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Good reviews (Neurology)

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20 papers 0 to 25 followers Collection of important and pertinent reviews of different topics in neurology
By Daniel Vela-Duarte Neurology / Vascular Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465882/novel-oral-anticoagulant-management-issues-for-the-stroke-clinician
#1
REVIEW
Andrew Wassef, Ken Butcher
BACKGROUND: Four nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are approved for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). AIMS: In this review, we assemble available evidence for the best management of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients in the context of NOAC use. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: NOACs provide predictable anticoagulation with fixed dosages. The direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and direct factor Xa inhibitors apixaban, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban are all noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism and are associated with reduced incidence of intracranial hemorrhage...
October 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26837371/primary-angiitis-of-the-central-nervous-system-avoiding-misdiagnosis-and-missed-diagnosis-of-a-rare-disease
#2
REVIEW
Shamik Bhattacharyya, Aaron L Berkowitz
Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is an extremely rare condition, defined as a vasculitis limited to the CNS with no identifiable cause. Its presentation is non-specific and includes headache, cognitive dysfunction and focal neurological signs. Laboratory studies, neuroimaging and angiography are neither sufficiently sensitive nor specific for diagnosis; a definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy. As a result, PACNS is commonly misdiagnosed. Here, we review its clinical, laboratory and radiological features, and focus on avoiding common diagnostic pitfalls...
June 2016: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445252/neurological-fallacies-leading-to-malpractice-a-case-studies-approach
#3
REVIEW
James C Johnston, Knut Wester, Thomas P Sartwelle
A young woman presents with an intracranial arachnoid cyst. Another is diagnosed with migraine headache. An elderly man awakens with a stroke. And a baby delivered vaginally after 2 hours of questionable electronic fetal monitoring patterns grows up to have cerebral palsy. These seemingly disparate cases share a common underlying theme: medical myths. Myths that may lead not only to misdiagnosis and treatment harms but to seemingly never-ending medical malpractice lawsuits, potentially culminating in a settlement or judgment against an unsuspecting neurologist...
August 2016: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154603/clinical-evaluation-of-tinnitus
#4
REVIEW
Ronna Hertzano, Taylor B Teplitzky, David J Eisenman
The clinical evaluation of patients with tinnitus differs based on whether the tinnitus is subjective or objective. Subjective tinnitus is usually associated with a hearing loss, and therefore, the clinical evaluation is focused on an otologic and audiologic evaluation with adjunct imaging/tests as necessary. Objective tinnitus is divided into perception of an abnormal somatosound or abnormal perception of a normal somatosound. The distinction between these categories is usually possible based on a history, physical examination, and audiogram, leading to directed imaging to identify the underlying abnormality...
May 2016: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27154608/paragangliomas-of-the-head-and-neck
#5
REVIEW
Sean Woolen, Joseph J Gemmete
Paragangliomas of the head and neck are rare vascular skull-base tumors derived from the paraganglionic system with an estimated incidence of 1:30,000 accounting for 3% of all paragangliomas. The most common paraganglioma locations of the head and neck in descending order are the carotid body, jugular, tympanic, and vagal paragangliomas. This article discusses the clinical characterics, normal anatamy, imaging findings and protocols, pathology, staging, and differential diagnosis for paragangliomas of the head and neck...
May 2016: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464346/zika-virus-an-emergent-neuropathological-agent
#6
REVIEW
Martyn K White, Hassen S Wollebo, J David Beckham, Kenneth L Tyler, Kamel Khalili
The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has followed a pattern that is familiar from earlier epidemics of other viruses, where a new disease is introduced into a human population and then spreads rapidly with important public health consequences. In the case of Zika virus, an accumulating body of recent evidence implicates the virus in the etiology of serious pathologies of the human nervous system, that is, the occurrence of microcephaly in neonates and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Zika virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) and a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus...
October 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26948435/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Hugh J Willison, Bart C Jacobs, Pieter A van Doorn
Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common and most severe acute paralytic neuropathy, with about 100,000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Under the umbrella term of Guillain-Barré syndrome are several recognisable variants with distinct clinical and pathological features. The severe, generalised manifestation of Guillain-Barré syndrome with respiratory failure affects 20-30% of cases. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange is the optimal management approach, alongside supportive care...
August 13, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26906964/a-clinical-approach-to-diagnosis-of-autoimmune-encephalitis
#8
REVIEW
Francesc Graus, Maarten J Titulaer, Ramani Balu, Susanne Benseler, Christian G Bien, Tania Cellucci, Irene Cortese, Russell C Dale, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Michael Geschwind, Carol A Glaser, Jerome Honnorat, Romana Höftberger, Takahiro Iizuka, Sarosh R Irani, Eric Lancaster, Frank Leypoldt, Harald Prüss, Alexander Rae-Grant, Markus Reindl, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Kevin Rostásy, Albert Saiz, Arun Venkatesan, Angela Vincent, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Patrick Waters, Josep Dalmau
Encephalitis is a severe inflammatory disorder of the brain with many possible causes and a complex differential diagnosis. Advances in autoimmune encephalitis research in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to these disorders. However, existing criteria for autoimmune encephalitis are too reliant on antibody testing and response to immunotherapy, which might delay the diagnosis. We reviewed the literature and gathered the experience of a team of experts with the aims of developing a practical, syndrome-based diagnostic approach to autoimmune encephalitis and providing guidelines to navigate through the differential diagnosis...
April 2016: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24457189/rasmussen-s-encephalitis-clinical-features-pathobiology-and-treatment-advances
#9
REVIEW
Sophia Varadkar, Christian G Bien, Carol A Kruse, Frances E Jensen, Jan Bauer, Carlos A Pardo, Angela Vincent, Gary W Mathern, J Helen Cross
Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare chronic neurological disorder, characterised by unilateral inflammation of the cerebral cortex, drug-resistant epilepsy, and progressive neurological and cognitive deterioration. Neuropathological and immunological studies support the notion that Rasmussen's encephalitis is probably driven by a T-cell response to one or more antigenic epitopes, with potential additional contribution by autoantibodies. Careful analysis of the association between histopathology and clinical presentation suggests that initial damage to the brain is mediated by T cells and microglia, suggesting a window for treatment if Rasmussen's encephalitis can be diagnosed early...
February 2014: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23594732/update-on-intracranial-hypertension-and-hypotension
#10
REVIEW
Jan Hoffmann, Peter J Goadsby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to review recent findings on the pathophysiology of idiopathic changes in intracranial pressure. The review will focus on idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). RECENT FINDINGS: Substantial evidence indicates that IIH is associated with delayed absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Stenoses of the transverse sinus are common in IIH, but their clinical significance has not been entirely clarified...
June 2013: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23812307/huntington-s-disease-and-huntington-s-disease-like-syndromes-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
Felix Gövert, Susanne A Schneider
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The differential diagnosis of chorea syndromes may be complex and includes various genetic disorders such as Huntington's disease and mimicking disorders called Huntington's disease-like (HDL) phenotypes. To familiarize clinicians with these (in some cases very rare) conditions we will summarize the main characteristics. RECENT FINDINGS: HDL disorders are rare and account for about 1% of cases presenting with a Huntington's disease phenotype. They share overlapping clinical features, so making the diagnosis purely on clinical grounds may be challenging, however presence of certain characteristics may be a clue (e...
August 2013: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26563093/radiological-imaging-in-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#12
REVIEW
K D Kurz, G Ringstad, A Odland, R Advani, E Farbu, M W Kurz
Patients who suffer acute ischaemic stroke can be treated with thrombolysis if therapy is initiated early. Radiological evaluation of the intracranial tissue before such therapy can be given is mandatory. In this review current radiological diagnostic strategies are discussed for this patient group. Beyond non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), the standard imaging method for many years, more sophisticated CT stroke protocols including CT angiography and CT perfusion have been developed, and additionally an increasing number of patients are examined with magnetic resonance imaging as the first imaging method used...
January 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24331795/optic-neuritis
#13
REVIEW
Ahmed T Toosy, Deborah F Mason, David H Miller
Acute optic neuritis is the most common optic neuropathy affecting young adults. Exciting developments have occurred over the past decade in understanding of optic neuritis pathophysiology, and these developments have been translated into treatment trials. In its typical form, optic neuritis presents as an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the optic nerve, which can be associated with multiple sclerosis. Atypical forms of optic neuritis can occur, either in association with other inflammatory disorders or in isolation...
January 2014: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24331794/vasculitic-neuropathies
#14
REVIEW
Kelly Graham Gwathmey, Ted Michael Burns, Michael Paul Collins, P James Bonham Dyck
The vasculitic neuropathies are a diverse group of disorders characterised by the acute-to-subacute onset of painful sensory and motor deficits that result from inflammatory destruction of nerve blood vessels and subsequent ischaemic injury. They are common in patients with primary systemic vasculitis and are seen in vasculitis secondary to disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, viral infections, and diabetic inflammatory neuropathies. It is imperative that neurologists recognise these disorders to initiate treatment promptly and thereby prevent morbidity and mortality...
January 2014: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24229616/axonal-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-concepts-and-controversies
#15
REVIEW
Satoshi Kuwabara, Nobuhiro Yuki
Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) is a pure motor axonal subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) that was identified in the late 1990s. In Asia and Central and South America, it is the major subtype of GBS, seen in 30-65% of patients. AMAN progresses more rapidly and has an earlier peak than demyelinating GBS; tendon reflexes are relatively preserved or even exaggerated, and autonomic dysfunction is rare. One of the main causes is molecular mimicry of human gangliosides by Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharides...
December 2013: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24091766/gaba-a-receptor-impairment-in-cerebellar-ataxia-with-anti-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibodies
#16
Yasushi Hosoi, Makiko Suzuki-Sakao, Tatsuhiro Terada, Takashi Konishi, Yasuomi Ouchi, Hiroaki Miyajima, Satoshi Kono
Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-Abs) are associated with cerebellar ataxia, which is refractory to treatment with GABAergic drugs. To investigate the GABAergic neuronal system in vivo, we performed a combined positron emission tomography (PET) study with [(11)C]-flumazenil and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in three patients with cerebellar ataxia with GAD-Abs. The GABA-A receptor function was investigated using flumazenil, which is a selective GABA-A receptor ligand, while FDG-PET using a three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection analysis was performed to estimate the metabolic rates of glucose (MRGlc) in the patients...
December 2013: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23817213/deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease-and-other-movement-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Suneil K Kalia, Tejas Sankar, Andres M Lozano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is now widely used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, tremor, and dystonia. This review examines recent developments in the application of DBS to the management of movement disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: In Parkinson's disease, recent work has demonstrated that early DBS may have a significant benefit on quality of life and motor symptoms while permitting a decrease in levodopa equivalent dosage. Thalamic DBS continues to be a well established target for the treatment of tremor, although recent work suggests that alternative targets such as the posterior subthalamic area may be similarly efficacious...
August 2013: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23359381/subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#18
Alejandro A Rabinstein
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can result from the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm-a weakened, dilated area of a blood vessel in the brain that is prone to burst. SAH can be devastating. Approximately 1 in 6 patients dies at the time of the bleeding. Those who initially survive can die after early rebleeding or have major complications. The complications of SAH include strokes from delayed spasm of blood vessels in the brain even after the aneurysm that caused the hemorrhage is treated. Most of the research on SAH has been focused on this early phase...
January 29, 2013: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19587374/how-i-treat-the-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Bill Giannakopoulos, Steven A Krilis
This article discusses how we approach medical decision making in the treatment of the various facets of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), including secondary prophylaxis in the setting of venous and arterial thrombosis, as well as treatment for the prevention of recurrent miscarriages and fetal death. The role of primary thromboprophylaxis is also discussed in depth. Great emphasis is given to incorporating the most up-to-date and relevant evidence base both from the APS literature, and from large, recent, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of primary and secondary thrombotic prophylaxis in the general population setting (ie, the population that has not been specifically investigated for APS)...
September 3, 2009: Blood
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