA), yet a link between heart rate variability (HRV) and AMS has not been convincingly shown. In this study we investigated the utility of the smartphone-derived HRV score to predict and diagnose AMS at HA. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy adults were investigated at baseline at 1400 m and over 10 days during a trek to 5140 m...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392310/the-role-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-arrhythmias-and-sudden-cardiac-death
#14
REVIEW
Sonia Franciosi, Frances K G Perry, Thomas M Roston, Kathryn R Armstrong, Victoria E Claydon, Shubhayan Sanatani
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is complex and plays an important role in cardiac arrhythmia pathogenesis. A deeper understanding of the anatomy and development of the ANS has shed light on its involvement in cardiac arrhythmias. Alterations in levels of Sema-3a and NGF, both growth factors involved in innervation patterning during development of the ANS, leads to cardiac arrhythmias. Dysregulation of the ANS, including polymorphisms in genes involved in ANS development, have been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome...
March 31, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391987/cardiovascular-and-autonomic-reactivity-to-psychological-stress-neurophysiological-substrates-and-links-to-cardiovascular-disease
#15
REVIEW
Annie T Ginty, Thomas E Kraynak, James P Fisher, Peter J Gianaros
Psychologically stressful experiences evoke changes in cardiovascular physiology that may influence risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). But what are the neural circuits and intermediate physiological pathways that link stressful experiences to cardiovascular changes that might in turn confer disease risk? This question is important because it has broader implications for our understanding of the neurophysiological pathways that link stressful and other psychological experiences to physical health. This review highlights selected findings from brain imaging studies of stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity and CVD risk...
March 16, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222566/pilot-study-of-the-sub-symptom-threshold-exercise-program-sstep-for-persistent-concussion-symptoms-in-youth
#16
Sara P D Chrisman, Kathryn B Whitlock, Elissa Somers, Monique S Burton, Stanley A Herring, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Frederick P Rivara
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest potential benefit using monitored aerobic exercise to treat youth with persistent concussion symptoms, but these studies have been small. OBJECTIVES: To explore the safety and potential benefits of a rehabilitative exercise intervention, the Sub-symptom Threshold Exercise Program (SSTEP), for treating youth with persistent concussion symptoms >1 month. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 83 youth who participated in SSTEP, completing trajectory analysis of concussion symptoms using the symptom subscale of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, version 2 (SCAT-2)...
February 9, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219941/ithlete-heart-rate-variability-app-knowing-when-to-train
#17
Lucía Sagarra-Romero, Mercedes Ruidiaz Peña, Antonio Monroy Antón, Santiago Calero Morales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154104/heart-brain-axis-effects-of-neurologic-injury-on-cardiovascular-function
#18
REVIEW
Pouya Tahsili-Fahadan, Romergryko G Geocadin
A complex interaction exists between the nervous and cardiovascular systems. A large network of cortical and subcortical brain regions control cardiovascular function via the sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow. A dysfunction in one system may lead to changes in the function of the other. The effects of cardiovascular disease on the nervous system have been widely studied; however, our understanding of the effects of neurological disorders on the cardiovascular system has only expanded in the past 2 decades...
February 3, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148495/sport-related-concussion-induces-transient-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction
#19
John L Dobson, Mary Beth Yarbrough, Jose Perez, Kelsey Evans, Thomas Buckley
Recent evidence suggests that concussions may disrupt autonomic cardiovascular control. This study investigated the initial effects of concussion on cardiovascular function using three autonomic reflex tests. Twenty-three recreational athletes (12 women, 11 men) were divided into concussed (n = 12) and control (n = 11) groups. Concussed participants performed forced breathing, standing, and Valsalva autonomic tests four times: 1) within 48 h of injury; 2) 24 h later; 3) 1 wk after injury; and 4) 2 wk after injury...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131565/asymmetric-sympathetic-output-the-dorsomedial-hypothalamus-as-a-potential-link-between-emotional-stress-and-cardiac-arrhythmias
#20
Marco Antônio Peliky Fontes, Marcelo Limborço Filho, Natália L Santos Machado, Cristiane Amorim de Paula, Letícia M Souza Cordeiro, Carlos Henrique Xavier, Fernanda Ribeiro Marins, Luke Henderson, Vaughan G Macefield
The autonomic response to emotional stress, while involving several target organs, includes an important increase in sympathetic drive to the heart. There is ample evidence that cardiac sympathetic innervation is lateralized, and asymmetric autonomic output to the heart during stress is postulated to be a causal factor that precipitates cardiac arrhythmias. Recent animal studies provided a new picture of the central pathways involved in the cardiac sympathetic response evoked by emotional stress, pointing out a key role for the region of dorsomedial hypothalamus...
January 17, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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